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Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most

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Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

(A) after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans

(B) after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the former East Germans

(C) when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans

(D) when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East Germans

(E) after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former East Germans

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Originally posted by noboru on 31 Jul 2009, 02:40.
Last edited by hazelnut on 13 Jun 2018, 03:55, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

A. after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans

B. after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the former East Germans

C. when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans

D. when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East Germans

E. after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former East Germans


MANHATTAN GMAT OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



The subject of the sentence is "one of the most problematic ethnic groups", a singular noun. The verb, however, is "were," which is plural. We need to find a choice that uses a singular verb instead.

(A) This choice is the same as the original sentence.

(B) This choice does not correct the subject-verb issue; it still uses "were" to refer to "group."

(C) This choice uses the singular "was," but the simple past is not the appropriate tense here because of the ongoing nature of the problem. Moreover, "the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups" is an awkward construction.

(D) CORRECT. This choice uses the singular "has been," which is also in the present perfect tense, indicating the ongoing nature of the problem. Moreover, "in terms of cultural and economic assimilation" is a more idiomatic and elegant phrasing than that of the original.

(E) This choice does not correct the subject-verb issue; it uses "have been" to refer to "group."
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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 13 Feb 2015, 09:35.
Last edited by Bunuel on 01 Aug 2018, 11:16, edited 1 time in total.
EDITED.
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2010, 09:35
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No one has mentioned the after/when split, so just for completeness...

Outside knowledge of history dictates that it must be "when" because the reunification was a single event in 1989, not in a previous year. Even though the GMAT does not test such knowledge, the meaning is still more clear with "when," so you've got to lean that way (checking the other splits, of course). Compare the following:

Since Tuesday, after the factory had been destroyed by fire, the employees have been working at the facility across town.
Since Tuesday, after the factory was destroyed by fire, the employees have been working at the facility across town.
Since Tuesday, when the factory was destroyed by fire, the employees have been working at the facility across town.

The 3rd example is most clear: the fire destroyed the factory on Tuesday, and as a result, the employees then started working at another location. With the other two examples, the fire may have happened anytime before or on Tuesday (uncertain), but the employees started working at the other facility on Tuesday.
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2010, 06:03
2
Prax wrote:
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

A.after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans

B.after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the former East Germans

C.when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans

D.when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East Germans

E.after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former East Germans


one [strike]of the most problematic ethnic groups[/strike] ... WAS/WERE the former east germans
WAS is correct ... so A & B are out ..... so is E for using HAVE (plural)

now between B & D

Since 1989 .. one of the groups ... was east germans
Since 1989 .. one of the groups ... has been east germans
let's flip to see which is correct

Since 1989 ... xyz was one of the groups ..
OR
Since 1989 ... xyz has been one of the groups ..

HAS BEEN is correct as it indicates the ongoing situation

IMO the ans is D

what is the OA?

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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2010, 08:38
1
Challenge is b/w C and D. IMO D.

I prefer D because it matches with the following verb - who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

Since 1989,.....has been the......, who have....

one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups
one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany

Both are correct usage.

Please post the OA.
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2010, 21:10
esledge

Does that mean : "when" is always preferable whenever there is after/when split?
Pls comment. thanks

esledge wrote:
No one has mentioned the after/when split, so just for completeness...

Outside knowledge of history dictates that it must be "when" because the reunification was a single event in 1989, not in a previous year. Even though the GMAT does not test such knowledge, the meaning is still more clear with "when," so you've got to lean that way (checking the other splits, of course). Compare the following:

Since Tuesday, after the factory had been destroyed by fire, the employees have been working at the facility across town.
Since Tuesday, after the factory was destroyed by fire, the employees have been working at the facility across town.
Since Tuesday, when the factory was destroyed by fire, the employees have been working at the facility across town.

The 3rd example is most clear: the fire destroyed the factory on Tuesday, and as a result, the employees then started working at another location. With the other two examples, the fire may have happened anytime before or on Tuesday (uncertain), but the employees started working at the other facility on Tuesday.
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2010, 12:37
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1
nusmavrik wrote:
esledge

Does that mean : "when" is always preferable whenever there is after/when split?
Pls comment. thanks

No, not always. It would depend on the intended/logical meaning.

Since 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was signed, Americans have commemorated the 4th of July.
Since 1776, after the Declaration of Independence was signed, Americans have commemorated the 4th of July.

Here, "when" is more accurate, as the signing was actually in 1776 and the when/after phrase modifies 1776.

When the Declaration of Independence was issued, Americans gathered annually to celebrate the 4th of July.
After the Declaration of Independence was issued, Americans gathered annually to celebrate the 4th of July.

In this one, “after” is more accurate, as the when/after phrase modifies “Americans gathered annually,” which by definition didn’t just happen at the one moment “when” the Declaration was issued.

After he lost his job, Luis decided to go to business school.
When he lost his job, Luis decided to go to business school.

