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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead

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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead consumers to be more conservative with their purchases; so depressed have sales figure been as a result that goverment has launched several initiatives to actively encourage consumer spending.

a)so depressed have sales figure been as a result that
b)The sales figures have been so depressed as a result that
c) As a result, so depressed has the sales been that
d)The resulting sales figures having been so depressed that
e) The sales figures have been so depressed that, as a result
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Usage of sentence after Semicolon and So...as/that [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2012, 19:56
when should we use " As a result", "so...as/that"?

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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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Just to answer the poster’s query

As a result and so…...that are entirely different things. They are neither synonyms nor interchangeable. ‘As a result’ means consequently, thus, therefore, because or even because of, while ‘so … that’ is an idiom that is generally used when stressing a point. Please note that ‘so’ will always be followed by an adjective or an adverb in order to bring out its depth. Moreover, it may not be irrelevant to use both in the same sentence.

However, coming to this given text, doesn’t A have a blatant SV error, so obvious that it is difficult to take it as an OG question? I assume that ‘sales figure’ in A must be ‘sales figures’.

Let us consider why A is the accepted answer after confirmation from the poster
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Last edited by daagh on 18 Jan 2015, 03:28, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Usage of sentence after Semicolon and So...as/that [#permalink]

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yes. You are right. It should be ''so depressed have sales figures been as a result that'' the goverment.
I had a typo mistake and this is a prbolem from kaplan 800, nt OG. I wasn't sure about it's origin 1st. Sorry.

Meanwhile, I understood why the answer should be "A" instead of others.

At 1st we need to look for the proper use of "The". Here in every option, THE has been misused.

THE is a definite article and we can't use "The Sales figures" because the question goes for " Over all sales figure" , there is no refrence such as 2009 sales figures. Then we can use "The".

Then the usage of "As a result." "As a result" refers to some kind of result.

What is the actual meaning of the question?
Recent indications of weakness in the economy have led consumers to be more conservative with their purchases. As a result, sales figures have been so depressed that Gov. Has to take some initiatives.

But, option E changed the meaning. It seemed that the sales figures have been so depressed as a result of gov. Initiatives.
Optiön C and D can be easily eliminated.

B has misused the definite article.

We have one option left. But, it has some sort of awkward structure. Perhaps, at 1st look. But, there is no grammatical mistake.
Though after semicolon, we should use an independent clause, there should be some link or relationship with the previous one. From that ground A seems ok.

Look at the following sentence.
" The garden is so beautiful" we can rephrase it via " So beautiful is the garden."

According to aforementioned clauses, A is the best option.

Am i correct? Let me know. Thanks.

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2014, 02:56
this is not og question. it, however, is good
the point here is the position of "as a result".
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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2014, 17:34
Can this "so depressed have sales figure been as a result that goverment has launched several initiatives to actively encourage consumer spending" be an independent clause? I noticed there is a semi-colon in front.

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2014, 04:42
I think yes, because we can "reorganize" this as:

As a result, sales figure have been so depressed that goverment has launched several initiatives to actively encourage consumer spending.

I think now it is more clear that this is an independent clause.

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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2014, 22:54
Ashikurrahman wrote:
Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead consumers to be more conservative with their purchases; so depressed have sales figure been as a result that goverment has launched several initiatives to actively encourage consumer spending.

a)so depressed have sales figure been as a result that
b)The sales figures have been so depressed as a result that
c) As a result, so depressed has the sales been that
d)The resulting sales figures having been so depressed that
e) The sales figures have been so depressed that, as a result



Although it is an OG question so challenging it would be wrong but is the below highlighted usage correct

Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead consumers to be more conservative with their purchases; so depressed have sales figure been as a result that goverment has launched several initiatives to actively encourage consumer spending.

Shoudln't it be led ? Is this really an OG question ?

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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2015, 12:13
daagh wrote:
Just to answer the poster’s query

As a result and so…...that are entirely different things. They are neither synonyms nor interchangeable. ‘As a result’ means consequently, thus, therefore, because or even because of, while ‘so … that’ is an idiom that is generally used when stressing a point. Please note that ‘so’ will always be followed by an adjective or an adverb in order to bring out its depth. Moreover, it may not be irrelevant to use both in the same sentence.

However, coming to this given text, doesn’t A have a blatant SV error, so obvious that it is difficult to take it as an OG question? I assume that ‘sales figure’ in A must be ‘sale figures’.

