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# Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists,

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Manager
Joined: 21 Feb 2009
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Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 01:11
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Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Attachment:

Sixty-five million years ago.jpg [ 73.04 KiB | Viewed 2507 times ]
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
Manager
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 02:18
IMO D...

A & B..incorrect modifier ...it is not the North America that is causing palnt and animal extinction...
C...extiniction that mark....it is not the extinction that is amrking the end of era..but it is the event...same with E...
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 03:17
imo, its either E or A. C has an amibigous pronoun "it". What is OA?
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 03:19
IMO E.

We can eliminate A, B for using "which"

Eliminate C coz it uses 'and'

Between D and E...I wil gor for E, coz "that" modifies extinctions and "marks" follows the correct S-V agreement pattern.

"Extinctions mark"

OA plzz!!
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 03:59
apoorvasrivastva wrote:
IMO E.

We can eliminate A, B for using "which"

Eliminate C coz it uses 'and'

Between D and E...I wil gor for E, coz "that" modifies extinctions and "marks" follows the correct S-V agreement pattern.

"Extinctions mark"

OA plzz!!

well I think ur rigth..it make sense...extinction marking end of era....well I messing up too much by thinking lot..
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 04:19
A and B out for usuage of which

C uses and causing... conjunction 'and' not needed , there must be some connection as the first event leads to the second event

D again in "and it marks..." and is not needed , that in E is correct.

E correct.
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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22 May 2010, 23:27
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Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Here is my question: In options E and D, how is the appositive grammatically right, shouldn't the appositive set next to the noun that it's modifying, in this case what is (an event) actually modifying because if it's modifying north america, then it wouldnt be right
need help plz

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Last edited by souvik101990 on 26 Jun 2017, 10:06, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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24 May 2010, 08:08
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I would pick (E)

D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

the event is..... 'slamming of asteroid into North America', an event that caused plant and animal extinctions that mark the end of the geologic era.

what is the OA?
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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24 May 2010, 21:16
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elevinty wrote:
Here is my question: In options E and D, how is the appositive grammatically right, shouldn't the appositive set next to the noun that it's modifying, in this case what is (an event) actually modifying because if it's modifying north america, then it wouldnt be right
need help plz

first of all, i'll say that you don't really need to confuse yourself with terminology .. for most part, learning the terminology is just a waste of time

which is a noun modifier and is placed as closely to the noun it modifies as possible

in A & B which incorrectly modifies N.America

ask yourself .. what cause the extinctions? .. it was the act of the asteroid slamming into N.America that caused the extinctions
so look for a modifier that describes this act ... an event correctly defines this act

D: what does 'it' refer to?
the clause after comma is a consequence of the asteroid impact .. the use of 'and' impairs the original intent

E: here THAT may confuse you ... but it actually modifies the plant and animal extinctions ... and is an essential modifier

E is correct

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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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24 May 2010, 23:39
I understand what you are saying and I know we dont need to memorize terminology but I use the terms in order to make sense of the modifiers and how they act in a sentence not for the sake of memorizing.
back to the sentence, if it's a noun modifier what is it modifying because noun modifier doesn't modify the preceding clause, but here it seems that it does
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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25 May 2010, 03:37
[quote="elevinty"]Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

A and B are out because which refers here to Noerth America, which can not be the reason for such an event.
C - is out because there is an additional "and"
D - and it marks - redundant
E - corect
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2010, 19:21
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Between D & E:
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Doesn't 'mark' in E refer to 'an event' and would have to be 'marks'?
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2010, 22:08
cause and effect. If the sentence is illustrating cause and effect then go for it.
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2010, 06:10
Doesn't 'mark' in E refer to 'an event' and would have to be 'marks'?
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2010, 06:17
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extinctions that mark

that refers to extinctions. Since extinctions are plural "mark" is fine.
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2010, 06:23
I believe you are referring to first that in the underlined portion.

first that refers to event
second that refers to extinctions
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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01 May 2011, 23:17

i will guess for E out of D, E
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2011, 22:43
this is absolute phrase not a apposite.and absolute phrase is more flexible than apposite.Absolute phrase is noun+noun modifier,but it modify the whole clause not just preceding noun.and it is used to show that result of some thing(-ing phrase also used to show the result)
in this sentence -- an event(N) that.....(sub. clause)
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2011, 01:03
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The confusion here is - what is it that is marking the end of the Cretaceous Period. Is it the extinction of the animals, or is it the event of the asteroid slamming.

A, B, C, are all easy to eliminate for grammatical errors ( A & C use wrong "ing" tense | B incorrectly modifies North America)

Between D and E we have to realise that it is the extinction of the animals that marks the end of the era. I incorrectly chose D when I saw this problem, but the right answer is E
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2011, 09:05
rojans wrote:
this is absolute phrase not a apposite.and absolute phrase is more flexible than apposite.Absolute phrase is noun+noun modifier,but it modify the whole clause not just preceding noun.and it is used to show that result of some thing(-ing phrase also used to show the result)
in this sentence -- an event(N) that.....(sub. clause)

Official Guide for verbal review says the question is an appositive.
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Re: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists,   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2011, 09:05

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