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Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, perform

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New post Updated on: 01 Mar 2019, 12:14
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 57, Date : 01-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level—productivity, creativity, engagement—improves. Yet the correlation between happiness and performance is perhaps not so easily understood by many. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness, but, because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting. Instead people who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of a challenge. In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes.

What is even more encouraging is that even though our genetics and our environment have an impact on how happy we are, our general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. Our habits, our interactions with coworkers, our attitude towards stress—all these aspects can be managed to increase our happiness and our chances of success. Habits such as taking short breaks and constantly having a positive engagement with coworkers not only reduce stress substantially but also enhance our productivity and thus better our prospects of professional success. Accordingly, encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth, is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.

1. Which of the following statements would the author NOT agree with?

A. Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients.
B. For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
C. Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees.
D. Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are.
E. The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed.
A.Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This statement follows from the first sentence of the second paragraph. The author states that even though our genetics and our environment have an impact on how happy we are, our general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable.
The author goes on to elaborate on the “malleable” part by describing how we can manage our happiness by things that are in our control. Accordingly, even if the genetic and environmental factors are kept constant for two individuals, their attitude can influence their individual happiness quotients.
B.For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
Correct
In the first paragraph, the author states that the happiness that results from success is fleeting or shortlived as success is a moving target. This clearly suggests that even when success is not a stationary target, happiness is possible- albeit shortlived.
C.Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This statement can be derived from the last sentence of the passage in which the author states that encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as motivator and a fuel to growth is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.
D.Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
The author contrasts our genetics and our environment with other factors that are within our control. So, it can be inferred that our genetics alongwith our environment are pitched as those that we have little control over.
E. The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
In the first paragraph, the author talks about how people do not really understand the relation between success and happiness and then cites the example of the order of success and happiness that most people believe in to illustrate this point. Clearly, this choice follows from there.



2. The author is primarily concerned with

A. showing how happiness can be cultivated rather than passively experienced
B. guiding employers with respect to increasing the overall happiness and success quotient of the employees
C. clarifying why happiness is not dependent on factors other than a positive outlook
D.proposing that happiness and the resultant success at work are rather dependent on our attitude
E. outlining the ways in which one can achieve professional success

The first paragraph explains the relationship between cultivating a positive outlook and professional success while the second paragraphs shows how happiness and success can be achieved. The correct answer must take in to account the main idea of both these paragraphs.

A.showing how happiness can be cultivated rather than passively experienced
Incorrect: Partial scope
This choice captures the scope of only the second paragraph.
B.guiding employers with respect to increasing the overall happiness and success quotient of the employees
Incorrect: Partial scope
The author does talk about boosting employee performance in the last sentence of the passage but nowhere else in the passage does the author make any other suggestions to employers as such.
C.clarifying why happiness is not dependent on factors other than a positive outlook
Incorrect: Inconsistent
The author does talk about the link between happiness and positive outlook in the second paragraph but at the same time agrees that our genetics and environment affect how happy we are. Hence, there are other factors as well that determine happiness.
D.proposing that happiness and the resultant success at work are rather dependent on our attitude
Correct
This choice is on the lines of our pre-thought answer. It combines the scope of both the paragraphs.
E.outlining the ways in which one can achieve professional success
Incorrect: Partial scope
While this choice does almost cover the scope of the first paragraph, it does not take in to account the author’s main point in writing the first paragraph.



3. According to the passage, which of the following is true?

A. Most people use success to measure their happiness.
B. Even when the situation is tough, a positive outlook can trick the brain in to believing otherwise.
C. One of the most important ways of boosting employee performance is encouraging them to accept some level of stress as a part of the job.
D. Developing common habits with coworkers can help reduce stress significantly.
E. When happiness is triggered by success, it is anything but everlasting.

A.Most people use success to measure their happiness.
Incorrect: Out Of Scope
The author says that most people think success comes before happiness and not that they use it as a tool to measure happiness.
B.Even when the situation is tough, a positive outlook can trick the brain in to believing otherwise.
Incorrect: Out Of Scope
Although the author does state that a positive outlook helps perform better in the face of an obstacle/challenge, there is no mention of how the same is achieved- whether by tricking the brain our changing the way we perceive the challenge is not discussed. However, given the contents of the passage, it is most likely in the latter way.
C.One of the most important ways of boosting employee performance is encouraging them to accept some level of stress as a part of the job.
Incorrect: Out Of Scope
The author does consider it an important way but there is no information given on whether it is one of the “most important” ways.
D.Developing common habits with coworkers can help reduce stress significantly.
Incorrect: Out Of Scope
Habits and interactions with co-workers are listed as two separate aspects and the author does not build or indicate towards a combination of the two.
E.When happiness is triggered by success, it is anything but everlasting.
Correct
This statement states the same thing as the following statement made by the author in the first paragraph:
but, because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting.