Let us consider why A is the accepted answer after confirmation from the poster


Don't you think the sentence needs a 'the' before government? We are talking about the government governing the country/area where the sales figures have been depressing, and I find the absence if 'the' very odd.

You are spot on with the SVA error in answer A.
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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2015, 20:22
Ashikurrahman wrote:
yes. You are right. It should be ''so depressed have sales figures been as a result that'' the goverment.
I had a typo mistake and this is a prbolem from kaplan 800, nt OG. I wasn't sure about it's origin 1st. Sorry.

Meanwhile, I understood why the answer should be "A" instead of others.

At 1st we need to look for the proper use of "The". Here in every option, THE has been misused.

THE is a definite article and we can't use "The Sales figures" because the question goes for " Over all sales figure" , there is no refrence such as 2009 sales figures. Then we can use "The".

Then the usage of "As a result." "As a result" refers to some kind of result.

What is the actual meaning of the question?
Recent indications of weakness in the economy have led consumers to be more conservative with their purchases. As a result, sales figures have been so depressed that Gov. Has to take some initiatives.

But, option E changed the meaning. It seemed that the sales figures have been so depressed as a result of gov. Initiatives.
Optiön C and D can be easily eliminated.

B has misused the definite article.

We have one option left. But, it has some sort of awkward structure. Perhaps, at 1st look. But, there is no grammatical mistake.
Though after semicolon, we should use an independent clause, there should be some link or relationship with the previous one. From that ground A seems ok.

Look at the following sentence.
" The garden is so beautiful" we can rephrase it via " So beautiful is the garden."

According to aforementioned clauses, A is the best option.

Am i correct? Let me know. Thanks.

Posted from my mobile device


The number of typographical errors in this post completely take away your purpose for posting it. All of them were not good choices. A over E because E had an ugly common splice, and A still made sense.

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2015, 08:55
so..that, correct idiom and X causes Y..A - logical structure

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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I always think it's weird when experts say this, but "I received a PM asking me to reply" (I do like noting that when it looks like I may be trying to take credit away from another expert...kind of like "appearing in this thread by popular demand!").

In addition to Jen's comments, I see another problem with B and E - the addition of "the" to "sales figures". In A, we just have the term "sales figures", which is a generic way to describe overall sales. Consumer confidence is low, and sales are down. With the addition of the definite article "the", now we're talking about a specific set of sales figures. But which figures? The sentence overall has a general connotation - overall, sales are down, and the government is taking action. When we add that term "the", there's an increased level of specificity that is illogical. Much like a pronoun reference problem or a misplaced modifier, this sentence doesn't have a reference point for "the", so choices B and E have a somewhat illogical meaning.



Regarding the changed meaning of the placement of "as a result", this one gets into Osirus' point about the use of the semicolon. In addition to the necessity of an independent clause after a semicolon (more on that in a second), the semicolon requires that there be a relationship between both clauses - they need to be related enough that you'd want to link them together with a semicolon and not simply end the sentence with a period and begin a new one.

With "as a result" corresponding to weak economy-->conservative spending --> SEMICOLON --> AS A RESULT sales are down---> government action, the "as a result" links the first clause (prior to the semicolon) to the second, so there's a natural reason that you'd use a semicolon and not a period.

With "as a result coming later: weak economy --> conservative spending --> SEMICOLON --> sales are down --> AS A RESULT government action, the use of the semicolon is less justified, as "as a result" only applies to the second half, which could just stand alone as its own sentence.

Meaning on the GMAT is tricky - make sure that the meaning of your answer choice is logical. It doesn't necessarily have to match the meaning of the initial sentence, as that one could be incorrect (choice A is just one of five; there's no "tie goes to the first one" rule). Here, the meaning of choice A better justifies the use of the semicolon than does the meaning of choice E.


Finally, my favorite part of this sentence is exactly what Osirus mentioned - choice A is, indeed, an independent clause, but the GMAT flips the subject and verb in order to make it look otherwise. If A read:

...sales figures have been so depressed as a result that...

You'd love it. But that's too easy, so the GMAT inverts the subject and verb - which is grammatically okay to do - so that the sentence instead reads:

...so depressed have sales figures been as a result that...

It sounds a little awkward, but it doesn't have the fatal grammatical flaws of the others, so A is correct. Make sure that you're looking for definitive grammatical errors first, and then letting your ear (or style) decide from there. Most difficult SC questions involve some "justifiable awkwardness" in an attempt to throw you off the scent of the right answer.

