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# Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener

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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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macjas wrote:
Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

(A) one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
(C) they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
(D) they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

JusTLucK04 wrote:
Thank You

Dear JusTLucK04,
I am happy to respond to your p.m.

I realize this is an official question, but I would call this problem one of GMAC's clunkers. It has a clear answer, but it falls short of the standards that the GMAT normally has on SC. In particular, the "with" + [noun] + [participial phrase] structure, as a substitute for a clause, is often something GMAC has considered wrong in other, better written questions, but here it is simply unavoidable. To umeshpatil, I would say: in the active voice, neither "with" nor "by" is ideal; for a new action, ideally we should have a whole new clause.

First of all, the first part is more elegant in (B):
(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced = concise and elegant
(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced = awkward
The former focuses exclusively on one subject, "one arm;" it has rhetorical focus. The latter jumps back and forth between two subjects --- the "starfish" and the "one arm." If (E) were entirely active, "if they lose one arm, they replace it," then there would be a consistent subject and consistent active voice. As it stands, (E) juxtaposes two subjects and also juxtaposes active vs. passive voice, all in a tiny clause. It's very awkward.

One crucial split in this sentence is the placement of the word "sometimes" --- exactly what should this word modify? We are already talking about the event in which the starfish loses an arm. Obviously, if the arm is replace, the animal is always the one who replaces it. The "sometimes" refers to the events in which multiple arms replace a single arm --- that sometimes happens. The placement in (E),
(E) ... sometimes with the animal overcompensating ...
suggests that sometimes the animal's action replaces the arm, and sometimes is something other than the animal replacing the arm. That's nonsensical. By contrast, (B) has:
(B) ... with the animal sometimes overcompensating and ...
Yes. It's the overcompensating that happens only sometimes, but it is always the action of the animal.

Finally, for the split at the end: this is one respect in which (B) is not ideal. I think it is awkward to put those two participles in parallel, "overcompensating and growing ..." Really, those are not two separate actions. Instead, the latter is an explanation of the former: what do we mean that starfish "overcompensates"? We mean that the starfish sometimes grows extra arms. It is an explanation of the same action, not a new action. Therefore, I think putting the two participles in parallel is less than ideal. It would be much better to give them the relationship that (E) has: "overcompensating, [that is to say] growing ..."

So (B) is the best answer, but it is not ideal. In fact, the entire question is not ideal, and it's no surprise that the GMAT got rid of it in its current material.

Let me know if anyone has any further questions.
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down the options to find the right answer quickly! To get started, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

(A) one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
(C) they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
(D) they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

There is a lot you could focus on with this sentence, but let's start with 2 major differences and narrow things down from there:

1. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement (it vs. they)
2. Intended Meaning (sometimes by the animal vs. sometimes overcompensating)

Let's start with #1 on our list: pronoun-antecedent agreement. If we look closely, we can see that the subject of the sentence is Starfish, which is a plural subject that requires a plural pronoun. Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate those that don't:

(A) one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and --> WRONG
(The singular pronoun "it" is referring back to the plural "starfish," which doesn't match up!)

(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and --> OK
(The pronoun "it" here is referring back to the lost arm, which is fine. This sentence doesn't have a pronoun that refers back to "starfish," so let's keep it for later.)

(C) they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating, --> OK
(The pronoun "they" is clearly referring back to the plural "starfish," which matches. The later pronoun "it" is clearly referring back to the lost arm, so let's keep this for later.)

(D) they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating, --> WRONG
(While the first plural "they" refers back to the plural "starfish," there's a problem with the second "they." In this case, it should be a singular pronoun to match up with the singular lost arm it's referring back to. If we read this sentence as it is, it actually says that if starfish lose an arm, the entire starfish is replaced! That's not the meaning we're trying to convey, so let's rule this one out.)

(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating, --> OK
(The plural "they" is clearly referring back to the plural "starfish." The singular "it" is clearly referring back to the singular arm. So let's keep this for later!)

We can eliminate options A & D due to pronoun-antecedent agreement problems!

Now, let's move on to #2 on our list: where to put the word "sometimes." Let's take a closer look at each option to determine if the word "sometimes" is placed in the proper place to convey the right meaning:

(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and

This is CORRECT! The word "sometimes" is being used as an adverb here to modify the verb "overcompensating." This means that the starfish only overcompensate sometimes, and other times they don't. Since that's the meaning we're looking to convey, this is the correct choice!

