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Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2015, 06:49
BrainLab wrote:
D is just wordier than B, it also lacks THAT and AT before some time.

D has a parallelism issue. Notice that the sentence ends with a phrase after and: thus our genetic variation.

Hence, there should be a phrase before the and. However, in D, there is a clause before and: their numbers were greatly reduced.

In contrast, B says: ...an event that greatly reduced X and Y.
x: their numbers
Y: thus our genetic variation

X and Y are both phrases.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2015, 07:11
macjas wrote:
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,




Ing modifier must make sense with the subject of the clause.
For example

I dropped the groceries on the floor,scaring the baby. ( the action of scaring has been done by subject "I",thus doer and modifier are making sense together)
(above example taken from RON - Manhattan Gmat)

Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly. INCORRECT

Subject is here Joe.He didn't become CFO by himself, in fact it was an event of becoming CFO that increased his pay.
So subject and modifier don't make sense ,thus wrong.

Joe became the CFO of the company, a move that increased his pay significantly. CORRECT

In this example it was the move that he made and that led to increase in his pay thus correct.

Both example taken from E-GMAT



A is wrong because "ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers bla bla bla..."

The subject ancestors and modifier reducing don't make sense together.Did ancestor suffered to an awful event in order to reduce their number ? NO

The correct answer is B because in this answer choice the event s mentioned that led to reduction of number not the ancestor themselves.

"an event that greatly reduced their numbers"

that as relative pronoun modifying the noun event perfectly makes the meaning clear.

In the end,

Thanks to Ron(Manhattan) , to E-GMAT team and to Chris lele(Magoosh).
learned to tackle this problem from them.

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 02:31
egmat
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

I still dont get why A is not correct ?
"ing" plays 2 role first is describing the action with subject and second it can be an effect of a cause mentioned earlier in the clause.
here why cant "greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation" be an effect of " ancestors suffering from event "
It can mean " ancestors suffered from event and thus suffering from that event led to reducing their....blabla " clear cause and effect.
if "ing" can play second role clearly why one has to check for the first role "ing" plays( i.e. describing with subject) ??
If option A is incorrect it has to be some other reason.
thanks

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 08:58
deepak268 wrote:
egmat
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

I still dont get why A is not correct ?
"ing" plays 2 role first is describing the action with subject and second it can be an effect of a cause mentioned earlier in the clause.
here why cant "greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation" be an effect of " ancestors suffering from event "
It can mean " ancestors suffered from event and thus suffering from that event led to reducing their....blabla " clear cause and effect.
if "ing" can play second role clearly why one has to check for the first role "ing" plays( i.e. describing with subject) ??
If option A is incorrect it has to be some other reason.
thanks


Without "that", the latter clause ( " at some time....greatly reduced their numbers") does not have much meaningful bearing to the first clause as the author intended. It is required to establish that the scientists believe even the latter clause and hence "that" is required to be repeated.

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2016, 12:02
ccooley : I was wondering if you could help me with the following doubts?
1) I am having a hard time understanding how A break the parallelism and why is 'that' required to maintain it. I am referring to OG explanation here.
2) How would you define grammatically what role is dash playing here? I researched use of dash as per grammar rules but didnt find any other example similar to this question.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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ccooley : I was wondering if you could help me with the following doubts?
1) I am having a hard time understanding how A break the parallelism and why is 'that' required to maintain it. I am referring to OG explanation here.
2) How would you define grammatically what role is dash playing here? I researched use of dash as per grammar rules but didnt find any other example similar to this question.
Thanks


1. The author requires to convey that the fact that "at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers..." is believed by "some anthropologists". Without "that", the sense would be as though the author is expressing his own belief , not the anthropologists' belief.

2. Dash is versatile in use and can play the role of a comma, semicolon or a colon. Dash here plays the role of a colon(:) - the colon can be used to provide further explanation for what comes before it. The dash, as a replacement of a colon, plays the same role here.

