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Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about

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Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Sep 2017, 18:28
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65% (01:42) correct 35% (01:50) wrong based on 536 sessions

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Scientist: Earth’s average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last century. This warming is primarily the result of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere, blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet.

Which one of the following, if true, would count as evidence against the scientist’s explanation of Earth’s warming?

(A) Only some of the minor gases whose presence in the atmosphere allegedly resulted in the phenomenon described by the scientist were produced by industrial pollution.

(B) Most of the warming occurred before 1940, while most of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere occurred after 1940.

(C) Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in certain years than it did in others.

(D) Volcanic dust and other particles in the atmosphere reflect much of the Sun’s radiation back into space before it can reach Earth’s surface.

(E) The accumulation of minor gases in the atmosphere has been greater over the last century than at any other time in Earth’s history.

Source: LSAT

OA : B

Why is C wrong ?

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Originally posted by spetznaz on 22 May 2016, 08:10.
Last edited by broall on 17 Sep 2017, 18:28, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2016, 08:55
C is wrong because it's an extremely vague answer choice. It says that solar radiation, over the past century, was slightly greater in some years than in others . First of all, we don't know whether the "slight" variation in radiation is unique to this century; it could be true of previous centuries as well, seeing that the stimulus never explicitly rules out the possibility. Even assuming that the change in radiation levels is unique to this century, it's not inconsistent with the argument because it's claiming that the rise in temperature is PRIMARILY- not exclusively- due to the minor buildup of gases. B, on the other hand, very clearly says that most of the rise in temperature happened before the gas buildup, demonstrating that the accumulation of gases isn't mainly responsible for the temperature increase.
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2016, 09:45
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spetznaz wrote:
Scientist: Earth’s average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last century. This warming is primarily the result of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere, blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet.

Which one of the following, if true, would count as evidence against the scientist’s explanation of Earth’s warming?

(A) Only some of the minor gases whose presence in the atmosphere allegedly resulted in the phenomenon described by the scientist were produced by industrial pollution.
(B) Most of the warming occurred before 1940, while most of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere occurred after 1940.
(C) Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in certain years than it did in others.
(D) Volcanic dust and other particles in the atmosphere reflect much of the Sun’s radiation back into space before it can reach Earth’s surface.
(E) The accumulation of minor gases in the atmosphere has been greater over the last century than at any other time in Earth’s history.

OA :

Why is C wrong ?


Average temperature last century = 30.00
0.50 increase = blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet
Average temperature last century = 30.50


Buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere =====>Blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet=====>Warming the planet

(C) Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in certain years than it did in others.

The highlighted part states that some years received (say 5 years ) more solar radiation in others, what if in other years the solar radiation ( 95 years ) was less than less than average...

Further the options shifts the discussion from buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere to solar radiation and can not justify it..

(B) Most of the warming occurred before 1940, while most of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere occurred after 1940.

Warming occurred (1939) =====>Buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere ( 1941 )

Thus you see the logic of buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere and Warming of earth's atmosphere is reversed, hence this weakens the logic...

Hope this helps.. :-D
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2016, 10:16
Abhishek009 wrote:
spetznaz wrote:
Scientist: Earth’s average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last century. This warming is primarily the result of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere, blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet.

Which one of the following, if true, would count as evidence against the scientist’s explanation of Earth’s warming?

(A) Only some of the minor gases whose presence in the atmosphere allegedly resulted in the phenomenon described by the scientist were produced by industrial pollution.
(B) Most of the warming occurred before 1940, while most of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere occurred after 1940.
(C) Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in certain years than it did in others.
(D) Volcanic dust and other particles in the atmosphere reflect much of the Sun’s radiation back into space before it can reach Earth’s surface.
(E) The accumulation of minor gases in the atmosphere has been greater over the last century than at any other time in Earth’s history.

OA :

Why is C wrong ?


Average temperature last century = 30.00
0.50 increase = blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet
Average temperature last century = 30.50


Buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere =====>Blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet=====>Warming the planet

(C) Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in certain years than it did in others.

The highlighted part states that some years received (say 5 years ) more solar radiation in others, what if in other years the solar radiation ( 95 years ) was less than less than average...

Further the options shifts the discussion from buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere to solar radiation and can not justify it..

(B) Most of the warming occurred before 1940, while most of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere occurred after 1940.

Warming occurred (1939) =====>Buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere ( 1941 )

Thus you see the logic of buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere and Warming of earth's atmosphere is reversed, hence this weakens the logic...

Hope this helps.. :-D


Thanks for the reply :) Is option C not an alternate cause ? Hence it should weaken ?
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2016, 10:45
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spetznaz wrote:
Thanks for the reply :) Is option C not an alternate cause ? Hence it should weaken ?


Ok , lets try it once again -

Premises : Buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere ===>Blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet ===>Warming the planet
Conclusion : Earth’s average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last century.


Powerscore Cr states that the correct answer to Weaken a question will -

Quote:
1. Attack the premises on which the argument rests
2. Correct answer will undermine the conclusion but it must not contradict the conclusion
3. Answers that attacks the assumption
4. Attack Necessary condition , showing that the necessary condition does not need to occur for sufficient condition to occur


Here option (D) attacke the premises/logic

Warming occurred (1939) =====>Buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere ( 1941 )

Whereas option (C) states -

Over the last century, Earth received slightly more solar radiation in certain years than it did in others.

Lets accept for the time being that yes the earth received more solar radiation in certain year than in other years , then ?

What role does it have in rising the temperature of the earth ? Does more solar radiation result it rising the temperature of the earth ? There is no relation stated here in the option which states that more solar radiation results in increasing the earth's temperature...

If you go further -

More Solar Radiation ------> Rise in temperature of the earth ( Assumption : Solar Radiation is related to temperature )

That will be far fetched, so we can negate option (C)
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2016, 09:18
How does the fluctuation of radiation during a period of time have any impact on the rise in temperature during that period?
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2016, 10:09
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HiLine wrote:
How does the fluctuation of radiation during a period of time have any impact on the rise in temperature during that period?


Here option (C) presesnts and alternate cause for increase in earth's temperature -

Quote:
Warming is primarily the result of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere, blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet.
Earth’s average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last century due to buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere...


Diagrammatically it can be represented as below -

Attachment:
Stimulus.png
Stimulus.png [ 137.84 KiB | Viewed 17952 times ]


However option (C) presents a different reason altogether for the rise in temperature as below -

Attachment:
Option (C).png
Option (C).png [ 6.17 KiB | Viewed 17948 times ]


Here we are stating that the more solar the radiation the greater the temperature....

Hope this helps !!

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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2017, 02:05
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Simple question of Cause and Effect.

Cause: buildup of minor gases
Effect: warming

In order to weaken this, I can say any one of the following

1. Warming was because of some other cause. (Alternate Cause for the effect)
2. Warming happens before buildup of minor gases. ( Effect happened before cause)
3. Both cause and effect happened at the same time.

Scanning through the options, only option B tells us what we are thinking. Hence, I dont bother about other options when I got what I am thinking.

Hence, B is the correct answer.
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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about  [#permalink]

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Re: Scientist: Earth's average annual temperature has increased by about &nbs [#permalink] 05 Sep 2018, 04:40
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