The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to

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The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2004, 01:59
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The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet's climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.

(B) If Earth's Moon were to leave Earth's orbit, Earth's climate would be unable to support life.

(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.

(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.
If you have any questions
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02 Nov 2004, 16:20
It is the moon that keeps the earth's stability.Remove the moon, stability lost and climate is affected.
BTW, I was even thinking of A also as an answer.
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02 Nov 2004, 16:31
I vote for B too.

But I can't see why A, and C are wrong..
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03 Nov 2004, 07:43
I also think it is B.

C and E are extreme and hence out.

D is out of scope as we don't care about other factors that what are stated in the argument.

A can't be concluded for sure as there may be other factors for life on Mars....

B is the only one that can be concluded from the argument.
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03 Nov 2004, 13:05
Will go with B as well since it says the opposite of what is said in the passage.
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 04:07
batliwala wrote:
The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet's climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.

(B) If Earth's Moon were to leave Earth's orbit, Earth's climate would be unable to support life.

(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.

(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.

hi there,
I know the answer is "B" and it's quite alright,
but can anybody please let me know how can we eliminate "D" as a possible answer choice!?
I mean, can somebody please give any convenient explanation for rejecting D?
it's urgent guys
thank you
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 04:11
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omraan wrote:

hi there,
I know the answer is "B" and it's quite alright,
but can anybody please let me know how can we eliminate "D" as a possible answer choice!?
I mean, can somebody please give any convenient explanation for rejecting D?
it's urgent guys
thank you

This is an inference question, the correct answer presents NO ADDITIONAL info, and it's based entirely on the text.

(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

Since the text does not mention anything about gravitational influences other than moons, D cannot be correct.

Hope it's clear, let me know
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 04:15
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omraan wrote:
batliwala wrote:
The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet's climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.

(B) If Earth's Moon were to leave Earth's orbit, Earth's climate would be unable to support life.

(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.

(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.

hi there,
I know the answer is "B" and it's quite alright,
but can anybody please let me know how can we eliminate "D" as a possible answer choice!?
I mean, can somebody please give any convenient explanation for rejecting D?
it's urgent guys
thank you

Hi Omran,
In the must be true questions, I shall recommend to stick with the fact given in the premise. Here nowhere, there is a discussion of anything but moon. So we can't speculate over the conditions that may arise because of other sources.
I hope you got what I intended to convey.
Please let me know if anything remains unclear.
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 04:19
Zarrolou wrote:
omraan wrote:

hi there,
I know the answer is "B" and it's quite alright,
but can anybody please let me know how can we eliminate "D" as a possible answer choice!?
I mean, can somebody please give any convenient explanation for rejecting D?
it's urgent guys
thank you

This is an inference question, the correct answer presents NO ADDITIONAL info, and it's based entirely on the text.

(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

Since the text does not mention anything about gravitational influences other than moons, D cannot be correct.

Hope it's clear, let me know

i know, but may I ask you what do you mean by "moons"? Moon's or moons'?
besides, cant we infer from the passage that, apart from Moon's gravitational forces, there's no other gravitational force in work there?
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 04:23
omraan wrote:

i know, but may I ask you what do you mean by "moons"? Moon's or moons'?

I do not have the original text of the question.

The question posted states "moons" and we stick to it, so I mean "moons".

As I said before we cannot "infer from the passage that, apart from Moon's gravitational forces, there's no other gravitational force in work there."

In must be true questions the correct answer will
-RESTATES IN DIFFERENT WORDS WHAT IS STATED IN STIMULUS STATEMENT
-RESULTS FROM THE COMBINATION OF 2 or MORE STIMULUS STATMEMENT
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 04:28
Zarrolou wrote:
omraan wrote:

i know, but may I ask you what do you mean by "moons"? Moon's or moons'?

I do not have the original text of the question.

The question posted states "moons" and we stick to it, so I mean "moons".

thanks, "moons" seems odd though, aint it?
thank you indeed guys, I kinda got it
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 05:58
Zarrolou wrote:
omraan wrote:

i know, but may I ask you what do you mean by "moons"? Moon's or moons'?

I do not have the original text of the question.

The question posted states "moons" and we stick to it, so I mean "moons".

As I said before we cannot "infer from the passage that, apart from Moon's gravitational forces, there's no other gravitational force in work there."

