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# Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including

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Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2007, 01:57
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Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including emphysema and lung cancer. Now, an additional concern can be added to the list of maladies caused by smoking. A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers, and found that smokers are significantly more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

(A) Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.

(B) Anxiety and nervousness do not make individuals more likely to start smoking.

(C) Equivalent numbers of smokers and nonsmokers were surveyed for the study.

(D) Smokers are aware of the various health problems attributed to smoking, including lung cancer and emphysema.

(E) Smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey were more anxious and nervous than smokers who had not smoked for several hours.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 04 Oct 2017, 23:39, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2007, 02:25
tarek99 wrote:
Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including emphysema and lung cancer. Now, an additional concern can be added to the list of maladies caused by smoking. A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers, and found that smokers are significantly more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

a) Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.

b) Anxiety and nervousness do not make individuals more likely to start smoking.

c) Equivalent numbers of smokers and nonsmokers were surveyed for the study.

d) Smokers are aware of the various health problems attributed to smoking, including lung cancer and emphysema.

e) Smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey were more anxious and nervous than smokers who had not smoked for several hours.

Take B but cant say why C is wrong.

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2007, 02:44
you're correct. the OA is B. the reason why C is wrong is that the argument is a causal argument. therefore, you have to address its causalty. option c does that address causalty at all. the focus of the conclusion is that smoking causes serious health issue, including anxiety. therefore, the assumption is that any other causes of anxiety isn't possible or that anxiety is indeed the effect of smoking. makes sense?

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2007, 09:23
tarek99 wrote:
Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including emphysema and lung cancer. Now, an additional concern can be added to the list of maladies caused by smoking. A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers, and found that smokers are significantly more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

a) Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.

b) Anxiety and nervousness do not make individuals more likely to start smoking.

c) Equivalent numbers of smokers and nonsmokers were surveyed for the study.

d) Smokers are aware of the various health problems attributed to smoking, including lung cancer and emphysema.

e) Smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey were more anxious and nervous than smokers who had not smoked for several hours.

Def B. Eliminate the opposite casaulty. If you dont then the argument is susceptible to critique.

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2013, 08:10
is option "A" is incorrect
because it states " Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems. "
anxiety and nervousness --> leads to health problems
and here we are talking about serious health problems i.e to anyone out there
but here we are talking about one which is caused by smoking

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 12:05
Hi,

Why is Option C incorrect??

Thanks,
Jai
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HEXAGON Theory ---> http://gmatclub.com/forum/hexagon-theory-tips-to-solve-any-heaxgon-question-158189.html#p1258308

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 12:11
B seems be answer because B stops the possibility of effect causing the cause.

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 16:45
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This is a classical “cause and effect” question.
The form is:
Both A and B exist
Conclusion: A causes B happen.
Assumption: B does not cause A
(the reverse relationship is not correct)

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact: smokers have more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers
Conclusion: smoking leads to more anxious and nervous (note: the conclusion is inferred)
Assumption: Anxiety and nervousness do not lead to smoking

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

a) Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.
Wrong.
The flow is:
X - smoking ==> Z -serious health problems.
--AND—
Y - anxiety and nervousness ==> Z- serious health problems.
Clearly, it does not mean X must lead to Y just because both X and Y lead to Z. It’s totally wrong logic.

b) Anxiety and nervousness do not make individuals more likely to start smoking.
Correct. This is cause & effect question. Smoking leads to anxiety and nervousness only if Anxiety and nervousness do not make people smoke.

c) Equivalent numbers of smokers and nonsmokers were surveyed for the study.
Wrong. C is TEMPTING but wrong. Assume you have a whole population 1 million people. You're supposed to take survey, you need 1000 non-smokers and 1000 smokers in order to have a good sample.
==> Clearly, your sample is perfect to have a reliable conclusion if you have exactly 1000 non-smokers and 1000 smokers.

What if you take 1100 non-smokers and 1000 smokers (in-equivalent numbers), your conclusion will not be reliable? Nope, because 1000 is a base in order to get conclusion reliable. If you add 2 or 3 people in the sample, your conclusion is still reliable.
Thus, C is not an assumption. (because if you negate the assumption, the conclusion MUST be incorrect).
Note: the stimulus talk about "the survey" which implies "sampling technique".

d) Smokers are aware of the various health problems attributed to smoking, including lung cancer and emphysema.
Wrong. The fact people are aware of health problems attributed to smoking does not mean smoking leading to anxiety and nervousness.

e) Smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey were more anxious and nervous than smokers who had not smoked for several hours.
Wrong. Clearly out of scope. We talk about smokers in general, NOT only smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 23:08
pqhai wrote:
This is a classical “cause and effect” question.
The form is:
Both A and B exist
Conclusion: A causes B happen.
Assumption: B does not cause A
(the reverse relationship is not correct)

