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Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of

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Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Dec 2018, 15:13
3
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A
B
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D
E

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  15% (low)

Question Stats:

78% (01:28) correct 22% (01:52) wrong based on 776 sessions

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Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of streptococcal infection, but rheumatic fever is not itself an infection. Rheumatic fever occurs only when, in defending against streptococcal infection, the body's immunological system produces antibodies that also attack the cells of the heart and kidneys.

Which of the following, if true, would contribute most to an explanation of why only streptococcal bacteria give rise to rheumatic fever?

(A) Only certain strains of streptococcal bacteria are associated with rheumatic fever.
(B) The antibodies that the body produces to control a streptococcal infection can attack cells of the mucous membranes
(C) Antibiotics have not proved as effective against streptococcal infections as they have against some other bacterial infections.
(D) Streptococcal bacteria are the only bacteria that are structurally similar to the cells of the body attacked in the rheumatic fever.
(E) Rheumatic fever can be misdiagnosed if it is not preceded by a serious streptococcal infection.

Originally posted by gmataquaguy on 11 Sep 2005, 18:30.
Last edited by hazelnut on 15 Dec 2018, 15:13, edited 2 times in total.
Necessary corrections for 'Bumping for review' project
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2005, 06:34
to which study guide does this question belong...i found it very tough and havent still understood the answer
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 09:42
One more vote for D.
It correctly points out the cause-effect mentioned in the Q stem


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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 10:34
1
I choose E, I dont understand why so many people choose D, I rejected it readily, is there something i am not getting?

A) Only certain strains of streptococcal bacteria are associated with rheumatic fever. (Does not support it very much)

B) The antibodies that the body produces to control a streptococcal infection can attack cells of the mucous membranes (but if heart and kidney are mucous membrane is out of scope of passage)

C) Antibiotics have not proved as effective against streptococcal infections as they have against some other bacterial infections. (out of scope)

D) Streptococcal bacteria are the only bacteria that are structurally similar to the cells of the body attacked in the rheumatic fever. (so the bacteria's structure is similar to structure of the cells that are getting attacked? that follows the assumption that a bacteria can attack a certain part of body if it has same structure as the cells of the part it attacks, this is not in the scope of the statement)

E) Rheumatic fever can be misdiagnosed if it is not preceded by a serious streptococcal infection. (if the person does not get the streptoco..infection rheumatic fever is misdiagnosed..which lends support to the argument)[/
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 10:44
Hi Ranga,

I see a sense in what you say. But again, the stem says "Rheumatic fever occurs only when, in defending against streptococcal infection" which suggests that there is no chance of one actually having Rheumatic fever unless one is suffering from streptococcal infection.
Doesn't this outline the assumption as such?

But yes, (after looking at ur explanation) I have started doubting the validity of choice D.

I guess the OA/OE is required here.

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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 10:45
Let me give it a shot, ranga41. Hopefully, I'm not wrong and you're not going to blow me up like you do at math :)

Okay, so Rheumatic Fever (RF) is caused by the body attacking itself.

The conclusion, given in the question, is that ONLY strep. bacteria can cause RF.

We have to find the choice that explains why this is. In other words, how does only strep, and not some other infection, cause RF?

Only D explains why the body attacks itself and causes RF.

E supports the evidence that strep needs to be present before RF can happen but doesn't explain why strep causes RF.
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 10:56
I guess D is it.. applying the KISS rule.
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New post 13 Sep 2005, 11:16
popew626 wrote:
Let me give it a shot, ranga41. Hopefully, I'm not wrong and you're not going to blow me up like you do at math :)

Okay, so Rheumatic Fever (RF) is caused by the body attacking itself.

The conclusion, given in the question, is that ONLY strep. bacteria can cause RF.

We have to find the choice that explains why this is. In other words, how does only strep, and not some other infection, cause RF?

Only D explains why the body attacks itself and causes RF.

E supports the evidence that strep needs to be present before RF can happen but doesn't explain why strep causes RF.


No blowing up man...

Can you please eloborate on how D explains why the body attacks itself and causes RF, I am surely missing something.

I choose E for the same reason u have given, if strep needs to be present before RF can happen, then it probably causes it....
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 12:40
The way I see it is that since RF is caused by the body attacking itself D tells you why it does.

The body develops antibodies to attack the strep bacteria. Then, the antibodies attack some of the body's cells because these cells resemble the structure of the strep bacteria. Since the cells and the bacteria are so close in identity the body can't tell the difference so it attacks its own cells thinking that the cells are the bacteria.

