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# The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm

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The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2012, 05:31
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67% (01:56) correct 33% (02:21) wrong based on 1176 sessions

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The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together. The storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2013, 13:45
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2
Hello mun23,

The argument states that the ship was found broken in two pieces. These two pieces were found right next to each other. However, the waves of a storm would have separated any two pieces floating for even a short while in the sea. Since the two pieces were not found far from each other, the ship's breakage might not be the cause for its sinking. The assumption here is that the waves could not have separated and then brought back the two pieces together so that they could be found right next to each other.

This point is clearly stated in option B.

However, let us analyze all the options one by one.

(A)Ships as large as Edmund Fitzgerald rarely sink except in the most violent weather. This is irrelevant. The suinken wreckage of the ship was found. We do not care of the probability of a large ship sinking since we already know that this particular ship sunk. We need to find the reason that caused the ship to sink.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again. This option is the right answer based on previous explanation.

(C)Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have. This is irrelevant. It gives us no information about the role of waves in sinking the ship or whether the ship broke before sinking.

(D)The waves of the storm not violent enough to have cause the ship to break up on the surface. The waves might not have been strong enough to cause the breakage of ship. However, there might have been some other cause(e.g. colliding with an iceberg) for the breakage of ship which could have lead to its sinking. We are not concerned about the cause of the breakage of the ship.

(E)If the ship broke up before sinking,the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface very long. The argument mentions that the pieces were found sunk. Hence, this point is irrelevant.

Please let me know if you need any further clarification.

mun23 wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown.When the sunkem wreckege of the vessel was found,researchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together.The storm`s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart.Therefore the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Ships as large as Edmund Fitzgerald rarely sink except in the most violent weather.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again

(C)Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have

(D)The waves of the storm not violent enough to have cause the ship to break up on the surface.

(E)If the ship broke up before sinking,the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface very long.

Need detail explanation ......................
##### General Discussion
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2012, 06:13
Vineetk wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm on Lake Inferior is still inferior. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in 2 pieces lying close together. The storm's violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore, the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.

Vineetk - Have you seen this question on the GMATPrep S/W?
This doesn't seem like one!

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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2012, 06:16
Jp27 wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm on Lake Inferior is still inferior. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in 2 pieces lying close together. The storm's violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore, the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.

Vineetk - Have you seen this question on the GMATPrep S/W?
This doesn't seem like one!

Cheers

The question is correct and taken from GMAT Prep S/W.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2012, 03:57
1
for assumption once I see the likely answer choice, I used the negation test to confirm and do not read other answer choices.

is my thinking correct? for only assumption question, this strategy can save time. I practice I see it is efficient.

but for strengthen and weaken question, I do not use this strategy

any one has any experiece on this, pls comment.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2013, 03:40
1
Premise 1: Vessel found with the hull in two pieces lying close together...
Premise 2: The storm's violent waves would cause pieces to drift apart if separated...

Gap/Assumption: Found connected --> Hull were connected before sinking

Conclusion: The breakup of the hull is ruled out as the cause of sinking

A. The issue is whether the sinking was caused by the breakup of the hull. OUT!
B. If underwater currents connected the hull, then breakup ocurred before sinking. This doesn't rule out the breakup of the hull. BINGO!
C. Sinking speed is not the issue. The issue is whether the breakup of the hull is a suspect. OUT!
D. Seems like the ship might have sunk before breaking up... The strength of the storm doesn't affect the issue of whether to rule out the breakup of the hull as a cause.

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The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2013, 21:07
2
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown.When the sunkem wreckege of the vessel was found,researchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together.The storm`s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart.Therefore the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Ships as large as Edmund Fitzgerald rarely sink except in the most violent weather.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again

(C)Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have

(D)The waves of the storm not violent enough to have cause the ship to break up on the surface.

(E)If the ship broke up before sinking,the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface very long.

Need detail explanation ......................
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2013, 23:04
mun23 wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown.When the sunkem wreckege of the vessel was found,researchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together.The storm`s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart.Therefore the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Ships as large as Edmund Fitzgerald rarely sink except in the most violent weather.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again

(C)Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have

(D)The waves of the storm not violent enough to have cause the ship to break up on the surface.

(E)If the ship broke up before sinking,the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface very long.

Need detail explanation ......................

Okay, I'll give this a try.

