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The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c

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The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 08:20
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The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the control and coordination of muscle contractions. The brain is connected to the muscles by means of motor nerves. This leads to the survival of an animal only if the timing of muscle contractions bears some relation to purpose. An animal must contract its jaw muscles when its jaw contains something worth biting and contract its leg muscles when there is something worth running to or away from. Animals that have survived are those equipped with sense organs—the eyes, ears, taste buds, skin, and nose—that translate patterns of physical events into nerve impulses in the brain. The brain is connected to the sense organs by sensory nerves. The workings of the sensory system are extremely complex; human senses can achieve more sophisticated feats of pattern recognition than computers; if this were not the case, many tasks now done by people could be done by computers. However, it will be decades before the functions of human sense organs can be duplicated by machines.

Because humans are capable of self-reflection, we feel that our sensory perception and muscle activity are guided by apparent purposiveness. However, both our sense of purpose and complex consciousness may well be genetically engineered. Our genes have created our brains, muscles, and sensory organs to help us and may also have created a kind of “conscious-purpose machine” to direct us to live and reproduce by means of innate drives—hunger, sexuality, communication, fear, and aggression. This machine may also direct higher-level interpretations of these drives. That direction of consciousness is the ultimate genetic control.


1) The passage supplies information to answer which of the following questions?

A) By what means do the sensory nerves interpret what an individual sees?
B) How will computers be able to simulate the functions of the human brain?
C) What are the major differences between human and animal sense organs?
D) What connects the brain to the motor and sensory nerves?
E) Of what value is the sensorimotor system to the adaptive success of animals?

2) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A) argue that genes may control complex as well as basic brain functions
B) explain the relationship between sensory and motor operations of the brain
C) refute a theory about human perception and consciousness
D) explain the principal elements of the adaptive behavior of motor action
E) outline the difference between human and nonhuman information processing

Which of the following does the author mention as the source for an individual’s awareness of his or her own consciousness?

A) Information the sensory organs send to the brain
B) The human brain’s power to bring about purposiveness in behavior
C) The ability of human beings to be self-reflective
D) A genetically determined set of survival drives in humans
E) Skill in recognizing perceptual patterns

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The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 08:35
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Q1:

Supporting Ideas

Since the passage does not claim to be answering any questions, each of the five questions posed in these answer choices is hypothetical: if someone asked this question, would information somewhere in the passage constitute an answer to it? This amounts to listing five types of information and asking which one can be found in the passage. In the first paragraph, the passage does tell the value of the sensorimotor system to the adaptive success of animals. It does not give information that would serve as an answer to any of the other four hypothetical questions.

A The passage does not say that sensory nerves interpret anything. It indicates that those nerves send sensory signals, including visual ones, to the brain, and it suggests that the brain interprets such signals.
B The passage discusses the superiority—at the time when the passage was written—of human perceptual abilities over those of computers and suggests that computers may eventually simulate some functions of the human brain, but it does not tell how computers will be able to do so.
C The first paragraph contains a brief discussion of the relationship between the sensory organs and the brain in animals in general, implicitly including humans. However, it provides no information about how, if at all, humans’ sense organs may differ from those of other animals.
D The passage indicates that the brain sends signals through the motor nerves and receives signals through the sensory nerves, but it gives no information about whether those nerves are connected directly to the brain or indirectly through some further structure.
E Correct. The first paragraph describes how the relationship between the signals the brain sends through the motor nerves and those it receives through the sensory nerves help animals survive.

The correct answer is E.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 08:41
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Q2:

While the author does not reveal a thesis or purpose in the beginning of the passage, the author does express their position in the latter part of the passage and thus, the primary purpose of the passage best aligns with answer choice A. The passage contains various pieces of information and some explanations, but clearly the overall approach is not merely to present or explain the information. Therefore, explain and outline are dubious. It is also easy to see that the author does not claim to be refuting anyone else’s theory. The passage does, however, present argumentation for the author’s position. After outlining a number of interrelated pieces of information about the adaptive functions of nervous systems, in the second paragraph, the author argues for an interpretation of the information and for a loosely stated conclusion about genetics in relation to human consciousness. Answer choice A best expresses the author’s conclusion, which is presented at the end of the passage.

A Correct. The main focus of the passage is on arguing for a position that is expressed in the latter part of the second paragraph. Answer choice A gives a concise paraphrase of the author’s position.
B In the first paragraph, the author discusses the roles of sensory and motor information transmitted to and from the brain. But this is presented only as a subtopic contributing toward the overall purpose of the passage.
C In writing the passage, the author might conceivably have intended, at least indirectly, to refute someone else’s theory about human perception and consciousness. However, the passage provides no evidence that the author did intend it in this way.
D In the first paragraph, the author discusses motor action and its adaptive function, but this is presented only as a subtopic contributing toward the overall purpose of the passage.
E The first paragraph does contrast human information processing with that performed by computers, but it does so only to support the claims it is making about human brain activity. The second paragraph implies that human information processing surpasses that in other animals but concludes that the processes are fundamentally similar.

