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# Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of

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Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 27 Aug 2018, 22:34
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 79
Page: 686

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China, and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

(A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
(B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
(C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
(D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
(E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

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Originally posted by imhimanshu on 13 Jul 2012, 07:57.
Last edited by hazelnut on 27 Aug 2018, 22:34, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 13:41
19
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Choice D’s problems stem from the pronoun ‘it’ and the conjunction ‘as’.

First, it can refer to either knowledge or development. In both cases, it does not fit in logically.

Second, the knowledge was the first factor, his development as a writer is the next factor, and the third is the information about his style and function. The development and the information thereof are independent functions and not cause and effects. D is distorting the meaning by implying that development and information occurred simultaneously or the information occurred because of development. ‘As’ has meaning of ‘because ’ and ‘at the same time’. This is fatal error.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2013, 03:34
24
8
magicmanisha wrote:
OA here is C, however I marked D, could you please confirm weather answer is C or D.

Let us start with a simple sentence and see how it is ambiguous:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as quest for knowledge.

This can be interpreted in two ways:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as (Second world war influenced) quest for knowledge. In other words, second world war influenced:

b. quest for knowledge.

However, another way of interpreting this is:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as quest for knowledge (influenced scientific advancement). In other words, scientific advancement was influenced by:

a. Second world war
b. quest for knowledge

Now, coming to this sentence, Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s knowledge informed the following two things:

1. Literary style
2. Content of his fiction

With D, the sentence would be:

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

Now, here is the tricky thing. The above sentence can be interpreted as:

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style)

Which means Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s literary style was informed by the following:

1. Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s knowledge
2. Content of his fiction

So, there is an ambiguity of meaning, if D is the answer choice. Now, perhaps this ambiguity might be “tolerated” in some sentence in GMAT, if there is no better option; but here, C is definitely clearer.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 18:32
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Here we have three items: A, B, and C. In this case, Europe, China, and Japan. There is no need for the 'that' before Japan. That eliminates (A) and (B).

Next, we have the subject 'knowledge', which is singular. Therefore the verb is 'was.' And just like that, we are at answer (D) .
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2012, 15:04
4
"it" in D option is ambiguous
was should be used for singular subject
Japan is correct rather than that of Japan.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 04:59
2
1
Thanks for your reply. However, i think the usage of "it" is perfectly fine over here.

The rule used is, subject pronoun in one clause often refers to a noun in subject position in another parallel clause.

The option D changes the meaning, hence incorrect.

Thanks
H

daagh wrote:
Choice D’s problems stem from the pronoun ‘it’ and the conjunction ‘as’.

First, it can refer to either knowledge or development. In both cases, it does not fit in logically.

Second, the knowledge was the first factor, his development as a writer is the next factor, and the third is the information about his style and function. The development and the information thereof are independent functions and not cause and effects. D is distorting the menaing by implying that development and information occurred simultaneously or the information occurred because of development. ‘As’ has meaning of ‘because ’ and ‘at the same time’. This is fatal error.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 10:08
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Note also that (D) is an improperly constructed comparison. We're not sure if "It informed his literary style as much as (it informed) the content of his fiction" or if "it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style."
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2013, 23:00
imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.

Verb-ing is is answering here How ... Correct
As works as causal relationship ...I was late to college as it was raining heavily. (sorry but i don't think pronoun ambiguity is a issue as pointed out by others)
Here causal relationship is not there so as is not required.

Just to add As can work -> to show causal relationship( like above)
to show comparison ( as (it is the case) with many other girls, my gf loves shopping ; Ron teaches us english as a school teacher does)
to show simultaneous actions ( As I was crossing the road in the market area , I noticed my GF with a stranger at the coffee center)
to show roles ( As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide)
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2013, 01:00
1
imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.