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Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 01 Jul 2018, 04:12.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 01 Mar 2019, 12:14, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 01 Jul 2018, 06:04
Can you give the source of this also the explanation to question 2?
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New post 03 Jul 2018, 22:20
Skywalker18 abhimahna GMATNinja GMATninja2 carcass

1. Which of the following statements would the author NOT agree with?

A. Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients.
B. For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
C. Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees.
D. Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are.
E. The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed.

I am stuck between B and D.

For B, the author at any point never agrees with the fact that for happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
Then why B is not correct.

Option D says that Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are. "Over Impact" is not mentioned anywhere in the argument so this is correct.

OA says D but can you help me in finding a reason to eliminate B.
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New post 04 Jul 2018, 22:34
Can any one please explain me the answer to the 1st question. I am stuck between B and D
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New post 09 Jul 2018, 07:03
"Habits such as taking short breaks and constantly having a positive engagement with coworkers not only reduce stress substantially but also enhance our productivity and thus better our prospects of professional success."

As per this statement answer of question number 3 should be D.
I am not able to understand why OA is E.
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New post 11 Jul 2018, 00:55
Skywalker18 : OA for question 1 is D, but in explanations it says OA is B. Please confirm which one is correct.

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New post 11 Jul 2018, 01:03
AkshdeepS wrote:
Skywalker18 : OA for question 1 is D, but in explanations it says OA is B. Please confirm which one is correct.

Akshdeep


warrior1991 wrote:
Skywalker18 abhimahna GMATNinja GMATninja2 carcass

1. Which of the following statements would the author NOT agree with?

A. Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients.
B. For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
C. Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees.
D. Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are.
E. The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed.

I am stuck between B and D.

For B, the author at any point never agrees with the fact that for happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
Then why B is not correct.

Option D says that Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are. "Over Impact" is not mentioned anywhere in the argument so this is correct.

OA says D but can you help me in finding a reason to eliminate B.


warrior1991 , shweta234 , AkshdeepS -- OA corrected now
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New post 01 Mar 2019, 12:35
1
This is an unusual passage (source?). It doesn't "feel" like a GMAT passage to me, but here's how I would break it down:

Topic: performance
Scope: relationship between it and happiness
Paragraph 1's function: to introduce X and Y, and describe possibility X --> Y
Paragraph 2's function: to show nuance in the relationship
POV: tone is informational; author presents researcher's findings
Purpose: to describe relationship between performance/happiness

Question 1
-- This is an Inference question because of the keyword "would."

Rephrase: Which of these is contradicted by an opinion from the passage?
This means that 4 of the 5 answer choices WILL be supported by the passage.

We don't have TOO much of the author's own opinions. If I had to summarize them, I would say he:

-finds the relationship between happiness/success complex
-thinks the researchers are probably right (happiness can help cause success)
-we have some control over our happiness (habits, etc.)
-accepting some stress is a good thing


Even though this is a difficult question to predict for, since there were really only these 4 opinions in the passage, I expect 4 of the answer choices to be some rephrase of these, and then 1 of the answer choices will be too extreme or completely unsupported.

Let's move on to the choices. (And I know no one asked, but I find the wording of these suspect.)

A. Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients. (supported from the passage, habits have an impact)
B. For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target. (not supported from the passage. In fact, success is described as a "moving" target. The passage does not say that the ONLY way to be happy is if success is fixed. This is too extreme.)
C. Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees. (supported, author says happiness matters)
D. Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are. (The wording of this answer choice makes no sense, but I *think* it is trying to say that happiness is impacted by outside factors, and this IS supported by the passage.)

E. The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed. (supported, researchers found strong evidence, but not 100% confirmed evidence.)
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New post Updated on: 01 Mar 2019, 22:50
1
topic : happy vs performance
tone : presenting results, mildly positive
para 1 : conventional wisdom : success --> happiness
contrast : reverse may be the fact or some other factor may result in both
introducing study for "reverse thesis" or some othe factor leading to H and S
para 2 : how we can set a positive meind set which would --> performace improvement
some work stress -- good for emp motivation

para 1 : introducing point that H---> S OR Positive mindset --> H and s
para 2 : research findings supporting para 1 point and slight approval

1. Which of the following statements would the author NOT agree with?

A. Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients.
supported .. "sense of well being malleable"

B. For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.
actually passage states that happiness may result from success .... BUT BUT BUT the happiness that results from success is TEMPORARY (fleeting)
This option states that H to result from S , S has to be stationary target...but this is the case if we want the H to be lasting long

C. Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees.
- supported

D. Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are.
- supported....."genetic and environment"

