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The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the nat

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The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the nat  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Sep 2019, 04:07
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 117, Date : 31-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the natural resources in its coastal waters has been defined by two international law doctrines: freedom of the seas and adjacent state sovereignty. Until the mid-twentieth century, most nations favored application of broad open-seas freedoms and limited sovereign rights over coastal waters. A nation had the right to include within its territorial dominion only a very narrow band of coastal waters (generally extending three miles from the shoreline), within which it had the authority but not the responsibility, to regulate all activities. But, because this area of territorial dominion was so limited, most nations did not establish rules for management or protection of their territorial waters.

Regardless of whether or not nations enforced regulations in their territorial waters, large ocean areas remained free of controls or restrictions. The citizens of all nations had the right to use these unrestricted ocean areas for any innocent purpose, including navigation and fishing. Except for controls over its own citizens, no nation had the responsibility, let alone the unilateral authority, to control such activities in international waters. And, since there were few standards of conduct that applied on the “open seas”, there were few jurisdictional conflicts between nations.

The lack of standards is traceable to popular perceptions held before the middle of this century. By and large, marine pollution was not perceived as a significant problem, in part because the adverse effect of coastal activities on ocean ecosystems was not widely recognized, and pollution caused by human activities was generally believed to be limited to that caused by navigation. Moreover, the freedom to fish, or overfish, was an essential element of the traditional legal doctrine of freedom of the seas that no maritime (of, relating to, or bordering on the sea “a maritime province”) country wished to see limited. And finally, the technology that later allowed exploitation of other ocean resources, such as oil, did not yet exist.

To date, controlling pollution and regulating ocean resources have still not been comprehensively addressed by law, but international law—established through the customs and practices of nations—does not preclude such efforts. And two recent developments may actually lead to future international rules providing for ecosystem management. First, the establishment of extensive fishery zones extending territorial authority as far as 200 miles out from a country’s coast, has provided the opportunity for nations individually to manage larger ecosystems. This opportunity, combined with national self-interest in maintaining fish populations, could lead nations to reevaluate policies for management of their fisheries and to address the problem of pollution in territorial waters. Second, the international community is beginning to understand the importance of preserving the resources and ecology of international waters and to show signs of accepting responsibility for doing so. As an international consensus regarding the need for comprehensive management of ocean resources develops, it will become more likely that international standards and policies for broader regulation of human activities that affect ocean ecosystems will be adopted and implemented.
1. According to the passage, until the mid-twentieth century there were few jurisdictional disputes over international waters because.

(A) the nearest coastal nation regulated activities
(B) few controls or restrictions applied to ocean areas
(C) the ocean areas were used for only innocent purposes
(D) the freedom of the seas doctrine settled all claims concerning navigation and fishing
(E) broad authority over international waters was shared equally among all nations



2. According to the international law doctrines applicable before the mid-twentieth century, if commercial activity within a particular nation’s territorial waters threatened all marine life in those waters, the nation would have been

(A) formally censured by an international organization for not properly regulating marine activities
(B) called upon by other nations to establish rules to protect its territorial waters
(C) able but not required to place legal limits on such commercial activities
(D) allowed to resolve the problem at it own discretion providing it could contain the threat to its own territorial waters
(E) permitted to hold the commercial offenders liable only if they were citizens of that particular nation



3. The author suggests that, before the mid-twentieth century, most nations’ actions with respect to territorial and international waters indicated that

(A) managing ecosystems in either territorial or international waters was given low priority
(B) unlimited resources in international waters resulted in little interest in territorial waters
(C) nations considered it their responsibility to protect territorial but not international waters
(D) a nation’s authority over its citizenry ended at territorial lines
(E) although nations could extend their territorial dominion beyond three miles from their shoreline, most chose not to do so



4. The author cites which one of the following as an effect of the extension of territorial waters beyond the three-mile limit?

