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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

The independent clause is "Sound can travel through water for enormous distances" and rest is the modifier.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of -> prevented is past participle modifier (verbed modifier) and should modify the nearest noun -> enormous distances -> doesn't make sense.

B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by -> Same issue as that of A)

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by -> correct as prevented is modifying the "its acoustic energy" - a noun

D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of -> dissipating not as a result of boundaries of ocean but because of boundaries of ocean

E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by -> comma + verbing modifier attaches to the subject of the previous clause which means Sound itself is preventing its acoustic energy which is ridiculous.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2015, 11:40
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souvik101990 wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.


A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
comma+ed modifier modifies the closest noun - thus incorrect

B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
same error as in A.

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
noun+noun modifier used correctly.

D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
being is correctly used in 2 cases:
1. when it is used as a noun
2. when it is used in a passive voice construction
none of these cases is here, hence incorrect.

E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
comma+ing modifier modifies entire clause by associating itself with subject and verb of the clause preceded. thus, in this case it is incorrectly used.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2015, 20:53
This is a really great question. Definitely a 700+ level. +1 Kudos to the submitter.

Overlooking the intended meaning, I initially marked E. I knew i was marking the wrong answer but none other made sense either. Then i came across the concept of 'Absolute Phrase'. The OA of this question is actually one :)

I googled and got this definition:
Absolute Phrase
"An absolute phrase is a modifier (quite often a participle), or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a sentence or a noun, with no conjunction. An absolute phrase cannot contain a finite verb."

Its construction a great way to learn GMAT SC, here's our sentence with its own absolute phrase: (i just created one if you notice ;))
"Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities".


Here's another example from GMAT Prep:
With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water though to be frozen from top to bottom

A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

Here's more about Absolute Phrases if you would like
http://www.testmagic.com/grammar/explan ... uction.asp
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2016, 22:05
mahakmalik wrote:
Please explain why it should be C.?
I thought sound travels long distances because it's energy is prevented from dissipating.So a participle should come to modify whole clause.
That is why i marked E


Option C matches the intended meaning which states "Acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by boundaries" means "The prevention happens because of the boundaries over there"

Option E states "Something is preventing from the dissipation that will happen through the boundaries". This entirely change the meaning of the sentence.

To understand more about modifiers (Verb -ing + -ed modifiers) read e-gmat articles from 3 to 7. this will give u a better understanding.

e-gmat-s-all-sc-topics-consolidated-144985.html#p1162634

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2016, 23:35
C is the correct answer,
Here MEANING is as important as grammar.
A non living thing cannot prevent anything on its own. Sound cannot prevent dissipation of energy. The dissipation of energy of sound can be prevented by something else; in this case the boundaries of water layers.

Other example are :-
Using thermometer, body's temperature can be measured --> Not preferable
Using thermometer, a doctor can measure body's temperature.--> BETTER CHOICE

The new fire extinguishers prevented a huge fire at the cinema hall even before the arrival of fire fighters. --> Not preferable
Using the new fire extinguishers, the cinema hall workers prevented a huge fire even before the arrival of fire fighters --> BETTER CHOICE



Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2016, 11:18
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of - Incorrect
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by - Incorrect - present continuous
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by - Correct.
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of - Incorrect
E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

mikemcgarry - plz share correct explanation.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2016, 15:14
anje29 wrote:
I have a doubt though it is a official guide question and answer C is correct , but I can't understand how the two clauses are just separated by comma not any connecting word .

Experts , please help


The second part after comma is not an independent clause; it is an absolute phrase. Absolute phrases consist of the following structure:
noun (or noun phrase) + noun (noun phrase) modifier

Absolute phrase modifiers modify the adjacent clause as a whole.

Here,
noun phrase= its acoustic energy
noun phrase modifier = prevented from dissipating (prevented is a past participle, not a verb)

The absolute phrase modifier its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating... modifies the clause Sound can travel through water for enormous distances.

Thus the use of comma is alright. Another example of absolute clause is as follows:

His held head high, he left the room.

The underlined part here is the absolute phrase.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2016, 15:49
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by


prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries
its doesnt have clear antecedant.
Meaning is not clear: its acoustic energy as a result of boundries in the ocean. Meaning less.

A. Wrong cause of above reason
B. Same reason.
C. Right ans.
D. Being dissipated, changes the meaning , which say , its accoustic energy can or cannot be dissipated, not a fact, but original sentence conveys fact.
E. Wrong meaning: Sound is preventing its acoustic energy.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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crazykaushik wrote:
Though everybody has agreed at "C" as OA, I still have a doubt regarding this. Doesn't it create a run on sentence construction? There is a clause before comma and then without any coordinating conjunction or there stands another clause starting with its. Experts please explain.

Hi crazykaushik, a run-on sentence construction is when two Independent clauses are connected by a comma.

In option C, the following portion of the sentence is not an Independent clause:

its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

In fact, it is not even a clause. This kind of a construct is called absolute modifier and has the following structure:

i) Noun (its acoustic energy) +
ii) Noun-modifier (prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities)

This is very frequently tested on GMAT and so, it might be a good idea to make yourself comfortable with this structure.