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2016, 05:42
vijaisingh2001 wrote:
I always think it's weird when experts say this, but "I received a PM asking me to reply" (I do like noting that when it looks like I may be trying to take credit away from another expert...kind of like "appearing in this thread by popular demand!").

In addition to Jen's comments, I see another problem with B and E - the addition of "the" to "sales figures". In A, we just have the term "sales figures", which is a generic way to describe overall sales. Consumer confidence is low, and sales are down. With the addition of the definite article "the", now we're talking about a specific set of sales figures. But which figures? The sentence overall has a general connotation - overall, sales are down, and the government is taking action. When we add that term "the", there's an increased level of specificity that is illogical. Much like a pronoun reference problem or a misplaced modifier, this sentence doesn't have a reference point for "the", so choices B and E have a somewhat illogical meaning.



Regarding the changed meaning of the placement of "as a result", this one gets into Osirus' point about the use of the semicolon. In addition to the necessity of an independent clause after a semicolon (more on that in a second), the semicolon requires that there be a relationship between both clauses - they need to be related enough that you'd want to link them together with a semicolon and not simply end the sentence with a period and begin a new one.

With "as a result" corresponding to weak economy-->conservative spending --> SEMICOLON --> AS A RESULT sales are down---> government action, the "as a result" links the first clause (prior to the semicolon) to the second, so there's a natural reason that you'd use a semicolon and not a period.

With "as a result coming later: weak economy --> conservative spending --> SEMICOLON --> sales are down --> AS A RESULT government action, the use of the semicolon is less justified, as "as a result" only applies to the second half, which could just stand alone as its own sentence.

Meaning on the GMAT is tricky - make sure that the meaning of your answer choice is logical. It doesn't necessarily have to match the meaning of the initial sentence, as that one could be incorrect (choice A is just one of five; there's no "tie goes to the first one" rule). Here, the meaning of choice A better justifies the use of the semicolon than does the meaning of choice E.


Finally, my favorite part of this sentence is exactly what Osirus mentioned - choice A is, indeed, an independent clause, but the GMAT flips the subject and verb in order to make it look otherwise. If A read:

...sales figures have been so depressed as a result that...

You'd love it. But that's too easy, so the GMAT inverts the subject and verb - which is grammatically okay to do - so that the sentence instead reads:

...so depressed have sales figures been as a result that...

It sounds a little awkward, but it doesn't have the fatal grammatical flaws of the others, so A is correct. Make sure that you're looking for definitive grammatical errors first, and then letting your ear (or style) decide from there. Most difficult SC questions involve some "justifiable awkwardness" in an attempt to throw you off the scent of the right answer.

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I agree with you with almost everything you have said; however, I would like to point out that in A there is a problem of Subject-verb agreement: “so depressed have sales figure been as a result that…”

This mistake has been already posted.

As for the other choices, I would like to point out that they, as written, are wrong because they use capital letters.

If it were not for the capital letters, I would go for B. It is exactly what you explained except for the article “the.” Nevertheless, I am not quite sure that the article “the” changes the meaning.
You mentioned: “With the addition of the definite article "the", now we're talking about a specific set of sales figures. But which figures? The sentence overall has a general connotation - overall, sales are down, and the government is taking action. When we add that term "the", there's an increased level of specificity that is illogical.”
Does the term "sales figures" really describe overall sales figures or only the recent sales figures? If the sentence refers specifically to the recent sales figures, then why the use of “the” is illogical?
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Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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Ashikurrahman wrote:
yes. You are right. It should be ''so depressed have sales figures been as a result that'' the goverment.
I had a typo mistake and this is a prbolem from kaplan 800, nt OG. I wasn't sure about it's origin 1st. Sorry.



@Ashikurrahman- Thanks for this question!
Now when you know that this is from Kaplan and not from an Official source, can you please update the same in the tags? It raises red flags for many here when they see the source of a verbal ques is OG.
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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2017, 03:49
hi,
Can someone explain why a is correct and e is wrong?

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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sunny91 wrote:
hi,
Can someone explain why a is correct and e is wrong?


Option A implies that decline in sales figure was a result of conservative purchases.
Option E implies that the launch of initiatives was a result of decline in sales. Note that in this case the phrase "as a result" is redundant because "so...that" already indicates a cause and effect relation.

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2017, 05:19
sayantanc2k

Hi, can the clause after semicolon start in Capitals? Shouldn't it start in small letters to indicate a continuation of the sentence? Or am I overthinking?

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Re: Recent indications of weakness in the economy have lead   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2017, 05:19
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