(C) they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,

This is INCORRECT because the word "sometimes" is tied to the phrase "by the animal," rather than the verb "overcompensating." This creates a bit of a nonsense phrase - is it trying to say that sometimes the starfish replaces its own arm, and sometimes another animal does it? Or is it saying that sometimes the animal replaces a lost arm by overcompensating, and sometimes it replaces the arm using some other method? Confusing, right? So let's rule this one out because it's incredibly confusing.

(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

Again, this is INCORRECT because tying to word "sometimes" to the phrase "with the animal" muddles the meaning. In this sentence, it's saying that the lost arm is sometimes replaced WITH the animal overcompensating, and sometimes it's replaced WITHOUT the animal overcompensating. Another confusing scenario, right? Let's rule this one out too!

There you have it - option B is the correct choice because it conveys a clear meaning, and it uses pronouns correctly!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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umeshpatil wrote:
I am confused between use of 'with' and 'by'.

Is it that in Active voice, we should use 'with' and in passive voice 'by'. Can we have a good example apart from this question ?

Dear Umesh,

In this question, the choice between “with” and “by” isn’t dependent on a particular voice. The meaning of the sentence determines the same. Let’s have a look at the use of “by” and “with” in the context of this sentence.

In this question, the author intends to share the ability of starfish to regenerate their body parts. The author tells us how these starfish promptly replace a particular part of their body, sometimes going overboard in the process. The highlighted portion is the information given to us in the “with” phrase in the correct choice B. So let’s analyze this choice:

Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

Now, how do you think the highlighted portion after “with” adds to the meaning of the rest of the sentence before it? The simple answer is that it gives us extra information about the action “it is quickly replaced”, right?

Let’s look at another sentence in which the “with” phrase plays a similar role:

We humans have a strong psychological defense mechanism and if faced with bereavement, we quickly go in to a denial mode, with some of us sometimes instead getting fixated on the mundane details of life.

Now in both the sentences, do you think “by” can convey the same meaning as the one conveyed by “with”?

The answer is no. Using “by” in either of the two sentences would mean that we intend to elaborate on the “how” aspect of the preceding clause. This shift in meaning is not correct.

In the example sentence, we are not trying to communicate the process through which some people go in to a denial mode. We are just trying to refer to a particular extreme circumstance in which the denial mode can be observed. Similarly, in the official question, the author intends to convey that in the process of replacing the arms, the creature sometimes ends up overcompensating and growing an extra arm or two. It is not by or through overcompensating that the animal replaces it. Now, one may argue that the original sentence has “by” in it; however, does “by” convey any logical meaning in the sentence. Let’s check the same:

Starfish have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

Now does it make sense to say that the animal replaces the arm sometimes by/through overcompensating for the same? No it doesn’t! As stated earlier, the overcompensation happens in the process of replacement.

Hope the above discussion helps!

Regards,

Neeti.
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
macjas wrote:
Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

(A) one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
(C) they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
(D) they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended core meaning of this sentence is that if a starfish loses an arm, the arm is quickly replaced by the starfish, and the starfish sometimes overcompensates and grows an extra one or two.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Pronouns + Grammatical Construction

• If a list contains only two elements, they must be joined by a conjunction.

A: This answer choice incorrectly uses the singular pronoun “it” to refer to the plural noun “Starfish”. Further, Option A alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase “sometimes by the animal overcompensating”; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that if a starfish loses an arm, the arm is quickly replaced by the starfish, and sometimes the starfish does so by overcompensating and growing an extra one or two; the intended meaning is that if a starfish loses an arm, the arm is quickly replaced by the starfish, and on occasion, the starfish also overcompensates and grows an extra one or two arms.

B: Correct. This answer correctly uses the singular pronoun “it” to refer to the singular noun “arm”. Further, Option B uses the phrase “with the animal sometimes overcompensating”, conveying the intended meaning – that if a starfish loses an arm, the arm is quickly replaced by the starfish, and on occasion, the starfish also overcompensates and grows an extra one or two arms. Additionally, Option B correctly uses conjunction (“and” in this case) to join the elements in a list with only two elements - the actions "overcompensating" and "growing.

C: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase “sometimes by the animal overcompensating”; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that if a starfish loses an arm, the arm is quickly replaced by the starfish, and sometimes the starfish does so by overcompensating and growing an extra one or two; the intended meaning is that if a starfish loses an arm, the arm is quickly replaced by the starfish, and on occasion, the starfish also overcompensates and grows an extra one or two arms. Further, Option C incorrectly uses a comma to join the elements in a list with only two elements - the actions "overcompensating" and "growing"; please remember, if a list contains only two elements, they must be joined by a conjunction.

D: This answer choice incorrectly uses the plural pronoun “they” to refer to the singular noun “arm”. Further, Option D incorrectly uses a comma to join the elements in a list with only two elements - the actions "overcompensating" and "growing"; please remember, if a list contains only two elements, they must be joined by a conjunction.

