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# Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons

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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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Sonali0000 wrote:

Posted from my mobile device

"Some scientists have precipitously" - meaning without care and deliberate thought about the hypothesis they have jumped into the process of proving it. Hence D as the author is skeptical about their chances of actually being able to prove the relationship in question. Although it's a close call, B and D are definite contenders.
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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richirish wrote:
Easy passage overall, except the last the question. 3.5 mins all correct. SajjadAhmad please share the difficultly levels.

Question #1: 600
Question #2: 650
Question #3: 650
Question #4: 700

Overall: 650

Regards
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]

thanx !
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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Anshuman0902 wrote:

thanx !

Hi Anshuman0902,

Not the OE, but let me know if this helps.

Quote:
Q4. The author's reaction to the attempts that have been made to explain the development of the first self-duplicating organisms can best be described as one of

We can see that the author neither has a positive nor an extremely negative view towards the attempts that have been made to explain the development of the first self-duplicating organisms, but he does seem skeptical about the same as can also be inferred through lines: "Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical constituents of life under ‘primitive Earth conditions’ have been performed, but none of these experiments have produced anything approaching the complexity of the simplest organism."

Thus by using POE, we can clearly eliminate the extreme options A, B, C and E. Therefore the correct answer is D.

Thanks.
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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Q1.
A. Yes. This is evident from the line, "a variety of the complex molecules currently making up living organisms could have been present in the early ocean and atmosphere, with only one limitation: such molecules are synthesized far less readily when oxygen-containing compounds dominate the atmosphere. Therefore some scientists postulate that the Earth's earliest atmosphere, unlike that of today, was dominated by hydrogen, methane, and ammonia."

B. No. This is Out of Scope.

C. No. No evidence of this is present in the passage.

D. No. This is neither stated nor implied in the passage. This is an extreme claim. The author just mentions, "scientists cannot explain how these relatively small molecules combined to produce larger, more complex molecules".

E. No. On the contrary, "such molecules are synthesized far less readily when oxygen-containing compounds dominate the atmosphere".

Q2.
A. No. The author does not discuss about various theories. He talks about just one theory and how different scientists have understood the same since 1953.

B. No. This is Out of scope.

C. Yes. The author introduces the passage by talking about various experimental attempts that have been conducted since 1953 and how all those experiments have been a failure. He then goes on to discuss about how different scientists since 1953 have been trying to understand the result of the experiments and the implications of it.

D. No. The author does not debate upon whether synthesis of life in the lab-oratory is too difficult or too easy for modern technology. This is irrelevant.

E. No. No such description has been presented in the passage.

Q3.
I solved this using POE.
The author talks about the experiments conducted and how different scientists have been trying to interpret the results.He states in the last 2 lines, "From these studies, scientists have concluded that the surface of the primitive Earth was covered with oceans containing the molecules fundamental to life. Although, at present, scientists cannot explain how these relatively small molecules combined to produce larger, more complex molecules, some scientists have precipitously ventured hypotheses that attempt to explain the development, from these larger molecules, of the earliest self-duplicating organisms."

A. No such implication exists in the passage. Eliminate.

B. No evidence of this is present either. Irrelevant. Eliminate.

C. The author states in the 1st line, "many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical constituents of life under ‘primitive Earth conditions’ have been performed, but none of these experiments have produced anything approaching the complexity of the simplest organism."
And then the entire passage is devoted to how scientists perceive this result. Taking into account the evidences presented, it would be fair to infer that this is what "some scientists" assume when talking of "larger, more complex molecules".
Keep.

D. No such claim has been made anywhere in the passage. Eliminate.

E. On the contrary, the passage states, "at present, scientists cannot explain how these relatively small molecules combined to produce larger, more complex molecules". Eliminate.

Q4.
The author states in the beginning, "Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical constituents of life under ‘primitive Earth conditions’ have been performed, but none of these experiments have produced anything approaching the complexity of the simplest organism." And then he builds further upon this.

A. No. The reaction of the author surely isn't enthusiastic.

B. No. The author nowhere in the passage shows expectation that the experiment might be successful one day.

i) He writes in lines 8-12, "such molecules are synthesized far less readily when oxygen-containing compounds dominate the atmosphere. Therefore some scientists postulate that the Earth's earliest atmosphere, unlike that of today, was dominated by hydrogen, methane, and ammonia."
If this is the case, then there is not much expectation that the experiments might be successful.

ii) The last line of the passage states, "Although, at present, scientists cannot explain how these relatively small molecules combined to produce larger, more complex molecules, some scientists have precipitously ventured hypotheses that attempt to explain the development, from these larger molecules, of the earliest self-duplicating organisms."
The use of the word "precipitously" mirrors the author's doubt that the hypotheses will be proven true.

C. No. The author doesn't show dismay. He is just doubtful.

D. Yes. The author in the beginning says that the experiments haven't been successful. And then when some scientists try to explain the development of the earliest self-duplicating organisms from larger and complex molecules, he terms their attempt as "precipitous".

E. No. This is an extreme term. The author nowhere in the passage expresses such extreme emotions.
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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Re: Since 1953, many experimental attempts to synthesize the chemical cons [#permalink]
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