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Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,

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Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 702

Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

(A) began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
(B) began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
(C) began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
(D) began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
(E) would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation

Old Ice Cap

(A) CORRECT

(B) Verb / Meaning (to uncover)

(C) Meaning (by melting)

(D) Verb (are); Meaning (after melting)

(E) Meaning (through melting)


First glance

The opening words in each choice indicate that something is going on with verb tense and meaning: began or would begin? And then what form should the sentence use for the word melt?

Issues

1) Verb / Meaning: to uncover

Meaning: by melting; after melting; through melting

Verb: are

The opening split between began and would begin turns out to be a red herring; both versions can be used in this context. The melting part, however, is faulty in some choices. Choices (A) and (B) both have melt(ing) as part of the main verb, while choices (C), (D), and (E) move the word into a prepositional phrase placed after the main verb. What difference does this make?

Answer (D) has the biggest problem: the ice cap didn’t begin to uncover new areas only after it melted; rather, the act of the ice melting uncovered these areas. The meaning is illogical. For similar reasons, answers (C) and (E) are less preferable. The point of the sentence is that the ice caps began to melt (or began melting) and therefore the new lands were uncovered. Answers (C) and (E) seem to imply that the point is that the ice cap began to uncover new areas…with the melting as an afterthought. Eliminate choices (C) and (E) for ambiguous meaning and (D) for outright illogical meaning.

Answer (B)’s began melting construction is fine, but the usage of to uncover is problematic. When an infinitive verb is used right after a conjugated (or tensed) verb, the implication is that intent is involved. You began studying (in order) to get a good GMAT score. The ice cap, though, did not begin melting (in order) to uncover vast new areas. The ice cap does not have any intent; rather, that second event just happened as a result of the first. Eliminate choice (B) for faulty meaning.

Finally, while examining answer (D), you might have thought that the are verb sounded funny. While it is possible that the migrating peoples have not yet moved northward and will be doing so soon, the melting ice caps took place so far in the past (and humans have covered so much of the earth today!) that it is extremely unlikely that these areas are to be occupied sometime in the future. This probably already occurred in the past.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (A) uses a comma –ing modifier to convey what happened as a result of the ice caps beginning to melt.

Note: Some people might be tempted to eliminate choice (A) due to the were to be occupied language. This verb tense can be used to indicate something that took place at a later point in the past than some other event. In this case, the sentence talks about the time when the ice cap began to melt; from the point of view of that timeframe, the new areas were (later in the past) to be occupied by the migrating peoples.

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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 07:23
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warriorguy wrote:
Hello Team,
I have a query related to option A. I selected the correct answer based on PoE. In option A, we have ???ing verb used correctly to depict the result of some action i.e. the result of melting of ice cap. My query is for the verb tense. Why is ???were to???
considered correct in this sentence? Shouldn???t we be using, ideally, would in this scenario to depict something that happened in the future from past perspective?


I think I agree with everything you've said here, warriorguy! Process of elimination should lead you to the right answer, even if you think "were to be" sounds ridiculous, or isn't an ideal form of the verb. You're always looking for four wrong answers -- and you've found them, so (A) must be correct. And that's the right way to approach everything on SC.

I also agree that "would be occupied" or "would later be occupied" or even "were later occupied" would be decent alternatives to "were to be occupied." But there's nothing wrong with "were to be": it's just another way to express the future from the vantage point of the past. Technically, I think it's a form of the past subjunctive that's almost never used in modern American English, so it sounds a little bit archaic to us. I'd never use it in real life, but it's not wrong.

In my opinion, (A) "sounds bad" in its current form, but sound NEVER matters. It's still the right answer, even if it sounds like hot garbage. ;)

I hope this helps!
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 01:25
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Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
Correct
B. began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
- - Changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting
C. began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
- Changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting
D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
- "UNCOVERING" changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting.
E. would begin to uncover, through melting, vast areas for occupation
- Use of "WOULD" is incorrect since it means that Melting would begin in sometime. Moreover, "WOULD BEGIN TO UNCOVER" changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting.