E: This answer choice incorrectly uses a comma to join the elements in a list with only two elements - the actions "overcompensating" and "growing"; please remember, if a list contains only two elements, they must be joined by a conjunction.

Hence, B is the best answer choice.

All the best!
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The plural verb- “have” indicates that the sentence takes starfish as a plural noun. ( Starfish can be used as singular or plural noun).

(A) one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and

it refers to “starfish” but “Starfish” is plural in the sentence. Eliminate

(B) one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and

“it” refers to the arm. SVA is maintained. Correct.

(C) they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,

sometimes modifies overcompensating and growing. It should be placed next to overcompensating and growing.
The conjunction “and” is missing in option C to connect overcompensating and growing. Eliminate

(D) they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
they are quickly replaced- “they” cannot be used to refer to “arm”. It cannot refer to starfish as starfish are not replaced. Eliminate

(E) they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,
The conjunction “and” should be used to connect overcompensating and growing. A comma wouldn’t suffice.
sometimes modifies overcompensating and growing. It should be placed next to overcompensating and growing. Eliminate

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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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daagh wrote:
The tagging may include SV number agreement, and conjunction, which are also important things tested here. Starfish is treated as plural here as can be seen from the plural verb have in the non-underlined part

A one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and--- [color=#0000FF]it seems as if the plural starfish is pronouned by the first, singular it; in addition in an active voice sentence, the use of by is improper
[/color]
B one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and ------- seems ok with the SV problem avoided altogether. Here the it should logically refer to the arm. correct choice

C they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating, -----use of by is improper in an active voice setting. It should be with the animal rather than by the animal; overcompensating, growing is importer co-ordination. There should be an and in between

D they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,’---use of they means that the starfish themselves are replaced; over compensating should be followed by and

E they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating, --- in a passive voice we need to use by rather than with ; in addition overcompensating should be followed by and

daagh,
pls calrify the following doubts for the point C:-
"use of by is improper in an active voice" what's wrong with - sometimes by the starfish overcompensating?? and following the same analogy - The soldiers follow the orders of their seniors, sometimes by the soldier ferociously, crossing the expectations of the seniors.

"overcompensating should be followed by and" as per Ron (Thursday with Ron), and should only be used when two events are mutually independent and are not depended on the occurrence of each another or when the events happened in the same chronology. In the said case, don't you think that the clause "sometimes by the animal overcompensating" is acting as a modifier modifying the the act of starfish growing an extra arm or two?

your insight on the above will be highly appreciated.
Any other experts are also welcome to enumerate on the same
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The soldiers follow the orders of their seniors, sometimes by the soldier ferociously, crossing the expectations of the seniors.—this sentence may not pass the test of modification; but what will be acceptable is --- The soldiers follow the orders of their seniors, sometimes ferociously crossing the expectations of the seniors. You can see the impact of the unnecessary intrusion of the preposition by. Similarly in our text, overcompensating, and growing are modifications of strong regenerative ability and not growing. Growing is another parallel modification along overcompensating. Hence, when we say the animal overcompensating, it becomes a present participle modifier, while when we say by the animal overcompensating, we in fact say by the animal’s overcompensating, and the term becomes a gerund.

We may perhaps use past participle to describe this situation; -sometimes overcompensated by the animal- but we must also ensure that the other things are parallel too.

I am unable to comment upon Ron’s view and context. But as far as I see, overcompensating and growing are two independent and parallel features of re-generation and hence we do need to use the and
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Darmody wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
I fail this question

"overcompensating" and " growing" are not independent actions and the use of "and" is not suitable. A and B are out
the 2 actions are of the same event. comma+doing is used not "and"

I am confused. pls, help

same I crossed B because I thought growing had to modify overcompensate otherwise it does not make sense to have the verb "overcompensate" alone like that. Can somebody explain? And also would it be possible to explain what is exactly is wrong with E? Thx !

Let's Focus on B and E
Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

B one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
E they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

1 Usage of sometimes : meaning in E is changed, as if sometimes with the animal
Sometimes should come near what it is modifying...they replace it that results something

2. and should separate two different v-ing modifiers...
when we say IC1 , and IC2 then only it means IC1 and IC2 are independent
but when there is a list with common subject we can simply write sub X and Y
when there is a list with 3 or more in the list we need comma + and => x,y, and Z else X and Y
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Though many replies already exist, here is my 2 cents.

