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Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the

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Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. It is indeed likely that such a collision did occur and that it caused the death of the vast majority of dinosaurs. However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun. Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Which of the following, if true, is an assumption made by the author of the above argument?


A. The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.

B. A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.

C. At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.

D. There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.

E. The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.

Originally posted by Gian on 05 Aug 2013, 07:40.
Last edited by Bunuel on 15 Sep 2018, 03:26, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2013, 20:40
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The following is my approach in solving the problem:-
1) Understand the meaning and conclusion made be author. The conclusion is "Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs."

2) Pre-thinking (what could have helped these remaining dinosaurs to survive or what could have made these dinosaurs dead) - Thanks to E-GMAT

3) Evaluating the answer choices and narrowing it to correct answer by eliminating.

In first go, I strike out choce B and E as both are Out oF Scope (OFS).

Then, I strike out D because of Conclusion, which talks about that only few dinosaurs could survive and extinct because of some other force, whereas D takes about entire different theory, which could be a possible reason for extinct of dinosaurs, Hence in D it talks about comparision of two theories, which is not we are seeking.

Then betweej A and C, I found that C is already implied from the passage, it cannot be assumption.

Then I read A again and found that A is the possible reason why few Dinasours could survive. This is the only possible assumption that water had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision. and thus the dinasour survived using this non contaminated water.

Thus the answer choice is A
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2013, 07:49
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Gian wrote:
Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. It is indeed likely that such a collision did occur and that it caused the death of the vast majority of dinosaurs. However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun. Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Which of the following, if true, is an assumption made by the author of the above argument?

a) The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
b) A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
c) At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.
d) There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.
e) The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.

I choose C.
Answer A and D seem like an inference rather than assumption for me.
Need help plz =.=
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2013, 07:57
3
2
New evidence suggests that perhaps that dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the
1)impact or
2)by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun.

Conclusion:
===>Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

The author says that "some other force" must have been responsible for the extinction of the remaining dinosaurs. It excludes the possibility that the FIRST asteroid had other effects. So the answer choice A is correct because exclude (partially) this possibility. This kind of assumptions "fill" a gap of the reasoning.

The other answer choices:

c) At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.
Even if this part "refers" to something that is in the argument, the presence of dinosaurs is NOT the argument of the author; so this answer choice is not necessary to reach the conclusion.
d) There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.
The existence of another theory is not necessary to the argument.
e) The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.
The duration of the dust clouds is not relevant in the reasoning.

B IMO is the second contender
b) A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
This answer says that a cosmic event is likely to have killed the remaining dinosaurs.
The author says:
"Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs."
And answer choice B says that the responsible force is(probably) a cosmic event: this can't be an assumption. The argument is still valid even if a cosmic event is NOT "likely to have killed off the dinosaurs (...)"(B negated); and maybe volcano eruptions are responsible, for example.
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2013, 08:01
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Gian wrote:
Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. It is indeed likely that such a collision did occur and that it caused the death of the vast majority of dinosaurs. However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun. Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Which of the following, if true, is an assumption made by the author of the above argument?

a) The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
b) A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
c) At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.
d) There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.
e) The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.


CONCLUSION:
Someotherforce must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

a) The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.==>THIS SHOULD BE THE ASSUMPTION AS IF WE NEGATE THIS:
The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperatureHAD become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
THEN IN THIS CASE IT SAYS IT WAS THE EFFECT OF ASTEROID COLLISION ONLY WHICH LEAD TO DEATH OF DINOSAURS.


b) A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
IT IS TOO SPECIFIC TO SAY THAT SECOND ASTEROID IMPACT OR COSMIC EVEN LED TO DEVASTATION....this cant be assumption

c) At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.
not necessary it could also possible that during asteroid impact some other factor also came in to play leading to death of dinosaurs.hence this cant be assumption.

d) There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.
this is out of scope we are not concerned whether there is some other theory or not we are just concerned that some other factor led to death of dinosaurs
e) The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.
the duration of blocked sun doesnt affect the conclusion.
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2014, 02:51
Gian wrote:
Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. It is indeed likely that such a collision did occur and that it caused the death of the vast majority of dinosaurs. However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun. Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Which of the following, if true, is an assumption made by the author of the above argument?

a) The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
b) A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
c) At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.
d) There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.
e) The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.


The answer should be A.
Statement B says there was a second asteroid impact which might be the "some other force" author is talking about... thus this choice gives example of the other possible cause and cannot be the assumption.
Statement C is kind of stated in the argument... "tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds" as they were not killed at the time of collision as stated in the argument thus it implies the lived even after the impact. This cannot be the assumption.
Statement D is clearly out of scope as we have to find an assumption to the theory in the argument... and some other theory is OOS.
Statement E talks about the time period of the dust clouds... but the argument clearly states that the remaining dinosaurs were not affected by the dust clouds... thus the time for which these dust clouds remained in the atmosphere of the Earth is irrelevant.
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New post 17 Nov 2014, 04:30
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Have some doubts with A.
it Says : a) The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.

