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# Some historians contend that conditions in the United States

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Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2008, 17:39
3
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Question 1
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66% (01:55) correct 34% (00:25) wrong based on 89

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Some historianscontend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management’s arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions’ dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.
Q6:The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Q7:According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned in line 3 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Q8: Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence in the second paragraph in the passage?
A. To summarize a situation confronted by unions during the Second World War
B. To summarize the role of unions in the workplace during the Second World War
C. To explain the philosophy supported by most unions during the Second World War
D. To assess the effect of the growth of the civil rights movement on unions during the Second World War
E. To present a criticism of the unions’ approach to representing workers during the Second World War

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Q9: Which of the following best summarizes the opinion of the author of the passage regarding the two points of view presented in the first paragraph ?
A. Neither point of view reflects the views of certain African American historians on trade unions during the Second World War.
B. Neither point of view reflects the full complexity of the historical reality.
C. One point of view is based on more reliable research than is the other.
D. Both points of view have misinterpreted recent research on trade unions during the Second World War.
E. The two points of view can be readily harmonized into a coherent interpretation.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 08 Jul 2016, 06:27, edited 1 time in total.
Edited para for Q7.
If you have any questions
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2008, 17:55
IMO D. Please let us know OA.
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2008, 18:46
rpmodi wrote:
Some historians contend that conditions
in the United States during the
Second World War
gave rise to a
dynamic wartime alliance between
(5) trade unions and the African American
community
the cause of civil rights. They conclude
that the postwar demise of this
vital alliance constituted a lost oppor-
(10) tunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars,
however, have portrayed organized
labor as defending all along the relatively
privileged position of White
(15) workers relative to African American
workers. Clearly, these two perspectives
are not easily reconcilable, but
the historical reality is not reducible
to one or the other.
(20) Unions faced a choice between
either maintaining the prewar status
quo or promoting a more inclusive

approach that sought for all members
the right to participate in the internal
and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection
against management’s arbitrary
authority in the workplace. While
(30) union representatives often voiced
this inclusive ideal, in practice unions
far more often favored entrenched
interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement
(35) following the Second World War
exacerbated the unions’ dilemma,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned
in line 11 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War

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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 10:13
rpmodi wrote:
Some historians contend that conditions
in the United States during the
Second World War gave rise to a
dynamic wartime alliance between
(5) trade unions and the African American
the cause of civil rights. They conclude
that the postwar demise of this
vital alliance constituted a lost oppor-
(10) tunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war. Other scholars,
however, have portrayed organized
labor as defending all along the relatively
privileged position of White
(15) workers relative to African American
workers. Clearly, these two perspectives
are not easily reconcilable, but
the historical reality is not reducible
to one or the other.
(20) Unions faced a choice between
either maintaining the prewar status
quo or promoting a more inclusive

approach that sought for all members
the right to participate in the internal
and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection
against management’s arbitrary
authority in the workplace. While
(30) union representatives often voiced
this inclusive ideal, in practice unions
far more often favored entrenched
interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement
(35) following the Second World War
exacerbated the unions’ dilemma,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned
in line 11 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War

Some historians: Alliance between Trade Unions and African Americans /Civil rights during WW2
Others:Organised labor was used to promote the White Labourers rights during WW2.
Conclusion of para 1: Unions had to make a choice

A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
>>>OOS
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
>>>discusses the Unions in general

E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War

Last edited by goalsnr on 29 Jun 2008, 10:14, edited 1 time in total.
VP
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 10:13
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 14:18
OA is D
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 19:12
OA is actually C.

C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War

I just now took a test.
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2012, 07:51
2
KUDOS
The reasoning behind the answer being C is as follows:

1) Based on lines 1-11, the historians mentioned in line 1 believe that during WW2, the trade unions had a great relationship with the African-American community.
2) Based on lines 11-16, the scholars mentioned in line 11 instead believe that the trade unions never had a good relationship with African-Americans, and instead chose to stymie their movement toward equal rights even during WW2.
1+2 = 3) Therefore, the historians in line 1 and the scholars in line 11 are at odds regarding the relationship between trade unions and African-Americans during the course of WW2.

