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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2017, 08:02
EducationAisle wrote:
stanleygao wrote:
Second sentence: its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Hi stanleygao, this structure is called absolute modifier and is just a phrase (not a clause/sentence). The structure of an absolute modifier typically is:

Noun (its acoustic energy) + Noun modifier (prevented from dissipating....).

Absolute modifiers are quite frequently tested on GMAT and so, test takers need to make themselves comfortable with this usage.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute Modifier, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.

Hi
Pls send SC absolute modifier material to only2venkat@gmail.com
Thank you

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2017, 01:45
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by



I choose C as the right answer. Here I am talking about my opinion about E.
The intended meaning is that " sound can travel through water for enormous distances" is the consequence of " its acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created ....". In E, it makes a mistake that " sound can travel ....." causes " its acoustic engery ....". This is not sense. Besides, it refers to it is SOUND that prevents its acoustic energy, which is not the intended meaning.

I have found a similar question

DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
A. its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
B. preventing its engine’s thrust from dissipating in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine’s thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design
D. prevented its engine’s thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
E. its engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design

ANSWER IS A
answer B is ircorrect as listed following illogical meanings:
1. The vehicle itself prevents its thrust from dissipating – Illogical.
2. The vehicle goes this fast and this results in preventing its thrust from dissipating. RESERVED causal relationship

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 13:38
Dear experts,

I usually hate when I find answers like "wordy" and "awkward". For non native speakers wordy and awkward do not mean anything. So I am trying to understand the ambiguity in letter D which is another reason behind its elimination according to OG and e-GMAT. I would like to ask the experts to take a look if my understanding is correct.

D) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
Grammar: There is nothing wrong with the use of "being". Since the energy is dissipated by something, the passive voice is "being dissipated". It also works perfectly with the idiom prevent from + verb-ing. Am I right?
Meaning: Does the lack of punctuation lead to a confusion because of the use of "as result of"? Is the ambiguity in "dissipation happens because of the boundaries" and "the prevention of the dissipation happens because of the boundaries"? The intended meaning is the second. Is this the confusion ? If this is what is awkward, it is EXTREMELY subtle.
If not, is the ambiguity caused by the fact that in D the passive voice ends up inserting a different action to the sentence ? since there are two actions together "prevented" and "being dissipated", it is unclear to which the following sentence refers.

Another question to the experts is if a comma would solve the confusion. What if the option were
D')its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated, as a result of
would "as a result of" clearly refer to the preceding action "prevented" if the comma were there? is it correct or incorrect to have a comma there?

In C, I can see a stronger relationship between by and the action "prevent". Since dissipating does not work as a verb, but as a verb-ing modifier for acoustic energy. The fact that the passive voice is not used, as in D, makes this clearer.
C) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by

Could you experts take a look and confirm or reject my understanding for the question ?

Best regards,

Henrique

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 17:57
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 20:07
Why merged? What do you mean? The post is about the topic and the question which refers.

Posted from my mobile device

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 22:43
In Manhattan's SC correction guide, under chapter 10 (page 197) of 5th edition:

"A comma by itself cannot connect two complete sentences (main clauses)"
eg. WRONG: Earl walked to school, he later ate his lunch.


Isn't C doing a similar thing here? connecting two complete sentences?

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 23:28
jasmitkalra wrote:
In Manhattan's SC correction guide, under chapter 10 (page 197) of 5th edition:

"A comma by itself cannot connect two complete sentences (main clauses)"
eg. WRONG: Earl walked to school, he later ate his lunch.


Isn't C doing a similar thing here? connecting two complete sentences?
The second element is not a clause. It's an absolute phrase. One way to see that is to check whether prevented is a (complete) verb. If we try saying its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries, we can see that prevented does not seem to be "combining" with acoustic energy.

Compare these two structures:

Its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries.

Its acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by boundaries.

Clearly, the second is complete, but the first is not.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 03:44
jasmitkalra wrote:
In Manhattan's SC correction guide, under chapter 10 (page 197) of 5th edition:

"A comma by itself cannot connect two complete sentences (main clauses)"
eg. WRONG: Earl walked to school, he later ate his lunch.


Isn't C doing a similar thing here? connecting two complete sentences?


