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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the

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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Engr2012 on 02 Aug 2015, 12:17, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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I would go with [D].

A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument.[The second is not an objection against a position but an observation in support of the position]
B. The first is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes[This is not true]; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that position.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that explanation[Second finding doesn't support the first explanation, it provides an alternate explanation].
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding on which that challenge is based.[Correct Answer]
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends[Author doesnt defend this explanation]; the second is a finding that has been used to challenge that explanation.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2009, 01:01
thanks for the expln badgerboy.. very well explained! the OA is D..
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2011, 05:12
It is C. it is not D.

Look, Assumption: aging brings loss of creativity
Challenges: However, creative breakthrough by scientist over forty enter field late and within a dozen years working.
Conclusion; So not creative work is not because of aging but because those scientist spent too long in their field

So the two boldface should (1) challenges conclusion(argument). (2) is evidence support of argument.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2011, 11:09
It seems to be D..Whats the final OA??Please confirm..
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2011, 11:53
It should be D only.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2011, 22:03
+1 D

C is impossible.
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New post 13 Sep 2011, 10:11
D...
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2011, 13:46
I picked D....it took me 1:40mins.
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New post 13 Sep 2011, 22:44
C cannot be the answer...

D it is ..
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2011, 07:42
How can it be D? There's no competing explanation. If anything, I see a link between the first and second.
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IMO E.

From the structure of the argument, it is clear that 1st boldface is an evidence and 2nd boldface is a conclusion.
With this information we are left with two choices, C & E.
The 1st boldface implies that, if number of scientists concerned who produced quality work is high, then fewer scientists entered field at an above normal age.
It simply means, there is no relation btw creative scientists abv age of 40 and age.
if a scientist enters their field late and yet produce quality work, then aging does not hamper creativity(as stated by 2nd premise) but they can do so because they have been in their field for long time (the conclusion is the explanation).

Only E fits this logic.
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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens
because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who
produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered
their field at an older age than is usual
. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been
working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why
scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists
over forty have generally spent too long in their field.


In the argument given, the two portions in boldface playwhich of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on
the basis of that claim.

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is
that position.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is that explanation.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the
second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that
explanation.

This is a OG question. Pls give your explanations for the Ans.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work... [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2013, 13:44
The argument begins with the generalized idea that Scientists do their creative work before age of 40, but their creativity declines with their age. The argument then seeks to establish the explanation of this phenomenon for this by providing additional evidences and then concludes that Scientist over 40 spent too long in the field.

Answer choice analysis:
(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.
-- The accuracy of the first bold part is not at issue, in fact the argument is basing its validating on its claim.
(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.
-- The first bold face is NOT an objection raised against the position/conclusion, rather the argument favors this evidence.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.
-- The word "challenges' flips the meaning. This choice specifies that the first bold face challenges the explanation and second bold face and hence is not true.
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
-- Does the same error as choice (C)
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.
-- This is correct! The first bold face does support the explanation/conclusion and second bold face is the explanation why certain phenomenon could be true.
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The wordiness really throws me off. Is there a way to combat this?
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work... [#permalink]

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bugzor wrote:
The wordiness really throws me off. Is there a way to combat this?


If you mean the wordiness of the answer choices then you should use splits, just like for sentence correction.

For example if you know the first bold cannot be a claim ignore any choice that says the first part is a claim and so on.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work... [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2013, 21:03
Here is how I did this problem (50 seconds on the timer).

Quote:
(A) The first is a claim...

I stopped reading (A) since the first portion is not a claim.

Quote:
(B) The first is an objection...

I stopped reading (B) since the first portion is not an objection.

Quote:
(C) The first is evidence ...

I kept reading further.
Quote:
...that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges...

I stopped reading (C) since I felt that the first portion supported what the argument wanted to say.

Quote:
(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges...

I noticed that (D) looks very similar to (C), so I just skipped it. It only took me a second or two.

Here I prepared to read (E) completely and to make sure that it is 100% correct. I also mentally prepared to go back and reconsider the previous choices, just in case I had made a mistake.

Quote:
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that
explanation.

It took a few seconds to let it sink in and then concluded that it was the right choice. Of course, on real test I would have spent another 30 seconds or another minute to double-check myself.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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Izvos wrote:
IMO E.

From the structure of the argument, it is clear that 1st boldface is an evidence and 2nd boldface is a conclusion.
With this information we are left with two choices, C & E.
The 1st boldface implies that, if number of scientists concerned who produced quality work is high, then fewer scientists entered field at an above normal age.
It simply means, there is no relation btw creative scientists abv age of 40 and age.
if a scientist enters their field late and yet produce quality work, then aging does not hamper creativity(as stated by 2nd premise) but they can do so because they have been in their field for long time (the conclusion is the explanation).

Only E fits this logic.



You have just copied this answer from another website and posted here, without event bothering that the original answer was for a different question.

Below is the original link from where you have copied

http://www.beatthegmat.com/scientists-t ... 60644.html
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2013, 18:35
my answer was D as the argument challenges the 1st boldface....

Can somebody please explain how E is the correct answer???
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2013, 04:58
abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that a disproportionately large number of the scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that they generally have spent
too long in a given field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument.
B. The first is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that position.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding that has been used in support of that explanation.
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a finding on which that challenge is based.
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends; the second is a finding that has been used to challenge that explanation.

Kindly justify your answers..


Boldface questions require you to understand the structure of the argument. Let's try to do that:
First boldface: A position/explanation/claim that the argument opposes.
Second boldface: A finding/evidence that supports the position that the argument defends.
The position that the argument defends: the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that they generally have spent too long in their field.

Let’s look at the first halves of the options:
Option E is out because the first boldface is not defended by the argument.

Now let’s look at the second halves of the remaining choices:
Option A is out because the second boldface is not an objection raised against the position that the argument defends.
In B, ‘that position’ refers to the position mentioned in the first half of the choice, which is the position that the argument opposes. But the second boldface opposes and not supports this position. So B is also out.
In C, the second boldface is not a finding used to support ‘that’ explanation (that ageing is the reason for loss of creative capacity). C can also be eliminated.
Thus, D is the right answer. According to D, the first is an explanation the argument challenges (ageing is the reason for loss of creative capacity) and the second is a finding on which this challenge is based (a disproportionately large number of the
scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty entered their field at an older age than usual).

Hope this is clear now. :)
Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the   [#permalink] 08 May 2013, 04:58

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