Within the passage, there is no mention of the opinion of either of these groups about the effect of WW2 on the civil rights movement. Instead, we only have the author's opinion. That is why D isn't the answer.

- MrFong
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2012, 04:13
I assume that the correct answer is C since
both of them did not considered relationship between unions and African Americans as opportunity for civil rights movement
they are disagree with it

Some historians contend that conditions
in the United States during the
Second World War gave rise to a
dynamic wartime alliance between
(5) trade unions and the African American
the cause of civil rights. They conclude
that the postwar demise of this
vital alliance constituted a lost oppor-
(10) tunity for the civil rights movement that
followed the war
. Other scholars,
however, have portrayed organized
labor as defending all along the relatively
privileged position of White
(15) workers relative to African American
workers
. Clearly, these two perspectives
are not easily reconcilable, but
the historical reality is not reducible
to one or the other.
(20) Unions faced a choice between
either maintaining the prewar status
quo or promoting a more inclusive

approach that sought for all members
the right to participate in the internal
and high-paying positions within the
occupational hierarchy, and protection
against management’s arbitrary
authority in the workplace. While
(30) union representatives often voiced
this inclusive ideal, in practice unions
far more often favored entrenched
interests. The accelerating development
of the civil rights movement
(35) following the Second World War
exacerbated the unions’ dilemma,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q7:
According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned
in line 11 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World
War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World
War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World
War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes
following the Second World War
Senior Manager
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Location: India
GMAT 1: 560 Q36 V31
GPA: 3
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 09:29
It's a definite C, since the other choices don't mention anything relevant. E tries to sound correct, but is actually the trap.
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2012, 11:01
There is another question under this passage.
I will name it as Q2 to avoid confusion.
If someone can help in giving the explanation..

Ques. 2. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A)providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
(B)identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
(C) assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
(D) discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
(E) evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2014, 18:34
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2015, 02:26
Bumping up. Fantastic short passage.
Difficulty : Difficult
Time taken : 11 minutes
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2015, 02:32
rpmodi wrote:
Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American
community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American
workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management’s arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions’ dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.
Q6:The passage is primarily concerned with
A. providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon
B. identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon
C. assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon
D. discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance
E. evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Q7:According to the passage, the historians mentioned in line 1 and the scholars mentioned in line 3 disagree about the
A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War
B. issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War
C. relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War
D. effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace
E. extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Q8: Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence in the second paragraph in the passage?
A. To summarize a situation confronted by unions during the Second World War
B. To summarize the role of unions in the workplace during the Second World War
C. To explain the philosophy supported by most unions during the Second World War
D. To assess the effect of the growth of the civil rights movement on unions during the Second World War
E. To present a criticism of the unions’ approach to representing workers during the Second World War
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Q9: Which of the following best summarizes the opinion of the author of the passage regarding the two points of view presented in the first paragraph ?
A. Neither point of view reflects the views of certain African American historians on trade unions during the Second World War.
B. Neither point of view reflects the full complexity of the historical reality.
C. One point of view is based on more reliable research than is the other.
D. Both points of view have misinterpreted recent research on trade unions during the Second World War.
E. The two points of view can be readily harmonized into a coherent interpretation.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

Hi
I am unable to understand this passage itself.
Can anyone please explain this 2 paragraphes?
Thanks
Anupama
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2015, 02:52
1
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Drop me a pm. I will help u understand the passage.
U shud also try to read few mgmat guidelines to understand and internalize passages better.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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10 May 2016, 16:09
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 03:44
I am unable to arrive at correct answer for Q9. Can someone explain the approach please.
Re: Some historians contend that conditions in the United States   [#permalink] 08 Mar 2017, 03:44
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