The correct answer is A.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 08:46
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Q3:

This asks about something that is explicitly mentioned in the passage. To verify this, look for the parts of the passage that relate to human consciousness. The discussion of that topic begins early in the second paragraph and continues to the end of the passage. Answer choice C is a very close paraphrase of a claim that the author makes in the middle of that discussion.

A The first paragraph contains a brief discussion of the relationship between the sensory organs and the brain in animals in general, implicitly including humans. However, comments in the second paragraph make it clear that the author considers awareness of one's own consciousness to arise from something more than the brain’s merely receiving signals from the sensory organs.
B The passage describes human purposiveness as something that humans are conscious of, not as something that makes them aware of their consciousness.
C Correct. The discussion of human consciousness begins in the second paragraph. Midway through the second paragraph, the author states: Our own introspection tells us that we are indeed conscious, and we know we behave as if we are motivated by purposes. The second sentence of the paragraph makes a similar point.
D The passage indicates that human survival drives are genetically determined and suggests that humans are conscious of having such drives, but it does not indicate that having such drives causes humans to be aware of their own consciousness.
E In the final part of the first paragraph, the author discusses humans’ skill in recognizing perceptual patterns. The point of that discussion is to contrast humans with computers in this regard. There is no indication that this skill causes humans to be aware of their own consciousness.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2020, 20:03
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Good passage, 4 mins all correct, will be happy to help if required, 700+ questions for sure
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2020, 18:20
Hi,

I'm still confused with the explanation of Q2. Which parts tell us the author is arguing in the passage? It seems the author only explains nerve systems.
thanks
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The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2020, 19:43
ryorda wrote:
Hi,

I'm still confused with the explanation of Q2. Which parts tell us the author is arguing in the passage? It seems the author only explains nerve systems.
thanks



Hey, let me try an help you with a general framework for answering primary purpose questions. For such questions ask yourself "Whats the writers intent behind writing this passage"

What does the author want to prove/disapprove, argue for or against. Don't get into the details but take a step back and take a birds eye view.

A few places where you can generally find the primary purpose is the beginning of the passage, the last few lines or the alongside transition words like However, Nevertheless... etc.

In this passage for example, the whole point is to try and hypothesise that it is the genes that control our sensory organs, all the details are just to give you a broadd understanding of the sensory system to arrive at this point, think of it like a movie or tv show, episode 1 and episode 10 have little in common but they are all part of a narrative... to prove a point, you just need to figure out what that point is. The following excerpt from the passage sums it up quite nicely.

"However, both our sense of purpose and complex consciousness may well be genetically engineered. Our genes have created our brains, muscles, and sensory organs to help us and may also have created a kind of “conscious-purpose machine” to direct us to live and reproduce by means of innate drives—hunger, sexuality, communication, fear, and aggression. This machine may also direct higher-level interpretations of these drives. That direction of consciousness is the ultimate genetic control"


I believe to succeed in CR and RC inference questions you need something known as "second level thinking", you need to think beyond the obvious conclusions, that's exactly the trap GMAT sets for you, because everybody thinks like that, you need to go beyond them especially in 700+ questions, the answers are rarely straight forward if they were it wouldn't be a 700+ question in the first place.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2020, 23:53
coreyander wrote:
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Q3:

This asks about something that is explicitly mentioned in the passage. To verify this, look for the parts of the passage that relate to human consciousness. The discussion of that topic begins early in the second paragraph and continues to the end of the passage. Answer choice C is a very close paraphrase of a claim that the author makes in the middle of that discussion.

C Correct. The discussion of human consciousness begins in the second paragraph. Midway through the second paragraph, the author states: Our own introspection tells us that we are indeed conscious, and we know we behave as if we are motivated by purposes. The second sentence of the paragraph makes a similar point.

The correct answer is C.



Hi I am confused- I do not see that specific line in the passage? That isn't meant to be a paraphrase of any other line is it? And without that clearly stated line, the answer is less obviously C.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2020, 08:20
nityaraju wrote:
coreyander wrote:
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION Q3:

This asks about something that is explicitly mentioned in the passage. To verify this, look for the parts of the passage that relate to human consciousness. The discussion of that topic begins early in the second paragraph and continues to the end of the passage. Answer choice C is a very close paraphrase of a claim that the author makes in the middle of that discussion.

C Correct. The discussion of human consciousness begins in the second paragraph. Midway through the second paragraph, the author states: Our own introspection tells us that we are indeed conscious, and we know we behave as if we are motivated by purposes. The second sentence of the paragraph makes a similar point.

The correct answer is C.