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact: smokers have more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers
Conclusion: smoking leads to more anxious and nervous (note: the conclusion is inferred)
Assumption: Anxiety and nervousness do not lead to smoking

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

a) Anxiety and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.
Wrong.
The flow is:
X - smoking ==> Z -serious health problems.
--AND—
Y - anxiety and nervousness ==> Z- serious health problems.
Clearly, it does not mean X must lead to Y just because both X and Y lead to Z. It’s totally wrong logic.

b) Anxiety and nervousness do not make individuals more likely to start smoking.
Correct. This is cause & effect question. Smoking leads to anxiety and nervousness only if Anxiety and nervousness do not make people smoke.

c) Equivalent numbers of smokers and nonsmokers were surveyed for the study.
Wrong. C is TEMPTING but wrong. Assume you have a whole population 1 million people. You're supposed to take survey, you need 1000 non-smokers and 1000 smokers in order to have a good sample.
==> Clearly, your sample is perfect to have a reliable conclusion if you have exactly 1000 non-smokers and 1000 smokers.

What if you take 1100 non-smokers and 1000 smokers (in-equivalent numbers), your conclusion will not be reliable? Nope, because 1000 is a base in order to get conclusion reliable. If you add 2 or 3 people in the sample, your conclusion is still reliable.
Thus, C is not an assumption. (because if you negate the assumption, the conclusion MUST be incorrect).
Note: the stimulus talk about "the survey" which implies "sampling technique".

d) Smokers are aware of the various health problems attributed to smoking, including lung cancer and emphysema.
Wrong. The fact people are aware of health problems attributed to smoking does not mean smoking leading to anxiety and nervousness.

e) Smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey were more anxious and nervous than smokers who had not smoked for several hours.
Wrong. Clearly out of scope. We talk about smokers in general, NOT only smokers who had smoked a cigarette immediately before responding to the survey.

Hope it helps.

Hi pqhai,

The argument states that "A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers". So we have to assume that the no. of people taking survey were equal.
Suppose i survey, 1000 Smokers and 100 Non-smokers, my conclusion holds true, but is invalid because the base of comparison is not same.

Can you explain why option C is incorrect??

Thanks,
Jai
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MODULUS Concept ---> http://gmatclub.com/forum/inequalities-158054.html#p1257636
HEXAGON Theory ---> http://gmatclub.com/forum/hexagon-theory-tips-to-solve-any-heaxgon-question-158189.html#p1258308

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 23:35
jaituteja wrote:

Hi pqhai,

The argument states that "A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers". So we have to assume that the no. of people taking survey were equal.
Suppose i survey, 1000 Smokers and 100 Non-smokers, my conclusion holds true, but is invalid because the base of comparison is not same.

Can you explain why option C is incorrect??

Thanks,
Jai

Hi Jai

The base of comparison is not the same does not mean the comparison invalid in statistics. I'm really sorry but I assume you have some ideas of statistics. So I will explain by using statistic example.

For example: You have a whole population 1 million people (including both non-smokers and smokers). To get 99% reliable conclusion, you MUST have a sample which includes 100 non-smokers and 100 smokers (perfect sample). There are two scenarios:

(1) you have a sample including fewer than 100 non-smokers and 100 smokers, your conclusion is NOT reliable. Because your sample is not standard.
(2) you have a sample including 101 non-smoker and 100 smokers, however, your conclusion is NOT more reliable.

The ONLY 100% correct in statistic is when you ask all 1 million people. If you take a survey, you're doing statistic. Thus we just talk about "reliable" term, not "absolute" /100% correct. Standard deviation must exist.

C says the number of non-smokers and that of smoker must be equal. However, by using example above we can show that even when the numbers are not equal, the conclusion still holds true.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2013, 01:44
pqhai wrote:
jaituteja wrote:

Hi pqhai,

The argument states that "A recent study surveyed both smokers and nonsmokers". So we have to assume that the no. of people taking survey were equal.
Suppose i survey, 1000 Smokers and 100 Non-smokers, my conclusion holds true, but is invalid because the base of comparison is not same.

Can you explain why option C is incorrect??

Thanks,
Jai

Hi Jai

The base of comparison is not the same does not mean the comparison invalid in statistics. I'm really sorry but I assume you have some ideas of statistics. So I will explain by using statistic example.

For example: You have a whole population 1 million people (including both non-smokers and smokers). To get 99% reliable conclusion, you MUST have a sample which includes 100 non-smokers and 100 smokers (perfect sample). There are two scenarios:

(1) you have a sample including fewer than 100 non-smokers and 100 smokers, your conclusion is NOT reliable. Because your sample is not standard.
(2) you have a sample including 101 non-smoker and 100 smokers, however, your conclusion is NOT more reliable.

The ONLY 100% correct in statistic is when you ask all 1 million people. If you take a survey, you're doing statistic. Thus we just talk about "reliable" term, not "absolute" /100% correct. Standard deviation must exist.

