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Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society

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Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society socializes children is by making them feel ashamed of their immoral behavior. But in many people this shame results in deep feelings of guilt and self-loathing that can be a severe hardship. Thus, moral socialization has had a net effect of increasing the total amount of suffering.

The social critic's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) overlooks the possibility that the purported source of a problem could be modified to avoid that problem without being eliminated altogether

(B) fails to address adequately the possibility that one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that a phenomenon that supposedly increases the total amount of suffering in a society should therefore be changed or eliminated, regardless of its beneficial consequences

(D) takes for granted that a behavior that sometimes leads to a certain phenomenon cannot also significantly reduce the overall occurrence of that phenomenon

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that if many people have a negative psychological reaction to a phenomenon, then no one can have a positive reaction to that phenomenon
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 18:54
Quote:
Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society socializes children is by making them feel ashamed of their immoral behavior. But in many people this shame results in deep feelings of guilt and self-loathing that can be a severe hardship. Thus, moral socialization has had a net effect of increasing the total amount of suffering.

The social critic's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) overlooks the possibility that the purported source of a problem could be modified to avoid that problem one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

(B) fails to address adequately the possibility that one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that a phenomenon that supposedly increases the total amount of suffering in a society should therefore be changed or eliminated, regardless of its beneficial consequences

(D) takes for granted that a behavior that sometimes leads to a certain phenomenon cannot also significantly reduce the overall occurrence of that phenomenon

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that if many people have a negative psychological reaction to a phenomenon, then no one can have a positive reaction to that phenomenon

The author's conclusion is that "moral socialization has had a net effect of increasing the total amount of suffering". Though the social critic concludes that moral socialization has caused a net increase in the amount of suffering, the author does NOT suggest that moral socialization should be changed or eliminated. In other words, the author only presents a theory and does not suggest a course of action to change the present situation. Thus, choice C must be eliminated.

Choice D suggests that the argument "takes for granted that a behavior {moral socialization} that sometimes leads to a certain phenomenon {suffering} cannot also significantly reduce the overall occurrence of that phenomenon {suffering}". We only know that, for many people, moral socialization leads to suffering (ie guilt and self-loathing) that can be a severe hardship. The passage does NOT state that most people experience guilt and self-loathing or that those feelings of guilt and self-loathing are a severe hardship for most of those people. Furthermore, moral socialization in general may in fact reduce the overall occurrence of suffering among the people in a society (ie by reducing suffering in other ways, possibly not related to guilt or self-loathing). In that case, even if moral socialization causes many people to suffer from guilt and self loathing, moral socialization could still have a net effect of decreasing the total amount of suffering; this contradicts the author's conclusion, so D is the best choice.
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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 20:01
Am inclined towards D. D and B were contenders D explicitly states the flaw.

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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 23:53
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
Quote:
Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society socializes children is by making them feel ashamed of their immoral behavior. But in many people this shame results in deep feelings of guilt and self-loathing that can be a severe hardship. Thus, moral socialization has had a net effect of increasing the total amount of suffering.

The social critic's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) overlooks the possibility that the purported source of a problem could be modified to avoid that problem one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

(B) fails to address adequately the possibility that one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that a phenomenon that supposedly increases the total amount of suffering in a society should therefore be changed or eliminated, regardless of its beneficial consequences

(D) takes for granted that a behavior that sometimes leads to a certain phenomenon cannot also significantly reduce the overall occurrence of that phenomenon

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that if many people have a negative psychological reaction to a phenomenon, then no one can have a positive reaction to that phenomenon

The author's conclusion is that "moral socialization has had a net effect of increasing the total amount of suffering". Though the social critic concludes that moral socialization has caused a net increase in the amount of suffering, the author does NOT suggest that moral socialization should be changed or eliminated. In other words, the author only presents a theory and does not suggest a course of action to change the present situation. Thus, choice C must be eliminated.

Choice D suggests that the argument "takes for granted that a behavior {moral socialization} that sometimes leads to a certain phenomenon {suffering} cannot also significantly reduce the overall occurrence of that phenomenon {suffering}". We only know that, for many people, moral socialization leads to suffering (ie guilt and self-loathing) that can be a severe hardship. The passage does NOT state that most people experience guilt and self-loathing or that those feelings of guilt and self-loathing are a severe hardship for most of those people. Furthermore, moral socialization in general may in fact reduce the overall occurrence of suffering among the people in a society (ie by reducing suffering in other ways, possibly not related to guilt or self-loathing). In that case, even if moral socialization causes many people to suffer from guilt and self loathing, moral socialization could still have a net effect of decreasing the total amount of suffering; this contradicts the author's conclusion, so D is the best choice.



Hi ,

Thanks for the explanation. Can you also explain why Option B is incorrect I selected B as this option says that the causal relationship between moral socialisation and the net increase in suffering caused by it is not addressed adequately.
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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 07:31
Quote:
Thanks for the explanation. Can you also explain why Option B is incorrect I selected B as this option says that the causal relationship between moral socialisation and the net increase in suffering caused by it is not addressed adequately.

Quote:
(B) fails to address adequately the possibility that one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

Choice B suggests that the argument fails to address adequately the possibility that one phenomenon (moral socialization) may casually contribute to the occurrence of another (suffering), even though the two phenomena (moral socialization and suffering) do not always occur together. The author does not, however, imply that moral socialization always causes suffering; rather, the social critic only implies that moral socialization leads to suffering (ie guilt and self loathing) in many people. Thus, the author does in fact allow for the possibility that moral socialization and suffering do not always occur together.
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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 09:05
It seems option A contains the content of option B. Is it correct?

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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 09:59
Mahmud6 wrote:
It seems option A contains the content of option B. Is it correct?

Thanks Mahmud6 for noticing the mistake in the original post! Choice (A) has been corrected.

Quote:
Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society socializes children is by making them feel ashamed of their immoral behavior. But in many people this shame results in deep feelings of guilt and self-loathing that can be a severe hardship. Thus, moral socialization has had a net effect of increasing the total amount of suffering.

The social critic's argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) overlooks the possibility that the purported source of a problem could be modified to avoid that problem without being eliminated altogether

(B) fails to address adequately the possibility that one phenomenon may casually contribute to the occurrence of another, even though the two phenomena do not always occur together

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that a phenomenon that supposedly increases the total amount of suffering in a society should therefore be changed or eliminated, regardless of its beneficial consequences

(D) takes for granted that a behavior that sometimes leads to a certain phenomenon cannot also significantly reduce the overall occurrence of that phenomenon

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that if many people have a negative psychological reaction to a phenomenon, then no one can have a positive reaction to that phenomenon

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Re: Social critic: One of the most important ways in which a society   [#permalink] 30 Aug 2017, 09:59
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