Lets Negate A : The water supply.....got contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
Ie lets assume water was contaminated, but still contamination does not mean death of dinosaurs.
It might be possible that water got contaminated and dinosaurs got ill because of the contaminated water but didn't die.

So, here negation of A still does not break the argument...!!!

please comment...
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New post 17 Nov 2014, 15:14
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naval.sheth@gmail.com wrote:
Have some doubts with A.
it Says : a) The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.

Lets Negate A : The water supply.....got contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
Ie lets assume water was contaminated, but still contamination does not mean death of dinosaurs.
It might be possible that water got contaminated and dinosaurs got ill because of the contaminated water but didn't die.

So, here negation of A still does not break the argument...!!!

please comment...


Hello naval.

"lethal" means death. So your assumption that dinosaurs just got ill but did not die seems to be illogical.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2014, 18:50
pqhai,

Even I don't find the option A) very compelling. The conclusion says -

Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Now, I don't see an obvious link between dinosaur extinction and water contamination. Even if the water is contaminated with lethal fallout from the collision, the dinosaur might still have been able to adapt to that change.

I found the E) to be better. It says that the condition post the collision didn't last long enough for the remaining dinosaurs to be dead and therefore some other force must have been responsible.

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New post 17 Nov 2014, 20:07
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kinghyts wrote:
pqhai,

Even I don't find the option A) very compelling. The conclusion says -

Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Now, I don't see an obvious link between dinosaur extinction and water contamination. Even if the water is contaminated with lethal fallout from the collision, the dinosaur might still have been able to adapt to that change.

I found the E) to be better. It says that the condition post the collision didn't last long enough for the remaining dinosaurs to be dead and therefore some other force must have been responsible.

Thanks


Even i chose 'E' but then i realized the same has been given in the argument

However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun . Hence its not E... B to E we can ignore through POE. So the answer is A.

A - Hold
B - Talking about when the dino died, but conclusion is to prove that dino has survived the first collsion. hence out of scope.
C - The same has been given in the argument. hence eliminate.
D - For assumptions, Wat ever given in the argument shld b true or authors view point is true. Hence here they are talking about the other theory which is completely out of scope related to this arugment.
E - As stated above.

Remains A. hence A is the answer.
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New post 17 Nov 2014, 20:47
Sowragu,

Here is my take on why I feel E) is better:

The argument says - ".... or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun .."

This means that the dinosaurs could have been killed by two circumstances presumably happening during the same time
1. Impact of the collision
2. The change in temperature

But, no where the arguments suggests that effect of collision could have persisted way after the collision, in which case the remaining dinosaurs could have died because of the after-effects of the collision (i.e: change in temperature that lasted for a longer duration) . Therefore, to say "Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs" the author has to believe that the after-effect of the collision didn't last long enough to kill the remaining dinosaurs.
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New post 25 Apr 2015, 14:31
NYCgirl15 wrote:
Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. It is indeed likely that such a collision did occur and that it caused the death of the vast majority of dinosaurs. However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun. Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.

Which of the following, if true, is an assumption made by the author of the above argument?

A. The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.
B. A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
C. At least a few dinosaurs continued to exist for some years after the asteroid collided with Earth.
D. There is another existing theory that does a better job of explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs than the theory involving an asteroid collision with Earth.
E. The change in temperature caused when dust clouds from the asteroid impact blocked the sun could not have lasted for several years.



Conclusion: Some force besides the asteroid collision must have been responsible for the death of the remaining dinosaurs.

Evidence: Some dinosaurs were not killed by the impact or the lack of sunlight caused by the collision.

The author states that "some other force" killed the remaining dinosaurs without ruling out collateral damage caused by the collision (other than the dust clouds blocking the sun). If the collision created a contaminated water supply that killed the dinosaurs, this would weaken the conclusion. Therefore, the author must be assuming that this never happened, (A)
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New post 17 May 2015, 02:10
My answer is:
B. A second asteroid impact or some other cosmic event is likely to have killed off the dinosaurs that survived the asteroid impact and global temperature change.
Conclusion : Some other force must have been responsible for the death
Negating the option B, the conclusion falls apart. Hence B
Official answer please ?
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New post 17 May 2015, 04:46
A. Negating A strengthens the argument . If the water supply had in fact become contaminated . Then it could act as some other force responsible for extinction.

B . If a second asteroid or other cosmic event was not likely to have killed the remaining dinosaurs , it doesn't stop other non -cosmic events from killing them ? Maybe it was an epidemic resulting from deaths ? So , it doesn't affect the argument.