Starfish, blah blah blah, have a strong Z ability, and if <something happens they fix it>, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two

C,D,E have a similar problem "overcompensating," is followed by "growing an extra one or two". This is a case of misplaced modifier.
Now A & B remains

(A) one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and --> Use of Have in the non-underlined part means we talking about plural star fish.

So B wins!!
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blueseas wrote:
hi amit
may i know why they is wrong according to you in option CDE

Usage of "they" seems OK in (C) and (E) - but not in (D) because of multiple THEYs.

(D) ", and if they lose one arm they are quickly replaced"

The first they is supposed to = Starfish
But the second they is supposed to = the arm

So ambiguous pronoun references for THEY in (D) makes (D) wrong.

For (C) and (E) - the non-underlined portion says "Starfish.....have.." - so we know Starfish is plural.

So referencing starfish with THEY is OK.

But (C) and (E) have other issues - please see video explanation provided below.

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Hi E-GMAT,

Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

A one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
B one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
C they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
D they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
E they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

My analysis and query, The sentence structure IC {Startfish + modifier+ verb (Have)}, and IC if + then clause+ modifier.

First query is in the "2nd IC" i'm not able to identify the Sub & Verb and

Second query is i'm not able to understand why "with" modifier is correct?
i understand that after the second clause is ended with "replaced" then Verb-ing should come instead of "with". Please correct me ?

and Lastly i always feel with seems to be the incorrect choice in GMAT in general.Could you please help me to correct my concept .

Thanks
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

A one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
B one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
C they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
D they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
E they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

My analysis and query, The sentence structure IC {Startfish + modifier+ verb (Have)}, and IC if + then clause+ modifier.

First query is in the "2nd IC" i'm not able to identify the Sub & Verb and

Second query is i'm not able to understand why "with" modifier is correct?
i understand that after the second clause is ended with "replaced" then Verb-ing should come instead of "with". Please correct me ?

and Lastly i always feel with seems to be the incorrect choice in GMAT in general.Could you please help me to correct my concept .

Thanks

Dear Nitin,

You aren't able to identify the subject and the verb because you're taking two clauses to be one clause. Your structure should read "if clause + then clause." The "if" clause is "one arm is lost" and the "then" clause is "it is quickly replaced".

Secondly, prepositional phrases are very versatile modifiers. It is perfectly fine for a prepositional phrase to modify an action. So, this part correctly tells us how the lost arm is replaced.

There is no rule that says that "with" is always in the incorrect choice. This is a complete misconception.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubts.

Regards,
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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egmat wrote:
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

A one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
B one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
C they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
D they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
E they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

My analysis and query, The sentence structure IC {Startfish + modifier+ verb (Have)}, and IC if + then clause+ modifier.

First query is in the "2nd IC" i'm not able to identify the Sub & Verb and

Second query is i'm not able to understand why "with" modifier is correct?
i understand that after the second clause is ended with "replaced" then Verb-ing should come instead of "with". Please correct me ?

and Lastly i always feel with seems to be the incorrect choice in GMAT in general.Could you please help me to correct my concept .

Thanks

Dear Nitin,

You aren't able to identify the subject and the verb because you're taking two clauses to be one clause. Your structure should read "if clause + then clause." The "if" clause is "one arm is lost" and the "then" clause is "it is quickly replaced".

Secondly, prepositional phrases are very versatile modifiers. It is perfectly fine for a prepositional phrase to modify an action. So, this part correctly tells us how the lost arm is replaced.

There is no rule that says that "with" is always in the incorrect choice. This is a complete misconception.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubts.

Regards,
Meghna

Hi Meghna,
I'm confused between option B & C.

B is in passive voice followed by ', with', where as C is in active voice followed by ',...by'. How this is possible ?

As, for passive voice 'by' should be used and 'with' should be for active voice. Still B is the correct answer...! Please clarify why so ? Is it ONLY because an 'and' is required at the end of the underlined part ?

And it'd be great if you share your detail analysis as well.

Thanks!
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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bagdbmba wrote:

Hi Meghna,
I'm confused between option B & C.

B is in passive voice followed by ', with', where as C is in active voice followed by ',...by'. How this is possible ?

As, for passive voice 'by' should be used and 'with' should be for active voice. Still B is the correct answer...! Please clarify why so ? Is it ONLY because an 'and' is required at the end of the underlined part ?

And it'd be great if you share your detail analysis as well.

Thanks!

Though I am not Meghna, I am happy to respond on this.

I think you have mistaken what OG's OE has said.
OG says that

IF A then B ( then since A and B are parallel, they should have same voice)

(A).one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and

ARM is lost => IT quickly replaces IT(ARM)

In conditional clause 'ARM' is at subject position and in the 'THEN' clause ARM is at object position. So, one in active other in passive
Hence not parallel.