In must be true questions the correct answer will
-RESTATES IN DIFFERENT WORDS WHAT IS STATED IN STIMULUS STATEMENT
-RESULTS FROM THE COMBINATION OF 2 or MORE STIMULUS STATMEMENT

okay, first of all, thanks for your concern, but lets assess my way of rejecting "D":
based on the passage, the gravitational forces of Moon stabilize the Earth's angle;
this does not mean that other forces do not have significant role, does it?
the 23 degree angle tilt can be the result of these forces coordinating with the Moon's, hah?
so D is wrong because it states that other forces have little or no influence in the tilt axis, but based on the passage we can not be sure of this.
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 06:04
Marcab wrote:
omraan wrote:
batliwala wrote:
The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet's climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.

(B) If Earth's Moon were to leave Earth's orbit, Earth's climate would be unable to support life.

(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.

(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.

hi there,
I know the answer is "B" and it's quite alright,
but can anybody please let me know how can we eliminate "D" as a possible answer choice!?
I mean, can somebody please give any convenient explanation for rejecting D?
it's urgent guys
thank you

Hi Omran,
In the must be true questions, I shall recommend to stick with the fact given in the premise. Here nowhere, there is a discussion of anything but moon. So we can't speculate over the conditions that may arise because of other sources.
I hope you got what I intended to convey.
Please let me know if anything remains unclear.

hi,
tnx for reminding me, I am not so strange with the type, I'm in search of a convenient way of rejecting D.
please let me know how do you find my way of reasoning mentioned above
once again, I know B is correct answer, I am trying to reject D
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 06:09
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"based on the passage, the gravitational forces of Moon stabilize the Earth's angle;" correct

"this does not mean that other forces do not have significant role, does it?
the 23 degree angle tilt can be the result of these forces coordinating with the Moon's, hah? " we cannot say.

"so D is wrong because it states that other forces have little or no influence in the tilt axis, but based on the passage we can not be sure of this." correct

The answer to your question above could be Yes or No, other factors could or could not play a role in stabilizing the angle.
As you correctly say the text does not states anything so we don't know anything about those forces.

Hope it's clear
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 06:16
Omran.
It feels very nice when there are cross questions.
In the premise, there is a discussion that because of Earth's moon only, there is a life on Earth. To support this fact, the author gives the example of Mars, which has very small moons and because of that there is no major gravitational influence.
Now consider one more factor. Since Earth's core is much bigger than that of Mars, it also plays a vital role in maintaining the earth's tilt- this is not mentioned in the stimulus. But considering D, can you say that?
Since the stimulus talks about the influence of Moon only so we need to stick with that.
Please let me know if you need more clarifications.
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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26 May 2013, 02:23
Marcab wrote:
Omran.
It feels very nice when there are cross questions.
In the premise, there is a discussion that because of Earth's moon only, there is a life on Earth. To support this fact, the author gives the example of Mars, which has very small moons and because of that there is no major gravitational influence.
Now consider one more factor. Since Earth's core is much bigger than that of Mars, it also plays a vital role in maintaining the earth's tilt- this is not mentioned in the stimulus. But considering D, can you say that?
Since the stimulus talks about the influence of Moon only so we need to stick with that.
Please let me know if you need more clarifications.

hey there,
as you may see in my above mentioned cmnt, I'm still doing my best to find the best way to reject D.
in doing so, one of my frnds argued as follows:
he is not convinced that D is out, supposing:
q = the answer choice D = Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.
~q = counter D = Gravitational influences other than moons have significant effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.
p = the stimulus = That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon.
~p = counter stimulus = Moon's gravitational forces is not the only factor in stabilizing the angle.

then my frnds continues as:
based on the text:
(~q --> ~p) equals to (p --> q)
it means that, the logical opposite of the answer choice D goes along with logical opposite of the text given.
thus, the answer choice itself should go along with the text and we cannot reject it.

how can I counter my friend's argument?
I tried to explain that it's out of scope and the text does not go as far as this statement, but he replied that this is directly from the text and there is no conflict then!!

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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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26 May 2013, 04:43
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I do not get what your friend says at all...

I am the tallest person in the basketball team.
Which of the following MUST be true?