(A) increased political pressure on individual nations to establish comprehensive laws regulating ocean resources
(B) a greater number of jurisdictional disputes among nations over the regulation of fishing on the open seas
(C) the opportunity for some nations to manage large ocean ecosystems
(D) a new awareness of the need to minimize pollution caused by navigation
(E) a political incentive for smaller nations to solve the problems of pollution in their coastal waters



5. According to the passage, before the middle of the twentieth century, nations failed to establish rules protecting their territorial waters because

(A) the waters appeared to be unpolluted and to contain unlimited resources
(B) the fishing industry would be adversely affected by such rules
(C) the size of the area that would be subject to such rules was insignificant
(D) the technology needed for pollution control and resource management did not exist
(E) there were few jurisdictional conflicts over nations’ territorial waters



6. The passage as a whole can best be described as

(A) a chronology of the events that have led up to present-day crisis
(B) a legal inquiry into the abuse of existing laws and the likelihood of reform
(C) a political analysis of the problems inherent in directing national attention to an international issue
(D) a historical analysis of a problem that requires international attention
(E) a proposal for adopting and implementing international standards to solve an ecological problem




  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 4 (February 1992)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 31 Mar 2019, 05:54.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 28 Sep 2019, 04:07, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (723).
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New post 31 Mar 2019, 19:34
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Why answer to 6th question is d and not E
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Re: The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the nat  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2019, 21:30
hi, can someone give an explanation to answer 6?
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New post 31 Mar 2019, 23:22
Can anyone please explain the answer for question 5
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New post 31 Mar 2019, 23:45
Why 6th question answer is not d?
Please explain

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Re: The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the nat  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 08:32
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Hello UdithKiran Here it is.

Explanation


5. According to the passage, before the middle of the twentieth century, nations failed to establish rules protecting their territorial waters because

Explanation

We know countries didn’t care much about regulating territorial waters, but now we’re asked “Why?”. Well, it’s no secret—we’re told the reason in lines:

"to regulate all activities. But, because this area of territorial dominion was so limited, most nations did not establish rules for management or protection of their territorial waters."

and (C) nicely paraphrases the explanation. (A), (B), (D) All of these choices reflect either beliefs about or the situation in international, not territorial, waters. (E) This choice would be a good common sense guess if the passage were missing, but since we have the passage right in front of us, we know this was not the reason for the lack of regulation in question. “Jurisdictional conflicts” is a concept relating to the open seas, not territorial waters, so this choice can’t help explain anything.

  • This is an excellent example of why it’s important to go back and re-read the relevant piece(s) of text before answering explicit text questions—all of the answers seem plausible. If you don’t go back and re-read when faced with this sort of question, you can easily fall for one of the wrong choices.

ANSWER: C


Hope it helps
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New post 01 Apr 2019, 08:46
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Hello guys

Kaustubh30
abhishek31
blueshores

May your doubts get cleared

Explanation


6. The passage as a whole can best be described as

Explanation

The passage is an historical analysis—it discusses matters before the mid-20th century as well as today—and it is about a problem that requires international attention—the
regulation of activities on the oceans.

(A) The passage doesn’t mention dates or probe specific events, so chronology isn’t the right term for the text. Besides, the word “crisis” is a bit strong: A problem isn’t the same as a crisis.

(B) The passage certainly can’t be called a “legal inquiry,” even though it does touch on legal issues. Furthermore, there’s nothing in the text about “abuse of existing laws . . .”

(C) This passage doesn’t qualify as a “political analysis of the problems inherent in directing national attention” to an international issue. It’s a historical analysis of an international problem.

(E) The author never sets forth any concrete proposal. He simply states that the problem of exploitation of the oceans needs to be addressed by the international community.

• The correct answer to a global question must be broad enough to encompass the entire passage, yet specific enough to refer to its actual content.

ANSWER: D


Hope it helps
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Re: The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the nat  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2019, 01:50
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Hi everyone,

Took 12:30 minutes and got 5/6 correct. Took 4:40 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

P1
Two rules determined the extent of power over costal water. Why management/rules were not established for these areas

P2
The degree of control exercised on large ocean areas

P3
This paragraphs talks about the reasons for the lack of standards:
#1: No perception of pollution
#2: Countries did not want to see their freedom limited
#3: Technology for the exploration of the sea did not exist at the time

Now it comes to our mind the question: Which are the laws that were established first or that are actually in place?
Lucky us P4 will answer this question.

P4
It describes 2 laws/rules that try to regulate ocean/overseas areas and the possible future benefits coming from those

MP: Discuss the history of regulation of ocean/overseas water till today


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. According to the passage, until the mid-twentieth century there were few jurisdictional disputes over international waters because.

Pre-thinking:

Detail question.