Either of these would be fine. At least the order of events is the same in both, and who knows exactly when Luis made the decision—the moment he lost his job or afterwards? I wouldn't use after/when to eliminate anything on such a question--find other splits.
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2013, 23:08
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic
groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former
East Germans
, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

• after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans
Wrong. "one of the most..." is singular

• after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the
former East Germans
Wrong. "one of the most..." is singular

• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic
groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans
Wrong. Change meaning: "one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups" differs from "one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany"

• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East
Germans
Correct.

• after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former
East Germans
Wrong. "one of the most..." is singular
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2013, 09:29
carcass wrote:
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic
groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former
East Germans
, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.


"Since" calls for perfect tense so A, B, and C are out for this reason alone.
Quote:
• after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans
• after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the
former East Germans
• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic
groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans

Modified noun is the "group", so singular verb is correct.
Quote:
• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East
Germans
• after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former
East Germans

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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2013, 10:44
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic
groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former
East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

• after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans
• after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the
former East Germans
• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic
groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans
• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East
Germans
• after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former
East Germans


We have to use past perfect tense with "since" so A, B, C can be ruled out.
E is worng, because "have" does not agree with one of the most problematic ethnic group n numbers.
We are talking about one group only, so has should be used.


So we are left with the correct option: D
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2013, 09:24
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic
groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former
East Germans
, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans -- usage of after is making clear the sequence of event so past prefect not required, and subject-verb disagreement
• the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the
former East Germans -- subject-verb disagreement
• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic
groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans -- Since 1989, calls for the present prefect tense to be used.
• when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East
Germans -- correct
after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the
reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former
East Germans -- same as A

kindly correct me if I am wrong or missed some other error
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2013, 07:07
1
1
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

C when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans
D when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East Germans

C vs D = was VS has been. To correctly express the intended meaning, we have to look at the beginning of the sentence : "Since 1989, ...".
With this construct the author want to express an action that happens "since 1989", so it's an action that started in the past, whose consequences/ who still goes on in the present => Present Perfect is the correct tense.

Hope it's clear
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Re: SV Agreement Revision: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2015, 11:01
2
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

Subject : one of the most problematic ethnic groups - Singular
Require Singular Verb : were/have wrong
left with C &D.
was is past tense . non-underlined part is in Present tense. hence Has is correct. D
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SV Agreement Revision: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2015, 11:31
2
Whenever Since is mentioned in the sentence along with a time frame, Present Perfect is used.
So the verb can be has/have.
Since the subject is Singular, hence we are left with only one answer choice i.e nothing but D
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2015, 10:22
I have the same question. E makes more sense, in my opinion. Groups seems to be plural
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2015, 12:44
2
noTh1ng wrote:
I have the same question. E makes more sense, in my opinion. Groups seems to be plural


Option E has multiple problems.

Sentence with Option E is as follows:
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.


First understand the meaning. The meaning of the sentence is that From 1989 till now, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany has been the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

Presence of the modifier "Since 1989" indicates that we are talking about some situation which started in the past and is still present.

Modifier after the Berlin Wall had been demolished is not correct as 1) it unnecessarily uses past perfect tense as there is no other later past event in the sentence relative the event indicated in the past perfect. 2) This modifier basically modifies the year 1989 so it should just describe what happened in the year 1989. So the correct modifier to describe the year should be "when the Berlin Wall was demolished" as is used correctly in option C and D.

Bigger problem in option E is subject verb disagreement. Here the subject of the sentence is one of the most problematic ethnic groups. Now this subject is singular here as we are really talking about just one of the groups and not all the groups. So we should have helping verb "has" instead of "have".

Further, both A and B require parallel construction. In option E we have "in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation". This construction is not parallel. We should have "in terms of both cultural and economic assimilation" instead.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2018, 05:13
Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans, who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.

2 errors: Subject Verb Agreement and present perfect tense.
Subject of the sentence: “One of the most problematic ethnic groups” (Singular)
Verb in the original sentence: Were
Because of the plural verb
A, B and E go out.

A. after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified German, in cultural and economic assimilation terms, were the former East Germans

B. after the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in cultural terms as well as those of economic assimilation, were the former East Germans

C. when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the reunified Germany's most problematic ethnic groups, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, was the former East Germans

As the sentence starts with “Since 1989” and shows that the effect of that time is still present “who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.” Hence present perfect is required.
Hence Option C go out.

D. when the Berlin Wall was demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in terms of cultural and economic assimilation, has been the former East Germans

As the sentence starts with “Since 1989” and shows that the effect of that time is still present “who have had to acclimate to an entirely different political system.” Hence present perfect is required.
Hence Option D is the correct option.

E. after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most problematic ethnic groups in the reunified Germany, in both terms of cultural and economic assimilation, have been the former East Germans
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Re: SV Agreement Revision: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2018, 10:28
Can someone please explain this ?
Confused between C and D
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Re: Since 1989, after the Berlin Wall had been demolished, one of the most &nbs [#permalink] 01 Aug 2018, 11:17
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