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# Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of

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Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 07:57
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Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 13:20
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imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 13:41
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Choice D’s problems stem from the pronoun ‘it’ and the conjunction ‘as’.

First, it can refer to either knowledge or development. In both cases, it does not fit in logically.

Second, the knowledge was the first factor, his development as a writer is the next factor, and the third is the information about his style and function. The development and the information thereof are independent functions and not cause and effects. D is distorting the meaning by implying that development and information occurred simultaneously or the information occurred because of development. ‘As’ has meaning of ‘because ’ and ‘at the same time’. This is fatal error.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 18:32
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Expert's post
Here we have three items: A, B, and C. In this case, Europe, China, and Japan. There is no need for the 'that' before Japan. That eliminates (A) and (B).

Next, we have the subject 'knowledge', which is singular. Therefore the verb is 'was.' And just like that, we are at answer (D) .
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2012, 15:04
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"it" in D option is ambiguous
was should be used for singular subject
Japan is correct rather than that of Japan.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2012, 22:48
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imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.

In choice D, the pronoun IT is very ambiguous. IT can be development, knowledge. So, choice C is better and clarifies the meaning of sentence.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 04:59
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Thanks for your reply. However, i think the usage of "it" is perfectly fine over here.

The rule used is, subject pronoun in one clause often refers to a noun in subject position in another parallel clause.

The option D changes the meaning, hence incorrect.

Thanks
H

daagh wrote:
Choice D’s problems stem from the pronoun ‘it’ and the conjunction ‘as’.

First, it can refer to either knowledge or development. In both cases, it does not fit in logically.

Second, the knowledge was the first factor, his development as a writer is the next factor, and the third is the information about his style and function. The development and the information thereof are independent functions and not cause and effects. D is distorting the menaing by implying that development and information occurred simultaneously or the information occurred because of development. ‘As’ has meaning of ‘because ’ and ‘at the same time’. This is fatal error.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 10:08
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Note also that (D) is an improperly constructed comparison. We're not sure if "It informed his literary style as much as (it informed) the content of his fiction" or if "it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style."
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2013, 11:01
OA here is C, however I marked D, could you please confirm weather answer is C or D.

Cheers
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ChrisLele wrote:
Here we have three items: A, B, and C. In this case, Europe, China, and Japan. There is no need for the 'that' before Japan. That eliminates (A) and (B).

Next, we have the subject 'knowledge', which is singular. Therefore the verb is 'was.' And just like that, we are at answer (D) .
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge- OG [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2013, 03:34
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magicmanisha wrote:
OA here is C, however I marked D, could you please confirm weather answer is C or D.

Let us start with a simple sentence and see how it is ambiguous:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as quest for knowledge.

This can be interpreted in two ways:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as (Second world war influenced) quest for knowledge. In other words, second world war influenced:

b. quest for knowledge.

However, another way of interpreting this is:

Second world war influenced scientific advancement as much as quest for knowledge (influenced scientific advancement). In other words, scientific advancement was influenced by:

a. Second world war
b. quest for knowledge

Now, coming to this sentence, Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s knowledge informed the following two things:

1. Literary style
2. Content of his fiction

With D, the sentence would be:

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

Now, here is the tricky thing. The above sentence can be interpreted as:

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as the content of his fiction (informed his literary style)

Which means Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s literary style was informed by the following:

1. Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s knowledge
2. Content of his fiction

So, there is an ambiguity of meaning, if D is the answer choice. Now, perhaps this ambiguity might be “tolerated” in some sentence in GMAT, if there is no better option; but here, C is definitely clearer.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2013, 10:02
D is wrong because
" as it..." is not logic here.

"as it..." can means "while" or "because". both of these are not logic and not the intended meaning.
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2013, 23:00
imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.

Verb-ing is is answering here How ... Correct
As works as causal relationship ...I was late to college as it was raining heavily. (sorry but i don't think pronoun ambiguity is a issue as pointed out by others)
Here causal relationship is not there so as is not required.

Just to add As can work -> to show causal relationship( like above)
to show comparison ( as (it is the case) with many other girls, my gf loves shopping ; Ron teaches us english as a school teacher does)
to show simultaneous actions ( As I was crossing the road in the market area , I noticed my GF with a stranger at the coffee center)
to show roles ( As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide)
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2013, 01:00
imhimanshu wrote:
Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

Can someone walk me through as to why choice D is incorrect.

Picked c.subject knowledge is singular so verb should be was not were and the use of that of japan is wrong with Ryunosuke Akutagawa1s knowledge of the literature of Europe,China and..........it should be "of Europe,China and Japan"According to these error we can eliminate A,B and E.Now rest C and D.D is out because the use of it here is ambiguous .So the correct answer is C.Please inform me if my analysis is wrong
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2013, 02:29
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Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
Wrong. "that of" + "were" + "as much as" are wrong.

b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
Wrong. "that of" is wrong.

c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
Correct. Parallelism + S-v agreement.

d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
Wrong. "as much as" is wrong. The use of "it" is not clear. "it" should modify "knowledge", but in this question, "it" modifies "his development".

e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to
Wrong. "were" is wrong.

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2014, 14:04
I have a doubt in option C

Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

Option C - Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and

My question is that as the part after both should be parallel to the part after and, should it be both...his literary style and...his content for fiction or the other way?
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2014, 22:57
a)that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as - plural wrong
b)that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, andit informed his literary style as well as - wrong
c)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informingboth his literary style and - modifier correct
d)Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer,as it informed his literary style as much as- wrong
e)Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition t - plural wrong
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2014, 03:15
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I know none of the answer choice are checking this concept but:

In "Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge" Ryunosuke Akutagawa is modifying knowledge so it's an adjective.

"his" is a pronoun so it can replace only a noun. So isn't the usage of "his" is wrong over here?

What am I missing over here?
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2014, 08:02
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rohitmanglik wrote:
In "Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge" Ryunosuke Akutagawa is modifying knowledge so it's an adjective.

More specifically, Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s would be called possessive noun, because it denotes an act of possession (possession of something by Ryunosuke Akutagawa).

rohitmanglik wrote:
"his" is a pronoun so it can replace only a noun. So isn't the usage of "his" is wrong over here?

his is called possessive pronoun, and so is actually a perfect pronoun for the possessive noun: Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2015, 14:31
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the structure is of x,y and z - not x,y and that of Z -> eliminate A and B. The subject is knowledge -> Eliminate E knowledge.....were (it schould be singular was). Elminate D for its ambiguous comparison as much as, and after all, C is much better structured and concise -> Informing here deliveres further description (Verb-ing modifier).
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Re: Ryunosuke Akutagawa s knowledge of the literatures of   [#permalink] 07 Jan 2015, 14:31

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