Picked c.subject knowledge is singular so verb should be was not were and the use of that of japan is wrong with Ryunosuke Akutagawa1s knowledge of the literature of Europe,China and..........it should be "of Europe,China and Japan"According to these error we can eliminate A,B and E.Now rest C and D.D is out because the use of it here is ambiguous .So the correct answer is C.Please inform me if my analysis is wrong
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2013, 02:29
6
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
Wrong. "that of" + "were" + "as much as" are wrong.

b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
Wrong. "that of" is wrong.

c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
Correct. Parallelism + S-v agreement.

d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
Wrong. "as much as" is wrong. The use of "it" is not clear. "it" should modify "knowledge", but in this question, "it" modifies "his development".

e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to
Wrong. "were" is wrong.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2013, 11:59
1
First of all, follow the rules for posting in verbal section: underline always the question and put as title of the post the first sentence of the same.

Back to your question, I think that your process of thought is quite convoluted.

As soon as you see a question that is partially underlined (that means not completely) unless of a question really super tough you should be able to do a split solely relying your decision on the first word of the underline portion.

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan

Here you have 3 things: Europe (1), China (2) AND Japan (3) that have NO SENSE. From this A and B are out in one second.

The subject of the sentence is KNOWLEDGE so is singular and that means the verb is 3rd person singular. As such, you have WAS as tense (were is not possible because here the SC doesn't test you on subjunctive mode that has were in each person)

C and D

D is clearly wrong: it has no a clear antecedent. Moreover, the sentence is quite convoluted and doesn't work; the verb used in the "past" doesn't convey a clear meaning at all. As much as is used for what purpose ??.

C wins.

PS: this is a test in which you have to solve a problem in the most efficient way: quickly and right: even the toughest question could be picked right with 30 minutes at your disposal.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2013, 10:05
rahulvv wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japanwere instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

1. that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
2. that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
3. Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
4. Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
5. Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Left with 2 , 3 and 4.

2. that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as

literatures of Europe, China and _______________

Japan must replace the blank space ...

3. Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and

Looks decent..

4. Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as

As much as doesn't fit in here...

Hence clearly (C) IMO is the best..
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2013, 13:38
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1

Hi Rahul,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Let's once again take a look at the original sentence:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

From your analysis, I gather that you are confused about the function of the comma + verb-ing modifier "informing". Here, "informing" modifies the entire preceding clause in that it talks about the "HOW" aspect of the action in the modified clause. His knowledge was instrument in his development ass a writer by informing...

Now this is the part of the sentence that really becomes interesting. Pay attention to this part: his literary style as much as the content of his fiction

The way this part is written in the sentence, we can actually infer TWO comparisons in this sentence:

1. The knowledge informed equally about "his literally style" and "the content of his fiction". The entities compared here are. "his literally style" and "the content of his fiction".
2. His knowledge informed about "his literally style" as much as "the content of his fiction" did. The entities compared here are. "his knowledge" and "the content of his fiction".

So this sentence presents ambiguous meaning. Now lets take a look at the answer choices.

A. that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as: Incorrect. SV number agreement. Parallelism and meaning errors.

B. that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as. Incorrect.
a. Same Parallelism error as in Choice A.
b. The relation between "the knowledge being instrumental" and "informing" is lost now. The verbs "were instrumental" and "informed" are now two independent verbs now.

C. Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and: Correct. Use of "and" removed the comparison ambiguity we saw in Choice A.

D. Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as: Incorrect. Same comparison ambiguity in Choice A.

E. Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to: Incorrect. Same SV number agreement and idiom error. The correct idiom is "both X and Y".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2014, 06:22
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

1)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
2)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
3)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
4)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
5)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

I have a doubt in the OA, option c.

"both his literary style and the content of his fiction "
In parallelism the Order of appearance of words must be the same.
So how is this parallel ?
Shouldn't it be his literary style and his content of fiction.?
Please explain how is it parallel. Both are phrases but the order is not the same.

2) in option d, the knowledge informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction is ambiguous.
Is the following statement also ambiguous in the same manner "Rupa loves Sid more than sagar"

Rupa loves Sid more than Rupa loves sagar.
And Rupa loves Sid more than sagar lives sid.

Thank u.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2014, 09:06
SidKaria wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

1)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
2)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
3)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
4)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
5)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

I have a doubt in the OA, option c.

"both his literary style and the content of his fiction "
In parallelism the Order of appearance of words must be the same.
So how is this parallel ?
Shouldn't it be his literary style and his content of fiction.?
Please explain how is it parallel. Both are phrases but the order is not the same.