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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 04:29
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Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.
A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied –Correct
B. began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied – to uncover is illogical as it was not an intent
C. began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation to uncover is illogical as it was not an intent
D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied – changes the meaning – the causal relationship between melting of ice caps and uncovering is lost ; Also which is incorrect as we need a comma before it
E. would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation – changes the meaning the causal relationship between melting of ice caps and uncovering is lost

Answer A
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 05:16
Hello Team,
I have a query related to option A. I selected the correct answer based on PoE. In option A, we have ???ing verb used correctly to depict the result of some action i.e. the result of melting of ice cap. My query is for the verb tense. Why is ???were to???
considered correct in this sentence? Shouldn???t we be using, ideally, would in this scenario to depict something that happened in the future from past perspective?
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 09:16
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elegantm wrote:
Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
Correct
B. began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
- - Changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting
C. began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
- Changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting
D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
- "UNCOVERING" changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting.
E. would begin to uncover, through melting, vast areas for occupation
- Use of "WOULD" is incorrect since it means that Melting would begin in sometime. Moreover, "WOULD BEGIN TO UNCOVER" changes the original intent of the sentence, conveying ICE CAPS began uncovering vast areas DIRECTLY. Original intent is "Vast areas were uncovered as a result of Melting.



Hello elegantm,


You have done a very good analysis of this official question. You actually applied the meaning approach to solve this one, that's really commendable. Keep up the good job. :)

I would just like to add that Choice B is worded such that it seems to suggest that the ice caps started melting with the intent to uncover vast areas. This is most certainly not the intended meaning as you have correctly pointed out in your analysis.

What you have mentioned about Choice B is certainly suitable for Choice C.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 20:35
GMATNinja wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Hello Team,
I have a query related to option A. I selected the correct answer based on PoE. In option A, we have ???ing verb used correctly to depict the result of some action i.e. the result of melting of ice cap. My query is for the verb tense. Why is ???were to???
considered correct in this sentence? Shouldn???t we be using, ideally, would in this scenario to depict something that happened in the future from past perspective?


I think I agree with everything you've said here, warriorguy! Process of elimination should lead you to the right answer, even if you think "were to be" sounds ridiculous, or isn't an ideal form of the verb. You're always looking for four wrong answers -- and you've found them, so (A) must be correct. And that's the right way to approach everything on SC.

I also agree that "would be occupied" or "would later be occupied" or even "were later occupied" would be decent alternatives to "were to be occupied." But there's nothing wrong with "were to be": it's just another way to express the future from the vantage point of the past. Technically, I think it's a form of the past subjunctive that's almost never used in modern American English, so it sounds a little bit archaic to us. I'd never use it in real life, but it's not wrong.

In my opinion, (A) "sounds bad" in its current form, but sound NEVER matters. It's still the right answer, even if it sounds like hot garbage. ;)

I hope this helps!



Thanks for the clarification GMATNinja.

So takeaway from this question for me is that : both would and were are eligible to depict a future event from past PoV.
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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The melting was just incidental and not intentional. Therefore, the infinitive 'to uncover' is out of sync. Drop B, C, and E. Between A and D, " the phrase, 'which are to be occupied' in D makes no sense as if these areas are waiting for some 16000 years for someone to occupy. A is the best available among all
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 01:17
Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A.began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
B.began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
C.began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
D.began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
E.would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation

Tagging GMATNinja

In D What uncovering is modifying? -ing modifier should nearest action (after melting).
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 06:15
NandishSS wrote:
Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A.began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
B.began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
C.began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
D.began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
E.would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation

Tagging GMATNinja

In D What uncovering is modifying? -ing modifier should nearest action (after melting).




Hello NandishSS,


I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)


In Choice D, the word uncovering is not a modifier. It is a verb-ing noun word (gerund).