Premise: Some ship has sunk and no one really knows the cause. Eventually the wreckage was found and a hull was discovered in 2 pieces lying next to each other.

Conclusion: Break up of the hull caused the sinking.

We're assuming nothing else caused the ship to sink and that the pieces of the hull found close to each other are evidence of that.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.

Tells you that the current could have caused the pieces to come close together but we're assuming it didn't. Hence correct.

This is a really bad attempt at explaining.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2013, 23:16
mun23 wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown.When the sunkem wreckege of the vessel was found,researchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together.The storm`s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart.Therefore the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Ships as large as Edmund Fitzgerald rarely sink except in the most violent weather.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again

(C)Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have

(D)The waves of the storm not violent enough to have cause the ship to break up on the surface.

(E)If the ship broke up before sinking,the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface very long.

Need detail explanation ......................

You need detailed explanation but you must tell us what is your confusion??
Conclusion: the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.
Premise: Because Hull cannot be close to each other in such case.

Assumption: There is no other possible way by which hull can come close to each other. B says it.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a  [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2013, 04:11
BangOn wrote:
mun23 wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown.When the sunkem wreckege of the vessel was found,researchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together.The storm`s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart.Therefore the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Ships as large as Edmund Fitzgerald rarely sink except in the most violent weather.

(B)Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again

(C)Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have

(D)The waves of the storm not violent enough to have cause the ship to break up on the surface.

(E)If the ship broke up before sinking,the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface very long.

Need detail explanation ......................

You need detailed explanation but you must tell us what is your confusion??
Conclusion: the break up of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.
Premise: Because Hull cannot be close to each other in such case.

Assumption: There is no other possible way by which hull can come close to each other. B says it.

Hi
I was confused about B and the context of the argument seems unclear to me
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2013, 19:08
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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26 May 2013, 11:54
2
We need to keep the conclusion in perspective and then look out for assumption-

Conclusion- the breakup of the hulls did not cause the ship to sink
Premise- 2 pieces found together. He adds telling storms would have taken the 2 pieces far away
Assumption (prethinking) - maybe since the pieces are together it is not the reason for the ship sinking

Ans choice-
?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather. Ok we want info that relates to the 2 pieces of hull. we can put this could be true category.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again. hmmm.. looks good. PARK
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have. we are worried about ship sinking here
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface. Could be true. again
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long Irrelavent. Uses a few words from the arguement to confuse us

The option B is a 'defender' type assumption which defends the assumption telling 'there is no other cause for the hull being together'
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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29 May 2013, 21:20
2
This is a very good question..took me almost 2 minutes

The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together. The storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

The argument is about the wreckage of a ship. The cause of the wreck is unknown, but the author tries to hypothesize about what could have caused this disaster. The hull was found in 2 pieces lying close together. The entire argument builds on this premise by stating that the waves would have caused the pieces to drift apart. It jumps to the conclusion that the breakup of the hull cannot be the cause of the sinking, courtesy the premise stated before.

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather. - Out of scope as it tries to establish some relationship between Edmund and the others.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again. - Correct. Even if the waves made the pieces drift apart, the underwater currents could have made the 2 pieces come closer to each other. The author implicitly accepts that such a scenario is not possible.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have. - Wrong. The argument is about the pieces being close to each other and not about the rate of sinking.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface. - Wrong. This merely states that the ship did not sink due to breaking. But nothing is mentioned about the hull or any other premise specific parameter.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long. - Wrong. This is restating what we already know. The pieces of the hull were found in sunken wreckage. This means that they did not remain on the surface for long.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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30 May 2013, 17:47
Vineetk wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together. The storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.

Well my approach is to identify the conclusion of the passage first because that's the most important part of the stimulus. Here, that is : Therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Now , lets look at the answer choices :
A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.// Not related -> out of context or it's against the mentioned facts. The sink actually sank !
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.// probably true.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.// Quietly ? Doesn't support the conclusion.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.// Doesn't talk about the hull-> Eliminate.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.// Out of context-> Eliminated.

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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2014, 03:18
btg9788, nicely done.