C. Negating C . If there were no dinosaurs left after the direct impact then other forces couldn't have killed them. Conclusion falls.

D. If there is another theory providing a better explanation , then it is probably filling gaps in the given theory. Gaps could explain why the remaining dinosaurs were killed , that is the other forces ... could actually strengthen the argument. But again this is one of the possibility. Another is that , it could explain how the asteroid collision killed all of them. So , other forces not responsible .... definitely not D.

E. If the change in temperature lasted several years , how do we know the impact actually reached the remaining dinosaurs . And if it did , then they would have died from this. Again not clear enough.


IMO it should be C.
Did I miss something ?
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New post 19 May 2015, 08:57
This question is a part of the Additional Practice quizzes on the Kaplan website. I don't quite agree with the answer. Looking up to you folks to reason this out


Conclusion: Some force besides the asteroid collision must have been responsible for the death of the remaining dinosaurs.

Evidence: Some dinosaurs were not killed by the impact or the lack of sunlight caused by the collision.

The author states that "some other force" killed the remaining dinosaurs without ruling out collateral damage caused by the collision (other than the dust clouds blocking the sun). If the collision created a contaminated water supply that killed the dinosaurs, this would weaken the conclusion. Therefore, the author must be assuming that this never happened, (A).

The author doesn't specify what the "other force" that killed the remaining dinosaurs was (B), nor how long it took for the remaining dinosaurs to be killed (C). The author does make it clear that the asteroid-collision theory is incomplete, but does not imply the existence of any other theory (D). There is no reason that the author needs to assume that the temperature change couldn't have lasted for years (E).
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2015, 12:03
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souvik101990 wrote:
Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. It is indeed likely that such a collision did occur and that it caused the death of the vast majority of dinosaurs. However, new evidence suggests that perhaps tens of thousands of dinosaurs lived far enough from the point of collision that they were not directly killed by the impact or by the drastic change in temperature when immense dust clouds created by the impact blocked the sun. Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs.
IMHO (A) as well here goes my reasoning.

Asteroid colliding with Earth = Extinction of the dinosaurs

New evidence, suggests the dinosaurs (living far away from the point of collision ) were not directly killed by impact of the collission , but some other force must have been responsible.


Prethinking tells us there might be 2 possibilities -

1. Finding another cause for the extinction of the dinosaurs other than collission of the asteroid
2. Indirect cause of extinction of the dinosaurs from the collission of the asteroid




A. The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature had not become contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision.

If we assume (A) to be true then the actual cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs is the asteroid collision resulting in change in global temperature and quality of water supply.

Our objective is to show an alternate cause ( other than the direct/ indirect impact of the collision of the asteroid ) , and for it to be true we must have to assume this statement to be true.

If we negate this statement then it becomes -

" The water supply used by the dinosaurs who survived the asteroid collision and subsequent change in global temperature was contaminated by lethal fallout from the collision " however the conclusion will be " Some other force must have been responsible for the death of these remaining dinosaurs. "

In order to have the conclusion true we must have to assume option (A)

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New post 27 Dec 2015, 21:27
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The argument already states very clearly that some Dinosaurs did survive the aftermath of the collision.The author concludes that some other force must have been responsible for their deaths. Hence "A" suggests a ripple effect of the collision did not occur. So only if "A is true the author's conclusion becomes valid. "C" goes against the fact because it is clearly suggested in the argument that some Dinosaurs did survive.
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New post 28 Dec 2015, 06:58
How can A be an assumption? it is doing the job of strengthening.

Moreover, the option A is supporting the new evidence found of survival of dinosaurs after collision.

Only thing seems to be ok is E. but not A
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New post 31 Dec 2015, 01:47
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"E" is an additional fact. It is not an assumption. Moreover, the term "several years" is vague. It does not indicate the exact number of years. On the other hand "Water contamination" is the direct effect. Taking the facts to be true and if there was no immediate water contamination as stated in "A", then the conclusion becomes credible that the remaining dinosaurs did not die as a consequence of the asteroid collision.
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New post 29 Jan 2016, 01:54
"B" suggests that there might have been a second asteroid or some other cosmic event which killed the remaining dinosaurs. The author has clearly mentioned in the argument that the dinosaurs were not killed directly by the impact or the temperature change which occurred after the collision with the first asteroid. So "some other force" indicates something completely different. " B" reiterates on a similar force. Hence that cannot be the assumption made by the author. "A" suggests an effect which is neither caused by the direct impact nor the temperature change. Hence "A" is the necessary assumption out here.
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Re: Some say that an asteroid colliding with Earth was responsible for the   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2016, 01:54

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