E. The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed.
- supported ...1st para ..

Originally posted by AdityaHongunti on 01 Mar 2019, 22:43.
Last edited by AdityaHongunti on 01 Mar 2019, 22:50, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 01 Mar 2019, 22:49
2
topic : happy vs performance
tone : presenting results, mildly positive
para 1 : conventional wisdom : success --> happiness
contrast : reverse may be the fact or some other factor may result in both
introducing study for "reverse thesis" or some othe factor leading to H and S
para 2 : how we can set a positive meind set which would --> performace improvement
some work stress -- good for emp motivation

para 1 : introducing point that H---> S OR Positive mindset --> H and s
para 2 : research findings supporting para 1 point and slight approval

2. The author is primarily concerned with

A. showing how happiness can be cultivated rather than passively experienced
look at the topic ...is topic covered ?? NOPE

B. guiding employers with respect to increasing the overall happiness and success quotient of the employees
- are we guiding anyone?? NOPE

C. clarifying why happiness is not dependent on factors other than a positive outlook
- contradictory ... happiness IS actually dependant on other factors which we have no control over... also does not cover the topic

D.proposing that happiness and the resultant success at work are rather dependent on our attitude
- first para proposes one point ...second para furthers the point !!

E. outlining the ways in which one can achieve professional success
- topic?? nope... are we talking about any ways?? NOPE...ways are for happiness not success (which may or may not result)
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New post 01 Mar 2019, 22:59
4
3. According to the passage, which of the following is true?

A. Most people use success to measure their happiness.
- most ppl THINK that S---> H ... but do they USE this as measure?? NO IDEA

B. Even when the situation is tough, a positive outlook can trick the brain in to believing otherwise.
- "brain " not mentioned

C. One of the most important ways of boosting employee performance is encouraging them to accept some level of stress as a part of the job.
- "encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth, is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce."
Now i have a doubt if something is "vital" ... isnt it one of the most important??
The choice does not say "most imporatnat" but says "one of the most"...if someting is vita;l isnt it one of the most imp??
vital emeaning : absolutely necessary !!

D. Developing common habits with coworkers can help reduce stress significantly.
- author says talk to workers...not do the common things they do

E. When happiness is triggered by success, it is anything but everlasting.
- "because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting. "
fleeting = temporary ...

Between C and E .. i chose E for too much evidence...but i still need an explanation for C..
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New post 02 Mar 2019, 11:47
2
AdityaHongunti wrote:
3. According to the passage, which of the following is true?


C. One of the most important ways of boosting employee performance is encouraging them to accept some level of stress as a part of the job.

- "encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth, is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce."
Now i have a doubt if something is "vital" ... isnt it one of the most important??
The choice does not say "most imporatnat" but says "one of the most"...if someting is vita;l isnt it one of the most imp??
vital emeaning : absolutely necessary !!

E. When happiness is triggered by success, it is anything but everlasting.

- "because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting. "
fleeting = temporary ...

Between C and E .. i chose E for too much evidence...but i still need an explanation for C..
generis Skywalker18 jennpt

AdityaHongunti , your observation is very good. +1

I have seen only one GMAT RC passage -- a very hard one -- that requires the level
of logical distinction that I present.

I can defend (E) over (C) based on very subtle logic.

Option (C) directly refers to this statement, as you note:
Accordingly, encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability
and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth,
is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.

The general subject is the relationship between positive mind-set and performing well.

If I am really nitpicking . . .

The sentence most relevant to (C) mentions a second condition connected
to stress and employee performance.

Employers must encourage employees
to accept stress as inevitable
and
to perceive stress as a positive force in two ways.

Note the compound object of encouraging [employees] TO:
. . . encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability
and [to] perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth,
is vital for boosting performance.

If I tell my employees merely to accept stress as an inevitability
I state the obvious.
To use vernacular, I tell the employees to "suck it up."

On the other hand, if I tell my employees to re-think what they normally perceive as negative;
if I tell them to perceive stress as a motivator and fuel to growth [OF growth],
then I have given them a way to—well, not necessarily welcome stress all the time,
but at least to hope that they can channel stress in good ways that produce good work and more happiness.

I first remove the employees' resistance: you cannot change the fact that stress is inevitable.
Then I help shift their mindset from mere passive acceptance of stress
to at least occasional mental embrace.

According to this logic, I have changed the employees' mindset from
resigned acceptance to acceptance for good reason.

That "for good reason" (stress can produce good outcomes) is part of the
general theme of the passage and the study, namely,
the relationship between positive mindset and performance
and the malleability of that relationship.

(E) is the better answer. But your point is well-taken.
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New post 29 Aug 2019, 16:37
Hello, I just need an explanation for OA in question 2. I was down to A and D but picked A. I guess A is more general and D is more specific to what the passage deals with? Just seeking a different opinion.

A. showing how happiness can be cultivated rather than passively experienced
D.proposing that happiness and the resultant success at work are rather dependent on our attitude

Thank you!
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