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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debbiem wrote:
daagh wrote:
A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers ------ A hyphen is not the tool to connect two ICs.
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers -------- ‘that ’ is the right connector ---correct choice.
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced ------- altered notion; it looks as if the ancestors suffered a calamity in order to reduce their numbers.
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced -------- conjugation of two ICs with hyphenation is wrong.
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly, ------ same as in D



Dear Sir,

Is the main reason of choosing b/w B and D is that D has hypen in between and not a semi colon..?
Had there been a semicolon would both B and D be equally correct..?


A hyphen (dash) can be used in place of semicolon - hyphen is a versatile punctuation and can replace comma, semicolon or colon. Hence punctuation is NOT the reason that D is wrong. Following is a reason why A, D, and E (choices without "that") are wrong:

some-anthropologists-believe-that-the-genetic-homogeneity-134793-20.html#p1681019

Moreover "event from which" is not correct usage.

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2016, 01:27
ChrisLele

I have a doubt regarding your explanation of answer 'A'. According to my understanding, Greatly reducing is a -ing modifier preceded by comma which generally modifies the entire clause or is used to indicate the result of preceding statement. So in this case the modifier modifies the entire clause that at some time ancestors suffered an event and this led to great reduction in their number. So, according to me the modifier usage is correct. Can you please point out the flaw in my understanding?

Thanks in advance.

ChrisLele wrote:
In answer choice (A) there is a problem with modification. (A) is implying that our ancestors greatly reduced their own numbers (this is incorrect because it was the event that greatly reduced ancestors). When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase (one that starts with a gerund and serves as an adjective clause), the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence.

In non-grammarese: 'ancestors' is the subject of the independent clause, 'at some time...' and because of the comma after event, we have the incorrect meaning. It was not the ancestors but an event that 'reduced their numbers.'

Therefore, we want to make sure that it is clear that 'event' is 'greatly reducing the numbers.' One way to fix that is by using the relative pronoun 'that.' In (B), we have 'an event that greatly reduced their numbers' that does a good job of correcting the error in (A).

Therefore (B) is the answer.

Last edited by jjindal on 07 Jul 2016, 04:40, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2016, 03:59
jjindal wrote:
I have a doubt regarding your explanation of answer 'A'. According to my understanding, Greatly reducing is a -ing modifier followed by comma

Hello jjindal, I believe you mean preceded by a comma (and not followed by comma).

Quote:
generally modifies the entire clause or is used to indicate the result of preceding statement. So in this case the modifier modifies the entire clause that at some time ancestors suffered an event and this led to great reduction in their number. So, according to me the modifier usage is correct. Can you please point out the flaw in my understanding?

Such modifiers modify the subject of the preceding clause, in this case ancestors; this results in the meaning issue that Chris points out in his post earlier.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Participial Phrases, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2016, 05:27
macjas wrote:
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

In the question, I can't understand WHY A is wrong? In A, didn't 'event' modify '' greatly reducing their numbers''?
In B, their indicates what? does it indicate ''anthropologists'', "people" or "ancestors
also, HOW an 'event' greatly reduced their number?
If I say:
They killed their father. [/i] Here, their is the pronoun of they. So, in the sentence B, .....event reduced their number. Here, their is plural but event is singular. I should not say that He killed their father. How the sentence matched its pronoun in B?
Thanks...
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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iMyself wrote:
macjas wrote:
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

In the question, I can't understand WHY A is wrong? In A, didn't 'event' modify '' greatly reducing their numbers''?
In B, their indicates what? does it indicate ''anthropologists'', "people" or "ancestors
also, HOW an 'event' greatly reduced their number?
If I say:
They killed their father. [/i] Here, their is the pronoun of they. So, in the sentence B, .....event reduced their number. Here, their is plural but event is singular. I should not say that He killed their father. How the sentence matched its pronoun in B?
Thanks...


1. Following is the official explanation for A:
The omission of that after the dash makes the function of the final clause unclear. The structure makes that clause appear to be an awkward and rhetorically puzzling separate assertion that the writer has appended to the prior claim about what the anthropologists believe. The agent or cause of reducing is unclear.

2. I do not understand your query "HOW an 'event' greatly reduced their number?" Why do you think that an event cannot reduce their number?

3. This query is also not clear - why do you consider that " He killed their father" is not correct? Why only "they" can kill their father and a single person (or a single event) can't?