Just to add to the Jamboree expert's post above:

An absolute phrase is a modifier referring to an entire clause (not a single noun). The structure of an absolute phrase is as follows:
Noun + noun modifier

Here,
Noun (phrase) = its acoustic energy
Noun modifier = prevented from dissipating by.... (past participle modifier)

This noun + noun phrase structure (the absolute modifier) modifies the preceding clause "Sound can travel through water for enormous distances".

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2017, 04:17
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
--> prevented wrongly modifies distances. as a result of is wordy and awkward.

B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
--> prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated wrongly modifies distances.

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
--> correct. its acoustic energy prevented.. is a noun modifier that provides more information about how Sound can travel through water for enormous distances.

D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
--> as a result of is wordy and awkward.

E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
--> preventing wrongly modifies the subject Sound.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2017, 11:24
Can someone please explain the structure of the sentence"Sound can do X, its _____". Is the second part a modifier?

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2017, 19:55
arijitdas31 wrote:
Can someone please explain the structure of the sentence"Sound can do X, its _____". Is the second part a modifier?
Yes, that's right. Take a look at this post. For what it's worth, this type of modifier doesn't seem to be very common, but test takers should be aware of it.
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New post 09 Aug 2017, 21:03
Solution 1 :-
Meaning Analysis =
X as a result of Y -- This means that Y has caused X. Now you can clearly see that this is nonsensical in meaning in Option A and Option D.

Option B also has a meaning issue. As if distances prevented in dissipating its acoustic energy.

Option E =
preventing, which is a verb+ing modifier. I don't think that I do need to emphasize what VERB+ING do and how do they function.
Thus option E has a meaning issue as if sound itself prevented dissipating its own energy.

Option C has no meaning or modifier error it correctly connects the idea of cause and effect that its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Solution 2 :-

Generally, COMMA + VERBed refers to the immediately preceding noun.
Thus, in A and B, prevented seems to modify distances.
Since it is not the distances but the ACOUSTIC ENERGY that is prevented from dissipating, eliminate A and B.
Generally, COMMA + VERBing refers to the SUBJECT of the preceding clause.
Thus, in E, preventing seems to modify SOUND, implying that the sound is preventing its own energy from dissipating.
Not the intended meaning.
Eliminate E.
In D, as a result of boundaries implies that the boundaries themselves are RESULTING in something.
Not possible; only an ACTION or an EVENT can result in something.
Eliminate D.
The correct answer is C.
OA: its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean
Here, dissipating is a GERUND: a verb serving as a NOUN.
More specifically, dissipating serves as the object of the preposition from.
From what action is the energy prevented?
The energy is prevented from DISSIPATING.
By boundaries serves to express that BOUNDARIES IN THE OCEAN prevent the energy from dissipating.
What prevents the energy from dissipating?
The energy is prevented from dissipating BY BOUNDARIES IN THE OCEAN.
The entire phrase its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean is an absolute phrase.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 02:16
C is correct - Here, acoustic energy is effectively modified by the participial prevented from dissipating. . .

This sentence opens with a statement that sound can travel long distances through water and then explains why that is so: water layers in the ocean prevent acoustic energy from dissipating. Because dissipating is an intransitive verb, acoustic energy cannot be its object.
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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2017, 00:26
What I do not understand is why the first clause is connected to the second without a conjuction (but just with a comma). Could you explain it to me. Thanks.

Last edited by gabrieletedeschi on 13 Sep 2017, 10:49, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 02:46
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Dissipate can be both transitive and intransitive.
<http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dissipate>
Perhaps, in this case, it is intransitive.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 03:11
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When we say 'prevented by', it means that it was prevented by. Note that the auxiliary verb 'was" has been removed now. When you remove that verb' was', then the so-called second clause is no more a clause but simply a modifier.
Modifiers that intercept sentences are always spliced by a comma. Hence the use of the comma here.
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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 07:34
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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

1) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
2)prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
3) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
4) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
5) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

The whole issue here is about the modification of the comma plus verb+ed modifier' 'prevented'. It is an error to think that the participle 'comma plus prevented' can modify the distant 'sound'. A past participle modifier separated by a comma and intercepting a clause can only modify the nearest noun namely distances, which is devoid of any meaning in the contest.

Therefore, we can safely dump A and B.

Nor is it any more sensible to say that sound prevented its own acoustic energy from dissipation in order to be able to travel long distances as in E.

Between C and D, it doesn't take too long to kick out D for using the phrase 'being dissipated' as a modifier. Therefore, it is a cake-walk for C.
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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from   [#permalink] 14 Sep 2017, 07:34

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