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Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging

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Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2017, 07:37
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Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging them. Seeking an alternative tracking method, Brian W. Bowen, an evolutionary geneticist, turned to four green turtle breeding sites in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. He and his co-workers reported that turtles from the four breeding sites tended to have slightly different genetic markings.

Bowen analyzed mitochondrial DNA from eggs and hatchlings. The existence of variations in DNA among geographically distinct groups has helped scientists evaluate the different theories of the mating habits of the green turtle. Their findings, Bowen asserts, lend credence to the “natal homing” theory. This theory holds that while reptiles born in different regions may share common feeding grounds away from home, the animals part company at breeding time, each swimming hundreds or thousands of miles to breed and nest at its own birthplace.

Bowen and his co-workers, however, offer several caveats to the interpretation of their findings. They note that turtles from two of the nesting sites—Florida’s Hutchinson Island and Costa Rica’s Tortuguero sanctuary—had indistinguishable mitochondrial DNA sequences. This finding indicates that either some social mixing occurred between these two groups or that the DNA test was not sensitive enough to detect extremely subtle differences in DNA. In addition, they report that one of eight study turtles from Aves Island, off Venezuela, showed the same genetic pattern as the Tortuguero and Hutchinson turtles in their sample. Nonetheless, Bowen’s study appears to have bolstered the idea that most populations of green turtles are genetically distinct, and that the turtles return to their birthplaces at nesting time.

Q1. It can be inferred from the passage that the turtles from the Aves Island study

A. had, with the exception of one, genetic patterns distinct from those in the Tortuguero study
B. have shown that using DNA to track turtles is a flawed technique
C. all exhibited genetic patterns similar to those of the Hutchinson and Tortuguero study turtles
D. are part of an endangered species
E. had DNA that differs from those turtles that are from Venezuela


Q2. The primary purpose of this passage is to

A. disprove a previously existing theory
B. present a new idea along with some data
C. establish the infallibility of a new concept
D. confirm the validity of a novel hypothesis
E. track the development of a particular species


Q3. The information provided in the passage about Bowen's research can be used to answer which of the following questions?

A. Does social mixing occur between turtles from Florida's Hutchinson Island and Costa Rica's Tortuguero sanctuary?
B. Is there extensive interbreeding among green turtles from different areas?
C. To what extent can DNA testing be used to detect genetic differences?
D. Does tagging wild animals with metal disks or wires alter their mating habits?
E. By what mechanism do green turtles find their way back to their birthplace when they are ready to breed?

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Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 03:17
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Q1. It can be inferred from the passage that the turtles from the Aves Island study

A. had, with the exception of one, genetic patterns distinct from those in the Tortuguero study
B. have shown that using DNA to track turtles is a flawed technique
C. all exhibited genetic patterns similar to those of the Hutchinson and Tortuguero study turtles
D. are part of an endangered species
E. had DNA that differs from those turtles that are from Venezuela

Quote:
In addition, they report that one of eight study turtles from Aves Island, off Venezuela, showed the same genetic pattern as the Tortuguero and Hutchinson turtles in their sample.

As per the above mentioned lines in the passage, option A seems fitting.

Q2. The primary purpose of this passage is to

A. disprove a previously existing theory
Disproving any theory is not mentioned in the passage. Eliminate A.

B. present a new idea along with some data
Yes, we are presented with a new idea ( an alternate tracking method) and we are we are given several examples.
This is the correct answer.

C. establish the infallibility of a new concept
Passage does not mention infallibility of the new concept. Eliminate C.

D. confirm the validity of a novel hypothesis
No novel hypothesis has been validated. Eliminate D.

E. track the development of a particular species.
Passage is concerned about seeking an alternative tracking method, not tracking the development of a particular species. Eliminate E.

Q3. The information provided in the passage about Bowen's research can be used to answer which of the following questions?