Hi I am confused- I do not see that specific line in the passage? That isn't meant to be a paraphrase of any other line is it? And without that clearly stated line, the answer is less obviously C.




Hi nityaraju,

Option C for Question 3 can be inferred from the lines:
"Because humans are capable of self-reflection, we feel that our sensory perception and muscle activity are guided by apparent purposiveness. However, both our sense of purpose and complex consciousness may well be genetically engineered. Our genes have created our brains, muscles, and sensory organs to help us and may also have created a kind of “conscious-purpose machine” to direct us.....".

Implication being that our genes create an awareness of our own consciousness, because of which we are able to self-relfect.

Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2020, 21:27
1
Quote:
2) The primary purpose of the passage is to


A) argue that genes may control complex as well as basic brain functions- Correct
1st para: what brain does
2nd para: how does it happens?

B) explain the relationship between sensory and motor operations of the brain
It is mentioned as outline to describe brain function in 1st passage; not a main

C) refute a theory about human perception and consciousness
No refutation

D) explain the principal elements of the adaptive behavior of motor action
Primary purpose is not explain adaptive behavior but it is present in 1st para to set the groundwork for overall meaning of passage.

E) outline the difference between human and nonhuman information processing
Only mentioned in the end of 1st para
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2020, 21:28
Quote:
1) The passage supplies information to answer which of the following questions?


Quote:
A) By what means do the sensory nerves interpret what an individual sees?- CAREFULLY WRONG


When individual sees, sensor organs (eyes) translate physical events (individual see) into nerve impulses through sensor organs(eye) connected to brain with sensors nerves.

But it is not mentioned how this interpretation in SENSORY NERVES happens.

Very close option
Refer line :
The brain is connected to the sense organs by sensory nerves.
Animals that have survived are those equipped with sense organs—the eyes, ears, taste buds, skin, and nose—that translate patterns of physical events into nerve impulses in the brain.

Quote:
B) How will computers be able to simulate the functions of the human brain?-EASY WRONG

Refer line : However, it will be decades before the functions of human sense organs can be duplicated by machines.

Quote:
C) What are the major differences between human and animal sense organs?-EASY WRONG

no comparison between humans and animals of any organs
Refer line :
adaptive success of animals through the control and coordination of muscle contractions.
human senses can achieve more sophisticated feats of pattern recognition than computers


Quote:
D) What connects the brain to the motor and sensory nerves?- CAREFULLY WRONG

If see this option in hurry then may miss what is being asked? Read again!

Brain is connected with sensory organs through SENSORY NERVES
Brain is connected with muscles through MOTOR NERVES
Not Brain is connected with SENSORY NERVES and MOTOR Nerves




Quote:
E) Of what value is the sensorimotor system to the adaptive success of animals?- MATCHES


Sensorimotor means: sense + motor system (split the word)
Dictionary meaning: sensorimotor : Of or relating to the sensory and motor coordination of an organism or to the controlling nerves

Refer lines:
The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the control and coordination of muscle contractions. This leads to the survival of an animal only if the timing of muscle contractions bears some relation to purpose. Animals that have survived are those equipped with sense organs.

(muscles coordination won’t happen unless perceived by sense organs when to run and when to eat on seeing food)
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2020, 21:29
Quote:
3. Which of the following does the author mention as the source for an individual’s awareness of his or her own consciousness?


Why the consciousness happens? How humans knows when to contract muscles or send nerver impulses to brain?

Because humans are capable of self-reflection. Both our sense of purpose and complex consciousness may well be genetically engineered.

Quote:
A) Information the sensory organs send to the brain-EASY WRONG

Yes we know the information is sent to brain but what initiates the sending? Why this happens at first place?
Quote:
B) The human brain’s power to bring about purposiveness in behavior- EASY WRONG

Refer line:
we feel that our sensory perception and muscle activity are guided by apparent purposiveness. However,

Quote:
C) The ability of human beings to be self-reflective-

Because humans are capable of self-reflection

Quote:
D) A genetically determined set of survival drives in humans- DIFFICULT WRONG

This happens why ? Because humans are capable of self-reflection.and then genetic does all this. Genes are HOW. The question is asked WHY?

Quote:
E) Skill in recognizing perceptual patterns-EASY WRONG

Yes, we know eyes can perceive things but how this happens at first place?
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2020, 15:09
coreyander Thanks for posting this! I see that this passage is tagged with source "GMAT Prep", do you know exactly where you found it? I don't immediately recall seeing this one on the practice tests or question packs.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2020, 19:39
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GMATCoachBen wrote:
coreyander Thanks for posting this! I see that this passage is tagged with source "GMAT Prep", do you know exactly where you found it? I don't immediately recall seeing this one on the practice tests or question packs.

Hi,
This question is from GMAT Question Pack 2.
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Re: The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c   [#permalink] 05 Aug 2020, 19:39

The brain contributes to the adaptive success of animals through the c

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