2) in option d, the knowledge informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction is ambiguous.
Is the following statement also ambiguous in the same manner "Rupa loves Sid more than sagar"

Rupa loves Sid more than Rupa loves sagar.
And Rupa loves Sid more than sagar lives sid.

Thank u.

Hi Sid,

Thanks for posting your question here.

Let's look at these two "parallel" phrases in Option C: "his literary style" and "the content of his fiction"

1. They are parallel because they both are noun entities. IMHO, these two entities cannot be made identically parallel because "his content of fiction" really does not look very idiomatic. Hence, these two entities are parallel. Also, these two entities appear in the same form in every answer choice. So this form is accepted.

2. Yes, you analysis of Choice D having ambiguous comparison is absolutely correct. Just like in Choice A, in Choice D also, there can be two comparisons:
a. Comparison between "knowledge" and "the content of his fiction".
b. Comparison between "his literally style" and "the content of his fiction".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2014, 20:11
Thank u sj. And I also wanted to know If the following statement is also ambiguous in the same manner "Rupa loves Sid more than sagar"

Rupa loves Sid more than Rupa loves sagar.
And Rupa loves Sid more than sagar lives sid.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2014, 21:37
SidKaria wrote:
I have a doubt in the OA, option c.

"both his literary style and the content of his fiction "
In parallelism the Order of appearance of words must be the same.
So how is this parallel ?
Shouldn't it be his literary style and his content of fiction.?
Please explain how is it parallel. Both are phrases but the order is not the same.

Please note that Parallelism does not mean word on word similarity.

With C, the structure would be: informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction.

Both his literary style and the content of his fiction are noun phrases and hence, grammatically similar.

By the way, you have suggested his content of fiction (his modifies content). Meaning-wise, this is different from what is mentioned in the original sentence: content of his fiction (his modifies fiction).

Quote:
2) in option d, the knowledge informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction is ambiguous.
Is the following statement also ambiguous in the same manner Rupa loves Sid more than sagar

Rupa loves Sid more than Rupa loves sagar.
And Rupa loves Sid more than sagar lives sid.

Yes, you might refer to my post here for further explanation on this: http://gmatclub.com/forum/ryunosuke-akutagawa-s-knowledge-of-the-literatures-of-135722.html
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2014, 03:17
2
SidKaria wrote:
Thank u sj. And I also wanted to know If the following statement is also ambiguous in the same manner "Rupa loves Sid more than sagar"

Rupa loves Sid more than Rupa loves sagar.
And Rupa loves Sid more than sagar lives sid.

Hi Sid,

Yes, the above stated comparison is ambiguous in the same manner. Let’s take a look at the sentence that you have mentioned:

• Rupa loves Sid more than Sagar.

The two possible scenarios are:
1. Rupa loves Sid more than Sagar (does).
Meaning: Rupa loves Sid more than Sagar loves sid.

2. Rupa loves Sid more than (she loves) Sagar.
Meaning: Rupa loves Sid more than she loves Sagar.

Since the sentence conveys an ambiguous meaning, it is incorrect. As shown above, this error is caused by ellipsis.

how-far-ellipsis-is-permissible-in-comparison-148973.html

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2014, 03:15
1
I know none of the answer choice are checking this concept but:

In "Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge" Ryunosuke Akutagawa is modifying knowledge so it's an adjective.

"his" is a pronoun so it can replace only a noun. So isn't the usage of "his" is wrong over here?

What am I missing over here?
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of  [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2014, 08:02
1
rohitmanglik wrote:
In "Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge" Ryunosuke Akutagawa is modifying knowledge so it's an adjective.

More specifically, Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s would be called possessive noun, because it denotes an act of possession (possession of something by Ryunosuke Akutagawa).

rohitmanglik wrote:
"his" is a pronoun so it can replace only a noun. So isn't the usage of "his" is wrong over here?

his is called possessive pronoun, and so is actually a perfect pronoun for the possessive noun: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of &nbs [#permalink] 28 Dec 2014, 08:02

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