A. Does social mixing occur between turtles from Florida's Hutchinson Island and Costa Rica's Tortuguero sanctuary?
B. Is there extensive interbreeding among green turtles from different areas?
C. To what extent can DNA testing be used to detect genetic differences?
D. Does tagging wild animals with metal disks or wires alter their mating habits?
E. By what mechanism do green turtles find their way back to their birthplace when they are ready to breed?

This was a tough one.
We can eliminate option E as the mechanism by which green turtles find their way back is not covered and hence can't be answered.
Similarly we can eliminate D easily as there is no mention of metal disks or wires in the passage.
We can also eliminate C as we can't answer to what extent can DNA testing be used.
Now I was confused between option A and B.
Quote:
This finding indicates that either some social mixing occurred between these two groups or that the DNA test was not sensitive enough to detect extremely subtle differences in DNA.

Since the passage did not mention if the social mixing occurred or not, I ended up eliminating A.

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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2018, 21:01
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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2018, 21:43
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Q1:A
In addition, they report that one of eight study turtles from Aves Island, off Venezuela, showed the same genetic pattern as the Tortuguero

Above gives the answer of the question.

Q2:B Present a new idea along with some data

Para 2 tells about Natal homing theory and says the "animals part company at breeding time, each swimming hundreds or thousands of miles to breed and nest at its own birthplace. "
Para 3 Accepts the things said in para 2 but with some caveats.Those caveats include some data.
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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2018, 21:44
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Looking for explanation of Q3
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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 05:34
abansal1805 wrote:
Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging them. Seeking an alternative tracking method, Brian W. Bowen, an evolutionary geneticist, turned to four green turtle breeding sites in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. He and his co-workers reported that turtles from the four breeding sites tended to have slightly different genetic markings.

Bowen analyzed mitochondrial DNA from eggs and hatchlings. The existence of variations in DNA among geographically distinct groups has helped scientists evaluate the different theories of the mating habits of the green turtle. Their findings, Bowen asserts, lend credence to the “natal homing” theory. This theory holds that while reptiles born in different regions may share common feeding grounds away from home, the animals part company at breeding time, each swimming hundreds or thousands of miles to breed and nest at its own birthplace.

Bowen and his co-workers, however, offer several caveats to the interpretation of their findings. They note that turtles from two of the nesting sites—Florida’s Hutchinson Island and Costa Rica’s Tortuguero sanctuary—had indistinguishable mitochondrial DNA sequences. This finding indicates that either some social mixing occurred between these two groups or that the DNA test was not sensitive enough to detect extremely subtle differences in DNA. In addition, they report that one of eight study turtles from Aves Island, off Venezuela, showed the same genetic pattern as the Tortuguero and Hutchinson turtles in their sample. Nonetheless, Bowen’s study appears to have bolstered the idea that most populations of green turtles are genetically distinct, and that the turtles return to their birthplaces at nesting time.
Q1. It can be inferred from the passage that the turtles from the Aves Island study

A. had, with the exception of one, genetic patterns distinct from those in the Tortuguero study
B. have shown that using DNA to track turtles is a flawed technique
C. all exhibited genetic patterns similar to those of the Hutchinson and Tortuguero study turtles
D. are part of an endangered species
E. had DNA that differs from those turtles that are from Venezuela


Q2. The primary purpose of this passage is to

A. disprove a previously existing theory
B. present a new idea along with some data
C. establish the infallibility of a new concept
D. confirm the validity of a novel hypothesis
E. track the development of a particular species


Q3. The information provided in the passage about Bowen's research can be used to answer which of the following questions?

A. Does social mixing occur between turtles from Florida's Hutchinson Island and Costa Rica's Tortuguero sanctuary?
B. Is there extensive interbreeding among green turtles from different areas?
C. To what extent can DNA testing be used to detect genetic differences?
D. Does tagging wild animals with metal disks or wires alter their mating habits?
E. By what mechanism do green turtles find their way back to their birthplace when they are ready to breed?



