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# Since its invention in the 1940s radiocarbon dating which helps

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A) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionized archaeology and geology.
Incorrect
We need "has" revolutionized because the tense marker "Since" is used. The use of simple past tense "revolutionized" is inappropriate in this case.
I.e. Since its invention, radiocarbon dating has revolutionized archaeology and geology

B) Radiocarbon dating, since its invention in the 1940s, helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionizing archaeology and geology.
Incorrect and preposterous.

"Radiocarbon dating helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material", this statement is in the present tense, which is incorrect. Also the appositive "since its invention in the 1940s" doesn't fit well with simple present tense.

C) Revolutionizing archaeology and geology since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material.
Incorrect.
Lacks verb.

D) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating has revolutionized archaeology and geology, helping scientists in calculating the age of organic material.
Looks Ok.

E) Radiocarbon dating, from its invention in the 1940s, has helped scientists in calculating the age of organic material, and in revolutionizing archaeology and geology.

Incorrect.
Doesn't maintain the intended meaning. It appears that from the invention of Radiocarbon dating, it has helped scientists. Which is a horrible statement.
Plus there is a parallelism issue too. "in revolutionizing archaeology and geology" should be is revolutionizing
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Re: Since its invention in the 1940s radiocarbon dating which helps [#permalink]
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Kudos
IMO D

A) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionized archaeology and geology. - Incorrect
since its inception - indicates the action still continues in the present
radiocarbon dating revolutionized - past tense
Conflicting tenses

B) Radiocarbon dating, since its invention in the 1940s, helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionizing archaeology and geology. - Incorrect
the placement of the modifier revolutionizing ... indicates that calculating the age revolutionizied archaeology and geology but the original intent of the sentence is radiocarbon dating revolutionized archaeology and geology

C) Revolutionizing archaeology and geology since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material. - Incorrect
Revolutionizing... (noun modifier), radiocarbon dating (noun), which..(non-essential modifier). - no verb
this is a fragment

D) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating has revolutionized archaeology and geology, helping scientists in calculating the age of organic material. - Correct
radiocarbon dating(noun) has revolutionized(verb) archaeology and geology(object) - proper sentence

E) Radiocarbon dating, from its invention in the 1940s, has helped scientists in calculating the age of organic material, and in revolutionizing archaeology and geology. - Incorrect
this changes the meaning of the original sentence.
radiocarbon dating has revolutionized archaoelogy and geology and not helped scientist in revolutionizing archaeology and geology.
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Re: Since its invention in the 1940s radiocarbon dating which helps [#permalink]
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Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionized archaeology and geology.

A) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionized archaeology and geology. - since gives a hint for present perfect tense to be used. Incorrect.

B) Radiocarbon dating, since its invention in the 1940s, helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionizing archaeology and geology.-Same as A.

C) Revolutionizing archaeology and geology since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material. - It doesn't have verb, fragmented. Incorrect.

D) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating has revolutionized archaeology and geology, helping scientists in calculating the age of organic material.- RD has done something and -ing modifier completes the story. It makes sense. Let's keep it.

E) Radiocarbon dating, from its invention in the 1940s, has helped scientists in calculating the age of organic material, and in revolutionizing archaeology and geology - Meaning changed. Incorrect.

So, I think D.

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Re: Since its invention in the 1940s radiocarbon dating which helps [#permalink]
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Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionized archaeology and geology.

Verb shall be present perfect not simple present as the action is continuing since 1940s- Eliminate

A) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionized archaeology and geology.

B) Radiocarbon dating, since its invention in the 1940s, helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material, revolutionizing archaeology and geology.

C) Revolutionizing archaeology and geology since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating, which helps scientists in calculating the age of organic material.

Verb missing for Subject "radiocarbon dating "
D) Since its invention in the 1940s, radiocarbon dating has revolutionized archaeology and geology, helping scientists in calculating the age of organic material.
All good

E) Radiocarbon dating, from its invention in the 1940s, has helped scientists in calculating the age of organic material, and in revolutionizing archaeology and geology.

Meaning changed

IMO D is the right answer
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Re: Since its invention in the 1940s radiocarbon dating which helps [#permalink]
The official explanation is here.
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Re: Since its invention in the 1940s radiocarbon dating which helps [#permalink]