C says the number of non-smokers and that of smoker must be equal. However, by using example above we can show that even when the numbers are not equal, the conclusion still holds true.

Hope it helps.

Hi pqhai,

I think i have got the exact point on which option C is incorrect.

Let me share what i understood.

Conclusion: Smokers are significantly more anxious and nervous than nonsmokers

Now, when no. of smokers surveyed is equal to that of non-smokers surveyed, conclusion is true.
Even if, we increase the no. of smokers by 1 or 2, then also conclusion will hold true because of the word "significantly".

The gap will b/w the no. of smokers anxious and no. of non-smokers anxious would still be great, or we can see a slight increase would make minimal impact, but conclusion would still hold true. So this is not a MUST BE TRUE/ASUSMPTION thing..

Had the conclusion not mentioned word "significantly".. C would have been an assumption..

I have a doubt, if If no. of non-smokers > no. of smokers, then it weakens/strengthen the conclusion????

Thanks,
Jai

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2013, 06:16
Although the premises of this argument suggest only a correlation between
smoking and anxiety or nervousness, the argument has a causal conclusion: it
concludes that smoking causes individuals to be anxious and nervous (i.e., that A
causes B). Any assumption in a causal argument must support the causal
“direction” of the conclusion, that A causes B as opposed to some other
explanation. Often, assumptions support a causal conclusion either by
eliminating an alternate cause for the conclusion (that C did not cause B) or by
demonstrating that the causation, if one exists, is in the proper direction (that B
did not cause A).
(A) The argument concludes that smoking causes anxiety and nervousness.
Whether these maladies lead to more serious health problems is not relevant to
the conclusion.
(B) CORRECT. For smoking to be the cause of anxiety and nervousness (i.e.,
that A caused B) it must be true that these individuals were not more likely to be
anxious and nervous before they started smoking. If smokers had these
preconditions, which contributed to their decision to begin smoking (i.e., that B
caused A), our conclusion – that smoking causes these maladies – would be
incorrect.
(C) The argument concludes that smoking causes anxiety and nervousness. The
number of survey respondents is not relevant to the conclusion.
(D) The argument concludes that smoking causes anxiety and nervousness. The
awareness of the health problems related to smoking is not relevant to the
conclusion.
(E) The argument is not based on the immediate impact that smoking has on
anxiety and nervousness. Moreover, the argument never compares some
smokers to other smokers.

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2014, 13:06
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NONE of the explanations can justify - WHY C is incorrect.

The reason is: the conclusion is NOT that smoking leads to anxious people BUT that the number of smokers who are anxious is more than the number of non-smokers who are anxious.

The causality/reverse causality: X leads to Y so assumption that Y does not lead to X holds true if the conclusion was that Smoking leads to anxious people.

Conclusion is that smokers are more anxious than non-smokers.
Here there is no causality but rather a comparison. IMO Option C is correct.

Negate option C: If 10 non-smokers surveyed, 4 turn out anxious whereas 6 smokers surveyed, 3 turn out anxious.
Clearly, the number of smokers (anxious) is less than no. of smokers (anxious). Similarly interchanging the values for smokers and non-S now will support the conclusion.

Therefore, in order for conclusion to stick and stay Relevant it is IMPERATIVE/MUST that number of people surveyed smokers and non-smokers is EQUAL.

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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2017, 10:45
Although the premises of this argument suggest only a correlation between smoking and anxiety or nervousness, the argument has a causal conclusion: it concludes that smoking causes individuals to be anxious and nervous (i.e., that A causes B). Any assumption in a causal argument must support the causal “direction” of the conclusion, that A causes B as opposed to some other explanation. Often, assumptions support a causal conclusion either by eliminating an alternate cause for the conclusion (that C did not cause B) or by
demonstrating that the causation, if one exists, is in the proper direction (that B did not cause A).

(A) The argument concludes that smoking causes anxiety and nervousness. Whether these maladies lead to more serious health problems is not relevant to the conclusion.
(B) CORRECT. For smoking to be the cause of anxiety and nervousness (i.e., that A caused B) it must be true that these individuals were not more likely to beanxious and nervous before they started smoking. If smokers had these preconditions, which contributed to their decision to begin smoking (i.e., that B caused A), our conclusion – that smoking causes these maladies – would be incorrect.
(C) The argument concludes that smoking causes anxiety and nervousness. The number of survey respondents is not relevant to the conclusion.
(D) The argument concludes that smoking causes anxiety and nervousness. The awareness of the health problems related to smoking is not relevant to the conclusion.
(E) The argument is not based on the immediate impact that smoking has on anxiety and nervousness. Moreover, the argument never compares some smokers to other smokers.
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Re: Smoking is a known cause of certain serious health problems, including   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2017, 10:45
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