For last question I was confused between A and B. Can any one explain.
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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 06:39
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tejyr wrote:

For last question I was confused between A and B. Can any one explain.


tejyr Please read the following excerpt.

Quote:
This finding indicates that either some social mixing occurred between these two groups or that the DNA test was not sensitive enough to detect extremely subtle differences in DNA.


This finding indicates either "social mixing occurred" or "some other event" So, there are two possibilities. Option A cannot be answered as we don't have a concrete info on the occurrence of social mixing. The passage states that either social mixing happened or some other event happened. Hence option A is incorrect.

option B can be answered by the passage using the following lines.

1. Brian W. Bowen, an evolutionary geneticist, turned to four green turtle breeding sites in the Atlantic and the Caribbean.
2. The existence of variations in DNA among geographically distinct groups has helped scientists evaluate the different theories of the mating habits
3. reptiles born in different regions may share common feeding grounds away from home
4. they report that one of eight study turtles from Aves Island, off Venezuela, showed the same genetic pattern as the Tortuguero and Hutchinson turtles
5. Bowen’s study appears to have bolstered the idea that most populations of green turtles are genetically distinct
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Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 10:48
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Q1. It can be inferred from the passage that the turtles from the Aves Island study

A. had, with the exception of one, genetic patterns distinct from those in the Tortuguero study

Correct as mentioned directly in the passage.

B. have shown that using DNA to track turtles is a flawed technique

The passage doesn't say that. Agreed that there are multiple interpretations of the technique by Bowen and his co-workers as mentioned in the first line of last para. But the last line of the same para supports the study. Eliminate B

C. all exhibited genetic patterns similar to those of the Hutchinson and Tortuguero study turtles

Nope. only One out of the eight does.

D. are part of an endangered species

Nowhere mentioned. Eliminate

E. had DNA that differs from those turtles that are from Venezuela

Nowhere mentioned. Eliminate

Q2. The primary purpose of this passage is to

A. disprove a previously existing theory

Nope. It doesn't disprove the existing thoery. As first line of the passage suggests, they are only looking for alternate theories.

B. present a new idea along with some data

Bingo!! That's what's discussed throughout the passage

C. establish the infallibility of a new concept

Wrong. The new concept also does have some loopholes which are discussed in the last para. There are multiple interpretations of the technique by Bowen and his co-workers as mentioned in the first line of last para

D. confirm the validity of a novel hypothesis

They don't confirm it's validity. They only mention in the last line that the study bolsters an idea.

E. track the development of a particular species

The primary purpose is to look for some new idea to track animals. For that purpose they track a particular species. Classic trap choice

Q3. The information provided in the passage about Bowen's research can be used to answer which of the following questions?

A. Does social mixing occur between turtles from Florida's Hutchinson Island and Costa Rica's Tortuguero sanctuary?

It doesn't answer that, Passage itself mentions that there are multiple interpretations

B. Is there extensive interbreeding among green turtles from different areas?

Correct. As the passage mentions "Bowen’s study appears to have bolstered the idea that most populations of green turtles are genetically distinct, and that the turtles return to their birthplaces at nesting time.". There may be interbreeding among some species as mentioned in the last para. But that is only speculated. Their findings, Bowen asserts, lend credence to the “natal homing” theory. So there is no way extensive interbreeding will happen. Because if it does then why would turtles swim thousands of miles to their homelands.

C. To what extent can DNA testing be used to detect genetic differences?
Doesn't answer

D. Does tagging wild animals with metal disks or wires alter their mating habits?
Nowhere mentioned

E. By what mechanism do green turtles find their way back to their birthplace when they are ready to breed?
Nowhere mentioned



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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 08:57
prashant6923 wrote:
Looking for explanation of Q3

Para 2 of the passage states that while breeding the turtles travel to their birthplace. So, if that is the case then they definitely do not extensively breed.
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Re: Researchers traditionally have attempted to track animals by tagging &nbs [#permalink] 31 Aug 2018, 08:57
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