The sentence with Choice D actually says the ice cap began uncovering vast new areas after melting.

Basically, the modifier after melting has been placed between the two commas. So, the comma before uncovering does not belong to this word.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2018, 19:00
AbdurRakib wrote:
Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
B. began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
C. began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
E. would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation

The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 702


Answer is A but there is typo in sentence highlighted in Pink
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2018, 11:18
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Hello Everyone!

Let’s tackle this question, one problem at a time, so we can come up with the right answer quickly! To get started, here is the original question with major differences highlighted in orange:

Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
B. began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
C. began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
E. would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation

After taking a quick glance over the options, some major differences between each option jumps out:

1. uncovering vs. to uncover
2. to be occupied vs. for occupation

Let’s start with #1 on our list: the use of “uncovering” or “to uncover.”

By saying “to uncover,” this means that the ice caps chose to melt. Since inanimate objects, such as ice caps, can’t make their own choices, it’s not a good idea to say that they melted with the purpose of doing something – they don’t have minds of their own!

This means we can eliminate options B, C, and E because they suggest that the ice caps chose to melt for a specific reason, which doesn’t make logical sense.

Now we’re left with only options A & D to choose from, so let’s see if we can find any more problems with either option:

A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied

This option is CORRECT! It is concise, has a clear meaning, and uses the correct past tense “were” to show all of the events happened in the past.

D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied

This option is INCORRECT because it uses the future tense “are to be occupied,” which isn’t true because all of these events happened between 14,000 – 8,000 b.c., which is far, far away in the past!

There you have it – option A is the correct answer!



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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia,  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2018, 02:43
[quote="AbdurRakib"]Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, Europe, and America began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied by migrating peoples moving northward.

A. began to melt, uncovering vast new areas that were to be occupied
B. began melting, to uncover vast new areas to be occupied
C. began, by melting, to uncover vast new areas for occupation
D. began, after melting, uncovering vast new areas which are to be occupied
E. would begin to uncover, through melting, vast new areas for occupation

on GMAT SC, meaning relation between two verbs is tested frequently. this question is one example for that.

the intended meaning here is that the melting and uncovering are not separate and , of course, happen at the same time .this meaning relation is shown by comma+doing as in choice A.
choice B
"to uncover" dose not show that melting and uncovering happen at the same time. even "to uncover" show a future action . we do not even know wheather this future action happen. B is gone
choice C.
with the same thinking, "by melting" dose not shows that melting and uncovering happen at the same time. I go to us for mba by learning gmat. in this sentence, learning happen before going. in our question, in choice C, melting can happen before uncovering and this relation is ambiguous.
choice D
with the same thinging , melting happen before uncovering. this is clearly wrong.
choice E
we are not clear melting and uncovering happen at the same time clearly wrong.

this is hard. it take me a long time. though i choose A, i do not know why. spending a long time I see that if we focus on meaning relation between melting and uncovering, the problem becom easy. only in choice A, meaning relation between melting and uncovering is correct. in other choices, this relation is incorrect.

the takeaway is, when we see many forms of verb, focus on the meaning relation between two verbs. the relation between two verb can be look in 3 aspects : time, meaning relation and separate or not

1- two verbs are separate or not and two verbs/actions can be simultaneous or in sequence.
I learn gmat while I watch tivi. two verbs are simultaneous.
I learn gmat after I wath tivi. two verb are in sequence

two verbs are not separate
ice melt, uncovering a large area.

2. two verbs have modification relation or paralel.
watched, I am angry
I learn gmat and learn mba. (no meaning relation, two verb are paralel)

so, the two verbs can be
-separate or not
- have modification or paralel
-simultaneous or in sequence.

gmat will test this hard point because it is basic and importnant for cus to convey our ideas in this world.
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Re: Between 14,000 and 8,000 b.c. the ice cap that covered northern Asia, &nbs [#permalink] 27 Jul 2018, 02:43
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