A)The point-guard Matt is shorter than me CORRECT
B)My friend Paul is shorter than me. WRONG: if Paul is a member of the team then I am taller, but we are not given this info, so we cannot say.

Now following your friend's logic: ( I am refering to A as you refered to D-the supposed correct answer-)
*q= counter A=A)The point-guard Matt is NO shorter than me
p=stimulus
*p= counter stim=I am NOT the tallest person in the basketball team.

The relationship p-->q is clear and correct: I am the tallest player, so I am taller than the PG also.
The relationship *p-->*q is not correct:I am not the tallest player, so the PG is no shorter than me ?????? There is no logic here.

Quote:
then my frnds continues as:
based on the text:
(~q --> ~p) equals to (p --> q)

First of all, the correct order is Stimulus-->Answer so (~p --> ~q) equals to (p --> q)
~p = counter stimulus = Moon's gravitational forces is not the only factor in stabilizing the angle.
-->
~q = counter D = Gravitational influences other than moons have significant effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.

Who said so? As I show you in my example above: p-->q makes sense, but p*-->*q does not.
Moon's gravitational forces is not the only factor in stabilizing the angle.
The gravitational force of the Moon is not the only factor, so other factors could be gravitationals or NO gravitationals (composition of the Earth's crust for example)
Gravitational influences other than moons have significant effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth's or Mars's axis.
WRONG: if the other factor is NO gravitational this second statement is WRONG.

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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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26 May 2013, 20:48
Zarrolou wrote:

WRONG: if the other factor is NO gravitational this second statement is WRONG.

Zarrolou,
seems that I should express myself better to make myself clear:
there is no doubt on what you've concluded,
may you consider this situation?
Moon's gravitational forces is the main stabilizer of the angle (P), then other gravitational forces have little or no influence in the angle's stability (Q).
Gravitational forces other than Moon's play SIGNIFICANT roles in the angle's stability (~Q), hence Moon's gravitation is NOT the only significant factor (~P).

so:
(p --> q) equals to (~q --> ~p)
~q (i.e., the reverse of answer choice D), goes along with ~p (i.e., the reverse of argument stem).
so p --> q
please let me know what I'm missing here?

P.S.: to me, "GRAVITATIONAL FORCES OTHER THAN MOON'S" does not mean "NO gravitational"; it just means those gravitational forces that are not related to Earth-Moon coordination.
Maybe there are other gravitational forces influencing the situation (like Earth-Sun, etc)
these forces are still gravitational, but they are not related to the moon.
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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27 May 2013, 02:09
I have a doubt with respect to option A
In the premise the author mentioned angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon and they are compared it with mars.
So when mars is being compared with the moon why cant we infer the answer as option A?
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to [#permalink]

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27 May 2013, 02:33
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skamal7 wrote:
I have a doubt with respect to option A
In the premise the author mentioned angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth's large, nearby Moon and they are compared it with mars.
So when mars is being compared with the moon why cant we infer the answer as option A?

We know that:
Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet's climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.

(A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life.
There could be other factors that could prevent Mars from being able to support life

Quote:
Zarrolou,
seems that I should express myself better to make myself clear:
there is no doubt on what you've concluded,
may you consider this situation?
Moon's gravitational forces is the main stabilizer of the angle (P), then other gravitational forces have little or no influence in the angle's stability (Q).
Gravitational forces other than Moon's play SIGNIFICANT roles in the angle's stability (~Q), hence Moon's gravitation is NOT the only significant factor (~P).

so:
(p --> q) equals to (~q --> ~p)
~q (i.e., the reverse of answer choice D), goes along with ~p (i.e., the reverse of argument stem).
so p --> q
please let me know what I'm missing here?

dear Omraan, I don't know where the relation (p --> q) equals to (~q --> ~p) comes from as I said before.
But I can spot flaws in your method, example:

"Moon's gravitational forces is the main stabilizer of the angle (P)[consider the case where this accounts for 50.1% of the stability, it's still the main stabilizer], then other gravitational forces have little or no influence in the angle's stability (Q)[WRONG: an other force could account for the remaining 49.9%, and this is not "little or no influence"]."
So p--->q is not always true

You are over complicating it
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Re: The axis of Earth's daily rotation is tilted with respect to   [#permalink] 27 May 2013, 02:33

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