I really liked your explanation. Kudos for that.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2014, 11:33
4
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together. The storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

IT IS BEING ARGUED THAT THOUGH THE TWO PIECES OF HULL HAVE BEEN FOUND CLOSE TOGETHER UNDER WATER, THE BOAT DID NOT SINK DUE TO BREAKAGE OF HULL ABOVE WATER.....BECAUSE IF IT HAD BROKEN ABOVE WATER THE PIECES WOULD HAVE DRIFTED FAR APART.......
THEREFORE THE HULL DID NOT BREAK ABOVE WATER ... BUT MUST HAVE BROKEN UNDERWATER..........AND IT CAN BE ASSUMED THAT IT IS NOT THAT THE HULL BROKE ABOVE WATER AND THEN THE UNDERWATER CURRENTS BROUGHT THE TWO PIECES TOGETHER UNDERWATER.......------RATHER THE HULL MUST HAVE BROKEN UNDERWATER AND THEREFORE SINKAGE OF SHIP MAY NOT BE BECAUSE OF BREAKAGE OF HULL ABOVE WATER......

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather. IRRELEVANT
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.......CORRECT
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.QUICKLY ---- IRRELEVANT
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.NO MENTION OF THIS NATURE
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.WHAT WOULD HAVE HAPPENED AFTER THE SHIP BROKE IS IRRELEVANT

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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2019, 02:28
i understand ans B but doubt is with E. if the pieces of the hull did remain on the surface for very long, then it would be separated by the violent waves. Wouldnt this destroy the conclusion.

I am confused someone please explain clearly
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2019, 02:53
Premise: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown.
Conclusion: therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking
IC: When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together. The storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart
so as to find the answer , we need to find option which upon negation breaks/ weakens the conclusion:

we need to find cause of what could have been the reason why the hull two pieces found by searchers as together..
option B
Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
negation of B : Underwater currents at the time of the storm did move the separated pieces of the hull together again.

so the negation of option B weakens the IC :

Vineetk wrote:
The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund Fitzgerald in a severe storm on Lake Superior is still unknown. When the sunken wreckage of the vessel was found, searchers discovered the hull in two pieces lying close together. The storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart. Therefore the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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23 Feb 2019, 14:06
2
mallya12 wrote:
i understand ans B but doubt is with E. if the pieces of the hull did remain on the surface for very long, then it would be separated by the violent waves. Wouldnt this destroy the conclusion.

I am confused someone please explain clearly

The passage concludes that "the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking" because "the storm’s violent waves would have caused separate pieces floating even briefly on the surface to drift apart."

From this evidence, we know that the pieces would have drifted apart if they were separated on the surface for even a very short amount of time. If the hull came apart on the surface, the pieces would separate whether they were only "briefly" on the surface and then sank, or whether they were on the surface for a longer amount of time and then sank.

The two pieces of the hull were found close together, leading the author to conclude that the pieces did not separate on the surface for even a brief length of time, and thus "the breakup of the hull can be ruled out as the cause of the sinking."

Take another look at answer (E):
Quote:
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.

This answer choice specifies that the pieces of hull would be on the surface for a "not... very long" time. As stated above, if the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of hull would have drifted apart almost immediately.

But remember, the author concludes that breakup of the hull did NOT cause the ship to sink. So it really doesn't matter how long the pieces might have been on the surface if the hull broke up BEFORE sinking, because the entire conclusion is that the hull did NOT break up before sinking.

The argument doesn't depend on (E) to be valid, so choice (E) is out.

I hope this helps!
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Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2019, 09:59
Premise:
1) 2 pieces of sunken hull found close together
2) violent storm waves would cause broken pieces to immediately separate
Conclusion:
3) the ship did not sink due to the hull breaking

A. Ships as large as the Edmund rarely sink except in the most violent weather.
-- irrelevant, other ships don't matter
B. Underwater currents at the time of the storm did not move the separated pieces of the hull together again.
-- if the hull pieces moved later, then the ship might have sunk due the hull breaking, the pieces initially separated and this effect was masked by the currents, this strengthens the conclusion
C. Pieces of the hull would have sunk more quickly than the intact hull would have.
-- irrelevant, rate of sinking doesn't matter
D. The waves of the storm were not violent enough to have caused the ship to break up the surface.
-- irrelevant, we don't know what caused it to sink to begin with, maybe it wasn't the waves but that the ship hit a rocky shoal
E. If the ship broke up before sinking, the pieces of the hull would not have remained on the surface for very long.
-- actually weakens the conclusion, since then the ship could break up on the surface and then the pieces would not separate but sink down together
Re: The cause of the wreck of the ship Edmund in a severe storm   [#permalink] 08 Jun 2019, 09:59

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