It is currently 18 Oct 2017, 06:29

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

The brains of identical twins are genetically identical

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Expert Post
MBA Section Director
User avatar
P
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 4473

Kudos [?]: 16971 [0], given: 1961

Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Apr 2015, 21:07
Expert's post
4
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

67% (01:33) correct 33% (02:05) wrong based on 380 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.

(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines.

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not.

Source: LSAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

_________________

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

Kudos [?]: 16971 [0], given: 1961

1 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 04 Jan 2014
Posts: 100

Kudos [?]: 33 [1], given: 20

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Apr 2015, 06:33
1
This post received
KUDOS
Smallness ---> Schizo... B states the assumption that Schizo ---x--> Smallness

B is my take.. OA please..

Kudos [?]: 33 [1], given: 20

1 KUDOS received
Verbal Forum Moderator
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 531

Kudos [?]: 619 [1], given: 606

Concentration: Technology, Other
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Apr 2015, 07:17
1
This post received
KUDOS
Conclusion:
damage to physical structure -> schizophrenia. [Cause -> Effect]

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.
Negating B would find an alternative cause for Schi..
schizophrenia or of medications used -> smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics
Weakens the conclusion.
So B is the answer.
_________________

--------------------------------------------------------
Regards :)

Kudos [?]: 619 [1], given: 606

GMAT Club Legend
GMAT Club Legend
User avatar
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 10117

Kudos [?]: 261 [0], given: 0

Premium Member
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 May 2016, 04:16
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.

Kudos [?]: 261 [0], given: 0

3 KUDOS received
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
G
Status: You have to have the darkness for the dawn to come
Joined: 09 Nov 2012
Posts: 319

Kudos [?]: 204 [3], given: 159

Location: India
saurav: suman
Concentration: Operations, Technology
GMAT 1: 590 Q49 V20
GMAT 2: 730 Q50 V38
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Energy and Utilities)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 May 2016, 22:39
3
This post received
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
souvik101990 wrote:
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.

(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines.

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not.



Here the conclusion is schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.
and is based on the premise that When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin

cause effect
Physical damage to the structure--------------------------------> Schizophrenia.
So the point of reasoning is cause leads to the effect
i) No alternate cause leads to the stated effect
ii) Effect does not leads to the cause
iii) Data used for arriving the result is accurate
iv) when cause happens effect happens
The above four might be the assumption

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia. talks about anyone's brain so out of scope

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.
Thsi matches with our pre thinking no (ii)
If we negate it what will happen
just check
The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment

See the negated version shatters conclusion


(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines.out of scope

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size stimulus never talks about this so out of scope

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not.
irrelevant
Hence B
_________________

You have to have the darkness for the dawn to come.

Give Kudos if you like my post

Kudos [?]: 204 [3], given: 159

1 KUDOS received
VP
VP
User avatar
D
Status: Long way to go!
Joined: 10 Oct 2016
Posts: 1180

Kudos [?]: 881 [1], given: 53

Location: Viet Nam
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jun 2017, 02:36
1
This post received
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.

(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines.

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not.
_________________

Actual LSAT CR bank by Broall

How to solve quadratic equations - Factor quadratic equations
Factor table with sign: The useful tool to solve polynomial inequalities
Applying AM-GM inequality into finding extreme/absolute value

New Error Log with Timer

Kudos [?]: 881 [1], given: 53

Director
Director
avatar
G
Joined: 14 Nov 2014
Posts: 598

Kudos [?]: 94 [0], given: 46

Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jun 2017, 11:54
nguyendinhtuong wrote:
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.

(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines.

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not.


Typical GMAT question...

Conclusion : A(smallness in brain size/Damage in brain) causes B(schizophrenic) ...

so we need to discard the possibility that B(schizophrenic) causes A(smallness in brain/Damage in brain)

B is doing that perfectly ...........

Kudos [?]: 94 [0], given: 46

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 06 Jul 2016
Posts: 412

Kudos [?]: 115 [0], given: 99

Location: Singapore
Concentration: Strategy, Finance
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jun 2017, 13:39
nguyendinhtuong wrote:
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin‟s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia

(B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used in its treatment.

(C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines.

(D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size

(E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not.


Physical damage/Relative smallness in the size of the brain causes Schizophrenia.
Assumption - Schizophrenia doesn't cause physical damage to the brain.

A - This is already mentioned in the argument.
B - This looks likely.
C - Irrelevant
D - That's not what were are trying to derive here. Irrelevant
E - Irrelevant.

B is the answer IMO
_________________

Put in the work, and that dream score is yours!

Kudos [?]: 115 [0], given: 99

Top Contributor
Director
Director
User avatar
S
Affiliations: CrackVerbal
Joined: 03 Oct 2013
Posts: 512

Kudos [?]: 574 [0], given: 6

Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jun 2017, 21:12
Top Contributor
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
let us take a look at the main conclusion --

schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

this is a cause and effect statement. We can write this as --

damage to the physical structure of the brain --> schizophrenia

One of the simplest ways to approach an assumption question would be to figure out a flaw in the argument. Negating that flaw would lead us to an assumption made in the argument.
Commonly found patterns of flaws in causal statements are reverse causation (Effect --> Cause) and alternate cause (Another cause --> effect).

let us take a look at the answer options --

Option A - Incorrect
Not a proper comparison. We are comparing the brains of IDENTICAL TWINS -- from this we are deriving our conclusion that physical damage to the brain causes schizophrenia.

Option B - Incorrect
If the smallness of the brain in the identical schizophrenic twin is due to "medications", this destroys the argument by providing an alternate cause.
If it is due to schizophrenia itself, this tells us that the effect led to the cause (Reverse causation) -- again weakens the argument.
By denying both these flaws, option B states an assumption.

Option C - Incorrect
Not a proper comparison. We are comparing the brains of IDENTICAL TWINS -- this helps us to control for other factors that might impact the brain size. We are not comparing the brain sizes of twins to those of other people.

Option D - Incorrect
this directly contradicts the conclusion -- which says that different size (smaller brain size due to physical damage) is something that causes schizophrenia

Option E - Incorrect
Not relevant to the argument. the argument is concerned with WHAT CAUSES schizophrenia, not HOW LIKELY it is to occur.
_________________

Enroll for our GMAT Trial Course here -
http://gmatonline.crackverbal.com/

Learn all PS and DS strategies here-
http://gmatonline.crackverbal.com/p/mastering-quant-on-gmat

For more info on GMAT and MBA, follow us on @AskCrackVerbal

Kudos [?]: 574 [0], given: 6

Director
Director
avatar
B
Joined: 13 Feb 2015
Posts: 821

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 32

Premium Member
Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Aug 2017, 07:01
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
_________________

Please Read: Verbal Posting Rules

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 32

Re: The brains of identical twins are genetically identical   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2017, 07:01
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The brains of identical twins are genetically identical

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.