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2016, 11:16
sayantanc2k wrote:
iMyself wrote:

also, HOW an 'event' greatly reduced their number?
If I say:
They killed their father. [/i] Here, their is the pronoun of they. So, in the sentence B, .....event reduced their number. Here, their is plural but event is singular. I should not say that He killed their father. How the sentence matched its pronoun in B?
Thanks...


1. Following is the official explanation for A:
The omission of that after the dash makes the function of the final clause unclear. The structure makes that clause appear to be an awkward and rhetorically puzzling separate assertion that the writer has appended to the prior claim about what the anthropologists believe. The agent or cause of reducing is unclear.

2. I do not understand your query "HOW an 'event' greatly reduced their number?" Why do you think that an event cannot reduce their number?

3. This query is also not clear - why do you consider that " He killed their father" is not correct? Why only "they" can kill their father and a single person (or a single event) can't?


1) In B, their indicates what? does it indicate ''anthropologists'', "people" or "ancestors

2) They killed their father. [/i] Here, their is the possessive of they
My question is: in the original sentence:
...................event reduced their number. here, is 'their' possessive of 'event'?
Thanks...
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2016, 12:14
ChrisLele wrote:
In answer choice (A) there is a problem with modification. (A) is implying that our ancestors greatly reduced their own numbers (this is incorrect because it was the event that greatly reduced ancestors). When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase (one that starts with a gerund and serves as an adjective clause), the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence.

In non-grammarese: 'ancestors' is the subject of the independent clause, 'at some time...' and because of the comma after event, we have the incorrect meaning. It was not the ancestors but an event that 'reduced their numbers.'

Therefore, we want to make sure that it is clear that 'event' is 'greatly reducing the numbers.' One way to fix that is by using the relative pronoun 'that.' In (B), we have 'an event that greatly reduced their numbers' that does a good job of correcting the error in (A).

Therefore (B) is the answer.


I just read ChrisLele's comment.
Why is the logic which he has mentioned not applicable to following question?
http://gmatclub[dot]com/forum/five-fledgling-sea-eagles-left-their-nests-in-western-130847.html
Using bringing would mean that eagles themselves are bringing down the numbers. But the fact is their action of leaving the nests is bringing down numbers.

sayantanc2k Can you please share your insights on this?

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2017, 03:29
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers

B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers

C that some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced

D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced

E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 736
Page: 695

Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

Attachments

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sc736.jpg [ 1.14 MiB | Viewed 632 times ]


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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2017, 02:28
macjas wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 736
Page: 695

Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers- correct


B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers

- event alone is not responsible for reducing the numbers
The ancestor suffered an event is the cause.


C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced

Wordy . So that is ungrammatical


D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced

Same as B

E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,


Incorrect meaning.

The ancestor suffered an event is not deliberate.

Answer choice A as in original sentence.




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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2017, 19:00
Funniest thing to do is that .
Splitting option in a wrong opinion - that "that" cannot follow a "hyphen".
Marked A, but agree B is right.
:) .

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 05:05
explanations here are spot on cleared all my doubts

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 05:50
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

Quote:
A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

'-' indicates that the author is going to rephrase what was mentioned in the first clause, so we need what comes after '-' to maintain parallelism => We require a 'that' immediately after the '-'
So A,D,E are out on this account.
A - States the ancestors reduced their own numbers
D - 'from which' is just plain awkward
E - 'so as to' indicates intent on the ancestors part and that was not the case.


Quote:
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced

This alters the meaning and it seems like the ancestors suffered an event in order to reduce their numbers and that is clearly incorrect. OUT!


Quote:
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers

Maintains parallelism + 'that greatly...' correctly refers to 'an event'

So B is the answer.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity [#permalink]

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macjas wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 736
Page: 695

Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,


A) Use of Verbing modifier is wrong as it modifies the entire preceding clause
B) Correct
C) Distorts the meaning. It means that they suffered the event inorder to reduce their numbers intentionally.
D) Distorts the meaning. It is the event which reduced their numbers
E) Distorts the meaning. It means that they suffered the event inorder to reduce their numbers intentionally.

Kudos [?]: 61 [0], given: 93

Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2017, 23:31

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