(B). one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and

A= Arm is lost
B= IT(ARM) is quickly replaced

both in same voice hence parallel.

(C) contains comma hence wrong

Rgds,
TGC!
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regenerative ability, and if one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and growing an extra one or two.

A one arm is lost it quickly replaces it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating and
B one arm is lost it is quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating and
C they lose one arm they quickly replace it, sometimes by the animal overcompensating,
D they lose one arm they are quickly replaced, with the animal sometimes overcompensating,
E they lose one arm it is quickly replaced, sometimes with the animal overcompensating,

My analysis and query, The sentence structure IC {Startfish + modifier+ verb (Have)}, and IC if + then clause+ modifier.

First query is in the "2nd IC" i'm not able to identify the Sub & Verb and

Second query is i'm not able to understand why "with" modifier is correct?
i understand that after the second clause is ended with "replaced" then Verb-ing should come instead of "with". Please correct me ?

and Lastly i always feel with seems to be the incorrect choice in GMAT in general.Could you please help me to correct my concept .

Thanks

Dear Nitin,

You aren't able to identify the subject and the verb because you're taking two clauses to be one clause. Your structure should read "if clause + then clause." The "if" clause is "one arm is lost" and the "then" clause is "it is quickly replaced".

Secondly, prepositional phrases are very versatile modifiers. It is perfectly fine for a prepositional phrase to modify an action. So, this part correctly tells us how the lost arm is replaced.

There is no rule that says that "with" is always in the incorrect choice. This is a complete misconception.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubts.

Regards,
Meghna

Hi Meghna,
I'm confused between option B & C.

B is in passive voice followed by ', with', where as C is in active voice followed by ',...by'. How this is possible ?

As, for passive voice 'by' should be used and 'with' should be for active voice. Still B is the correct answer...! Please clarify why so ? Is it ONLY because an 'and' is required at the end of the underlined part ?

And it'd be great if you share your detail analysis as well.

Thanks!

Dear Bagdmba,

I can understand how the “and” difference between choice B and C may not seem very deterministic. That being said, choice C fails to convey the intended meaning of the author. The issue here is not that of active or passive voice. Please refer to the following post to understand how “by” does not work in the context of the sentence:
[url]
starfish-with-anywhere-from-five-to-eight-arms-have-a-132488-20.html#p1362426[/url]

Also the way choice C is written, it could be taken to nonsensically suggest that multiple starfish (they) collectively loose one arm (it). This issue does not arise in choice B. Please reconsider the question in the light of this discussion and do let me know if you have any other doubts.

Regards,
Neeti.
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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Pl. let me know if my understanding of the passage is correct: And suggest any changes to cement the gaps in the understanding:

Meaning Analysis:
The sentence wants to tells us two things about starfish:

1. They have several arms
2. They have excellent regenerative capability.

Due to the second one whenever one of the arms is lost they replace it quickly & in the process sometimes may overcompensate by growing one or two arms more.

Sentence structure:

1.Starfish ( Subj. )
with anywhere from five to eight arms ( Prepositional Phrase == FYI info. )

have ( Verb) a strong regenerative ability, & ( , FANBOYS hence new IC)
2. If one arm ( Subject ) is lost (verb) it (starfish but not grammatically correct , Subject) quickly replaces(Verb) it, sometimes by animal overcompensating & growing an extra one or two. ( Additional info. about previous cl. giving description as to how the arm is replaced.

Query:

1. I have rejected choice B as it says overcompensating & growing. It appeared to me that these to actions ( Overcompensation & growing of extra arm happened sequentially & thus eliminated choice B as it suggests that they ( overcompensate. & growing ) were describing replacement.

2. I have selected choice E as I thought Starfish= Plural per sentence needs to have they as the pronoun.
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Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
Quote:
1. I have rejected choice B as it says overcompensating & growing. It appeared to me that these to actions ( Overcompensation & growing of extra arm happened sequentially & thus eliminated choice B as it suggests that they ( overcompensate. & growing ) were describing replacement.

overcompensating and growing are actually modifying animal.

Quote:
2. I have selected choice E as I thought Starfish= Plural per sentence needs to have they as the pronoun.

The animal sometimes overcompensates and grows an extra one or two arms. So, sometimes is supposed to logically modify overcompensates.

However, in E, sometimes seems to be modifying animal.

By the way, option B, the correct answer, uses passive voice (one arm is lost) and is preferred over active voice in E (they lose one arm) because of meaning implications.
Re: Starfish, with anywhere from five to eight arms, have a strong regener [#permalink]
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