D tells us that ONLY strep bacteria is similar to the cells of the body that are attacked in RF.

aquaguy, what's the OA anyway?
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 12:48
popew626 wrote:
The way I see it is that since RF is caused by the body attacking itself D tells you why it does.

The body develops antibodies to attack the strep bacteria. Then, the antibodies attack some of the body's cells because these cells resemble the structure of the strep bacteria. Since the cells and the bacteria are so close in identity the body can't tell the difference so it attacks its own cells thinking that the cells are the bacteria.

D tells us that ONLY strep bacteria is similar to the cells of the body that are attacked in RF.

aquaguy, what's the OA anyway?


Makes sense but one shuld be a medicine major to answer this question...there is a big jump of concept here "the antibody generated by the body to attack the strep bacteria mistakes the human body cells for the bacteria and attacks it.......", the statement does not provide any cluse as to how antibodies recognises their enemies....
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 12:50
Ah!! D for me too. But, then again, D happens to be the most logical choice. Here is why. The question stem states that "Rheumatic fever occurs only when, in defending against streptococcal infection", and that the body attacks cells of heart and kidney. D clearly explains that the bacteria is structurally similar to the body cells attacked by the immune system. D implies that the body mistook healthy cells to be Streptococcal bacteria, thus attackign healthy cells.

Ranga, E does not state the reason why the body attacks healthy cells.

Thus D
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 18:27
crazyfin wrote:
to which study guide does this question belong...i found it very tough and havent still understood the answer


Yeah me too. I found this question very difficult to comprehend. Had to read the passage a couple of times. It belongs to an ETS paper. So its a legit GMAT question.
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2005, 18:32
hey popew626, hopefully is almost always wrong remember!! :wink:
Im sure you meant IT IS HOPED THAT!!! :lol:
OH GMAT ENGLISH!!
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2011, 03:52
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gmataquaguy wrote:
Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of streptococcal infection, but rheumatic fever is not itself an infection. Rheumatic fever occurs only when, in defending against streptococcal infection, the body's immunological system produces antibodies that also attack the cells of the heart and kidneys.

Rheumatic fever is a condition that occurs ONLY when antibodies attack streptococcal bacteria AS WELL AS the cells of such vital organs as heart and kidney.


Which of the following, if true, would contribute most to an explanation of why ONLY streptococcal bacteria give rise to rheumatic fever?

We need to seek a reason WHY ONLY strep causes rheumatic fever?

A) Only certain strains of streptococcal bacteria are associated with rheumatic fever.
It is not giving us the reason. It is giving us an extra irrelevant information whether all or only certain strains of strep cause rheumatic fever. Irrelevant.

B) The antibodies that the body produces to control a streptococcal infection can attack cells of the mucous membranes.
Introduces an extra information- mucus membrane- about which we know nothing. No correlation or even the word is mentioned in the passage. How are we suppose to infer anything out of this. Out of scope.

C) Antibiotics have not proved as effective against streptococcal infections as they have against some other bacterial infections.
This is somewhat relevant. However, this explains why rheumatic fever is caused, citing that there is no effective antibiotic for strep, but we need to know why ONLY strep causes rheumatic fever. There is a subtle difference.

D) Streptococcal bacteria are the only bacteria that are structurally similar to the cells of the body attacked in the rheumatic fever.
This is a strong contender and is the answer. It tells us that the enemy(Streptococcal bacteria) is similar in appearance to the cells that form heart and kidney. We can infer that the antibodies are not able to distinguish between the Strep bacteria AND the heart's cell, and they attack both heart cells & bacteria, causing Rheumatic fever. Correct.

E) Rheumatic fever can be misdiagnosed if it is not preceded by a serious streptococcal infection.
This is again giving us a correct but irrelevant info. We're not at all concerned with the diagnosis or misdiagnosis of Rheumatic Fever.


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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2011, 06:01
D seems to be the best ans, as it is clear from the argument that body cannot differentite between human hart and kidney cells and bacteria , so assumption can be made that the bacteria can have similar structure as that of human cell.
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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2014, 16:52
We need to strengthen the fact that SB will cause RF. Well if SB are the only baceteria structurally similar to the cells attachked in RF then this will clearly strengthen the fact that they are the ones causing it. Pretty clear to me D

Just my 2c

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Re: Rheumatic fever is the most serious complication of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2014, 04:04
streptococcal bacteria lead to streptococcal infection which give rise to rheumatic fever.........
ANTIBODIES ATTACK THE bacteria and similarly structured body cells........

hence "d"
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