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute modifiers, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy
as a result of
boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

a) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
b) prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
c) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
d) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
e) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

Last edited by broall on 24 Jun 2017, 03:51, edited 1 time in total.
Merged topic. Please search before posting question.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 21:07
AndreaPaola wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy
as a result of
boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

a) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
b) prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
c) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
d) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
e) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by



Lets take a calculated guess.

First, the modifier after comma (here, prevented) is modifying "sound". But does that make sense? Sound is not being prevented, rather its energy is being prevented. So, a b and e are wrong. Lets move to next step. Between C and D, D is wrong because of its wrong use of "as a result of".

C is the answer.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 06:21
AndreaPaola wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy
as a result of
boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

a) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
b) prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
c) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
d) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
e) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by


gmat test meaning and logic which we can see by using our common sense of this world. it sounds like some words in a novel. no, I am seriuos.

the illogic relation between phrases is so simple that we can use only our common sense of this world to find it our. If we have this kind of thinking and gmat sc is not hard.

for example

scientists' ability is exact.

this is illogic simply because ability can not be exact. grammar books never explain this point because this logic thinking is considered natural in out common sense.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 06:25
thangvietnam wrote:
AndreaPaola wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy
as a result of
boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

a) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
b) prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
c) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
d) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
e) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by


gmat test meaning and logic which we can see by using our common sense of this world. it sounds like some words in a novel. no, I am seriuos.

the illogic relation between phrases is so simple that we can use only our common sense of this world to find it our. If we have this kind of thinking and gmat sc is not hard.

for example

scientists' ability is exact.

this is illogic simply because ability can not be exact. grammar books never explain this point because this logic thinking is considered natural in out common sense.


sorry, i continue to write.

in D, "being dissipated as a result of boundaries"

"as a result of" show an thing which dose not directly cause the action of dissipation.
"as a result of " should be follow by and action noun, not a concrete noun.

as a result of your thinking
may be logic.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2016, 06:39
Sunil01 wrote:
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by



hi experts,
I am not getting the usage of comma here.
I know comma is not in the underlined part, but I want to understand the usage of comma.
what is the impact on the sentence if we remove comma.

Thanks & regards,
Sunil01


We need a comma before a non-essential modifier - a modifier that states something extra about the noun or the sentence it modifies and can be omitted without changing the meaning of the rest of the sentence. Here "its acoustic energy...." is a non- essential absolute phrase modifier, and hence a comma is mandatory. Absolute phrase modifiers are always non-essential type.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2016, 13:27
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by


prevented - is a v-ed modifier, it modifies the closest noun in touches (which is distances). this is clearly not the intended meaning. hence, a & b are out.

E- the v-ing modifier can either provide a discription on the "how aspect" or "result" regarding the preceding clause and it's verb. in this case it does not makes sense to say that:
- "Sound can travel by water by preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating"
- "as a result that sound travel by water, it acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating.."

hence E is out.

D - the use of "being is incorrect here. "Being" is used to describe a "present continuous situation" or to describe a situation (e.g. "being health all the time is good for your family). hence D is out.

C. we have a "noun" (acoustic energy) + "noun modifier" (prevented -> "V-ed" modifier which modifies the preceding noun) which can modify any entity in the preceding clause/phrase or the entire clause/phrase itself. in this case it modifies the noun "sound".

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2017, 20:08
Experts-

I get the ", ing" or "ed" modifier being incorrect. What threw me off in this question is that C & D seemed like a run on. The first part of the sentence is a complete sentence, "Sound can travel through water for enormous distance. In the second part , " Its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities," the highlighted portion is modifying acoustic energy. I don't see an actual verb.

Can someone show me where I am going wrong? In short, why is there a comma separating the two parts of the sentence.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 12:07
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

The correct answer is D. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by

I am confused with the sentence construction of this question. It looks like there are two complete sentences without a proper conjunction of "and" or ";".
First sentence: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances.
Second sentence: its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Can anyone explain it to me?

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 17:33
stanleygao wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

The correct answer is D. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by

I am confused with the sentence construction of this question. It looks like there are two complete sentences without a proper conjunction of "and" or ";".
First sentence: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances.
Second sentence: its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Can anyone explain it to me?



Hi,

The second part is a phrase and not a complete sentence..
It's acoustic energy prevented...... -- there is no verb in it..
Prevented or created are working as modifiers..

So it is correct as it is and works as a modifier..
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 23:23
stanleygao wrote:
Second sentence: its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Hi stanleygao, this structure is called absolute modifier and is just a phrase (not a clause/sentence). The structure of an absolute modifier typically is:

Noun (its acoustic energy) + Noun modifier (prevented from dissipating....).

Absolute modifiers are quite frequently tested on GMAT and so, test takers need to make themselves comfortable with this usage.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute Modifier, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Sentence Correction Nirvana available at Amazon.in and Flipkart

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