Refer to P2 to answer this question: "And, since there were few standards of conduct that applied on the “open seas”, there were few jurisdictional conflicts between nations."


(A) the nearest coastal nation regulated activities
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) few controls or restrictions applied to ocean areas
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) the ocean areas were used for only innocent purposes
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) the freedom of the seas doctrine settled all claims concerning navigation and fishing
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) broad authority over international waters was shared equally among all nations
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. According to the international law doctrines applicable before the mid-twentieth century, if commercial activity within a particular nation’s territorial waters threatened all marine life in those waters, the nation would have been

Pre-thinking:

Detail question.

Let's refer to P1 to answer this one.

"A nation had the right to include within its territorial dominion only a very narrow band of coastal waters (generally extending three miles from the shoreline), within which it had the authority but not the responsibility, to regulate all activities. But, because this area of territorial dominion was so limited, most nations did not establish rules for management or protection of their territorial waters."

In conclusion no action was likely to take place.


(A) formally censured by an international organization for not properly regulating marine activities
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) called upon by other nations to establish rules to protect its territorial waters
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) able but not required to place legal limits on such commercial activities
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(D) allowed to resolve the problem at it own discretion providing it could contain the threat to its own territorial waters
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) permitted to hold the commercial offenders liable only if they were citizens of that particular nation
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. The author suggests that, before the mid-twentieth century, most nations’ actions with respect to territorial and international waters indicated that

Pre-thinking:

Inference question.

"Until the mid-twentieth century, most nations favored application of broad open-seas freedoms and limited sovereign rights over coastal waters."

No specific measure is taken into consideration.


(A) managing ecosystems in either territorial or international waters was given low priority
This is a good inference. Since the nations had the authority but chose not to establish rules over the international waters probably they did not give to the task a high priority. Hence correct

(B) unlimited resources in international waters resulted in little interest in territorial waters
This cause-effect relation is not logical per the passage. Hence incorrect

(C) nations considered it their responsibility to protect territorial but not international waters
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

(D) a nation’s authority over its citizenry ended at territorial lines
This is wrong. Nations had the authority to do something but not the responsibility. Hence incorrect

(E) although nations could extend their territorial dominion beyond three miles from their shoreline, most chose not to do so
Cannot be inferred from the information given. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. The author cites which one of the following as an effect of the extension of territorial waters beyond the three-mile limit?

Pre-thinking:
Detail question.

According to paragraph 4 the effect would be "the opportunity for nations individually to manage larger ecosystems."


(A) increased political pressure on individual nations to establish comprehensive laws regulating ocean resources
Political pressure is not discussed. Hence incorrect

(B) a greater number of jurisdictional disputes among nations over the regulation of fishing on the open seas
Not mentioned. Hence incorrect.

(C) the opportunity for some nations to manage large ocean ecosystems
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(D) a new awareness of the need to minimize pollution caused by navigation
Not in line with pre-thinking. Plus pollution reduction is discussed later on in another context. Hence incorrect

(E) a political incentive for smaller nations to solve the problems of pollution in their coastal waters
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. According to the passage, before the middle of the twentieth century, nations failed to establish rules protecting their territorial waters because

Pre-thinking:
Detail question.

Refer to P1 to answer this question.

"But, because this area of territorial dominion was so limited, most nations did not establish rules for management or protection of their territorial waters."


(A) the waters appeared to be unpolluted and to contain unlimited resources
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(B) the fishing industry would be adversely affected by such rules
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) the size of the area that would be subject to such rules was insignificant
in line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(D) the technology needed for pollution control and resource management did not exist
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) there were few jurisdictional conflicts over nations’ territorial waters
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


6. The passage as a whole can best be described as

Pre-thinking:
Refer to main point above

(A) a chronology of the events that have led up to present-day crisis
No present-day crisis. Hence incorrect

(B) a legal inquiry into the abuse of existing laws and the likelihood of reform
No legal inquiry. Hence incorrect

(C) a political analysis of the problems inherent in directing national attention to an international issue
No political analysis. Hence incorrect

(D) a historical analysis of a problem that requires international attention
This is correct

(E) a proposal for adopting and implementing international standards to solve an ecological problem
No proposal mentioned. Hence incorrect

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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Re: The extent of a nation’s power over its coastal ecosystems and the nat   [#permalink] 15 Sep 2019, 01:50
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