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The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth

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The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern India alphabets.

(A) the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and

(B) the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the

(C) with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the

(D) with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and

(E) with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and

Originally posted by Fistail on 16 Oct 2007, 00:00.
Last edited by hazelnut on 26 Sep 2017, 18:34, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2007, 11:47
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Fistail wrote:
The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern India alphabets.

A the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and
B the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the
C with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the
D with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and
E with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and


Would go for C,

between A and C, choose C cuz "from which" refers to script not "Achaemenid empire".
Other choices sound awkward.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Aug 2011, 16:45
The answer is most definitely (c). The correct usage here is "derive", not "derives", because alphabets is plural.

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Originally posted by GyanOne on 04 Aug 2011, 09:13.
Last edited by GyanOne on 04 Aug 2011, 16:45, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2011, 09:20
The answer should be 'C'. Here is why:

i) the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and - this is grammatically wrong because of 'was', should have been 'were'.
ii) the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the - 'from which' seems to be misplaced.
iii) with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the - should have been 'derived' for answer to be perfect but derive is also correct grammatically.
iv) with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and - derives is singular, should have been plural here.
v) with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and - second 'it' is redundant.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2011, 22:22
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+1 for C.

Rephrasing the last part clarifies the role of "derive" which here is used for northern and southern Indian alphabets and not script:

both northern and southern Indian alphabets derive from the Aramaic script

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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2014, 01:38
metallicafan wrote:
+1 C

A "which" refers to "it"
B "and from which..." is not a clause
C Correct
D "derives" is wrong; we are talking about northern AND southern alphabets
E "deriving from..." is not a clause



Request you to please elaborate more on the Option E ! why is it wrong.

I understand C is correct , however if we talk about parallelism isn't C giving us that?
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2014, 09:35
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GRITTY16 wrote:
metallicafan wrote:
+1 C

A "which" refers to "it"
B "and from which..." is not a clause
C Correct
D "derives" is wrong; we are talking about northern AND southern alphabets
E "deriving from..." is not a clause



Request you to please elaborate more on the Option E ! why is it wrong.

I understand C is correct , however if we talk about parallelism isn't C giving us that?


E is wrong because of multiple reasons:
1. 'with it the aramaic script' - so 'it' refers to "The Achaemenid empire of Persia". The thumb rule is that we cannot change the reference of pronoun in one statement; therefore, 'it' should refer to "The Achaemenid empire of Persia" throughout the statement. Well this is an issue because the second part of statement, "deriving from it", refers it as aramaic script. Hence it is incorrect.

2. Second issue is parallelism across both...and...
"both the northern and southern India alphabets"
'the' is missing in southern India alphabets..which makes it fault parallelism. We need 'the' to compare apple and apple.

3. when we have a construction of "S+V+Obj, -ing form" - usually -ing refers to subject of the sentence. In this case 'deriving' refers to 'The Achaemenid empire of Persia', changing the meaning of the sentence - as if 'The Achaemenid empire of Persia' were deriving something..

Hope it helps

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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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Fistail wrote:
The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern India alphabets.

A the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and
B the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the
C with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the
D with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and
E with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and


A) "from which" seems to incorrectly refer to the empire (referenced by the pronoun "it") rather than to the script. Also, the singular verb "was derived" does not agree in number with the plural subject "northern and southern Indian alphabets". Finally, the subject "northern and southern Indian alphabets" is unclear: are there several alphabets, or only one of each?

B) "and" creates a lack of connection between the two parts of the sentence. Additionally, "deriving" is an incorrect verb tense.

C) CORRECT. "From which" correctly refers to the script. Additionally, "derive," a plural verb, correctly agrees with the plural subject "the Northern and the Southern Indian alphabets."

D) "derives," a singular verb, does not agree with the plural subject "Northern and Southern Indian alphabets."

E) The second pronoun "it" is ambiguous: does it refer to the "empire" or to the "script"? Additionally, the original intent of the sentence is significantly changed in meaning.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern India alphabets.

Pre-thinking:
"script with it, from which" - "it" refers to "empire", "from which.." modifies "it" that is "empire", but "from which..." was not derived from the "empire",. It was derived from the "script". So we need "script, from which" construction.


A. the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and - Incorrect as per the explanation above
B. the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the -
(1) Repeats the same error in A.
(2)There are multiple uses of "and" here, so let's see the final sentence in its entirety with this choice:


The Achaemenid empire of Persia
reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it,
and from which deriving both the northern and the southern India alphabets.

Now, there are 2 things that the "empire" did - it "reached" and "from which deriving". This is incorrect, as the "script" did the "deriving" part.

C. with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the - Hold on
D. with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and - reverse the second half of this clause, it becomes "both northern and southern india alphabets" WERE (plural verb) derived. So coming back to the original sentence, "derives" which is singular is incorrect verb tense form.
E. with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and -

(1)There are multiple uses of "and" here, so let's see the final sentence in its entirety with this choice:

The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing with it the Aramaic script,
and deriving from it both the northern and the southern India alphabets.

Now, there are 2 things that the "empire" did - it "reached" and "deriving". This is incorrect, as the "script" did the "deriving" part.
(2) Also, the "it" in the "it the Aramaic script" refers to "empire", and the same use of "it" is present in "it both the northern". However, in the second half, "it" should not refer to the "empire", it should refer to the "scripts"

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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2017, 09:57
I also can come to C but there is a point I do not understand.

in C, it should be " from which both a and b derive"
why do gmat use "derive" at the beginning ?

because a and b are too long?

pls, explain
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2017, 19:51
Experts please explain how "derive" is correct in C.
With the SV pair, I am convinced that we should use plural form i.e. "derive", but from tense prospective how does "simple present" makes sense with "reached"?
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 07:14
victory47 wrote:
I also can come to C but there is a point I do not understand.

in C, it should be " from which both a and b derive"
why do gmat use "derive" at the beginning ?

because a and b are too long?

pls, explain


This is a case of subject-verb flip. In this case the usage is just a matter of choice. The sentence would be equally correct, if it were:
....from which X and Y derive.

The flip seems to have been intentionally used to trap students into choosing D instead of C. It is important to recognise the flip to select the correct option.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 07:25
RMD007 wrote:
Experts please explain how "derive" is correct in C.
With the SV pair, I am convinced that we should use plural form i.e. "derive", but from tense prospective how does "simple present" makes sense with "reached"?


Consider this a stylistic usage - somewhat similar to the following example:
I come from India.
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Re: The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2017, 21:50
The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern India alphabets.

(A) the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and - "from which" seems to incorrectly refer to the empire (referenced by the pronoun "it") rather than to the script. Also, the singular verb "was derived" does not agree in number with the plural subject "northern and southern Indian alphabets". Finally, the subject "northern and southern Indian alphabets" is unclear: are there several alphabets, or only one of each?

(B) the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the - "and" creates a lack of connection between the two parts of the sentence. Additionally, "deriving" is an incorrect verb tense.

(C) with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the -CORRECT. "From which" correctly refers to the script. Additionally, "derive," a plural verb, correctly agrees with the plural subject "the Northern and the Southern Indian alphabets."

(D) with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and - "derives," a singular verb, does not agree with the plural subject "Northern and Southern Indian alphabets."

(E) with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and - The second pronoun "it" is ambiguous: does it refer to the "empire" or to the "script"? Additionally, the original intent of the sentence is significantly changed in meaning.

Answer C
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The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2018, 08:10
GMATNinja, Could you help to explain ", from which" versus ", which"?
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