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The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any

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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2018, 23:46
GMATNinja, egmat
I am a but confused here.
Please provide some insights on the Verb+ing usage.
Please clarify whether V+ing modifier must make sense with the subject of the preceding clause or not?


abhimahna wrote:
gmatacer40 wrote:
In the OA (c), the Ving modifier "allowing it......300 and 700 meters." must make sense with the subject of the preceding clause which is "eyes". However, "it"does not agree with the subject of the preceding clause "eyes". Please explain??


Hey gmatacer40 ,

I think you aren't much clear on ", verb + ing" rule tested on GMAT. :)

The rule says "verb + ing" after comma should either describe the previous clause (NOT SUBJECT) or should show the result of the previous clause.

In the question given, we are saying the results of adeptness of eyes is allowing to do something.

Does that make sense?

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New post 13 Apr 2018, 07:08
gmatacer40 wrote:
In the OA (c), the Ving modifier "allowing it......300 and 700 meters." must make sense with the subject of the preceding clause which is "eyes".

Hi gmatacer40, indeed and that is the case here.

Quote:
However, "it"does not agree with the subject of the preceding clause "eyes"

There is no requirement for the pronouns in the participial phrase (allowing...) to agree with the subject of the preceding clause. For example, following is a correct sentence:

Teacher showered students with gifts, surprising them.

Here, them does not have any reason or requirement to agree with teacher, the subject of the preceding clause.
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2018, 07:16
gmatbusters wrote:
egmat
I am a but confused here.
Please provide some insights on the Verb+ing usage.
Please clarify whether V+ing modifier must make sense with the subject of the preceding clause or not?




Hello gmatbusters,

Thank you for the query. :-)


The answer to your question is "yes". The action denoted by the comma + verb-ing modifier must make sense with the doer of the modified action. It is so because every action must be accounted for, i. e., it must have a doer.

Please review the our popular article that delves deep into the topic. The article is replete with relevant details and official examples to make the concept easy to understand:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2018, 20:53
A,B,D wrong because eyes are compared with animal.
E wrong because it used for eyes and them used for single elephant

So C is correct

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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2018, 09:05
OG 2017 New Question[/quote]
hi egmat GMATNinja
Could you please explain the usage of the pronoun "it"
In the official answer, how the pronoun"it" refers clearly to seal
why does not it refer "animal"?
why there is no ambiguity?
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 00:12
AbdurRakib wrote:
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it to hunt efficiently under the gloomy conditions at its feeding depths of between 300 and 700 meters.


A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it
B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them
C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it
D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it
E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them


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Hi GMATNinja , mikemcgarry any other expert reading this

please explain how does "it" in option C clearly refers to seal , why does not "it" refer to animal
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 20:53
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chandan1988 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it to hunt efficiently under the gloomy conditions at its feeding depths of between 300 and 700 meters.


A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it
B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them
C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it
D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it
E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them


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Hi GMATNinja , mikemcgarry any other expert reading this

please explain how does "it" in option C clearly refers to seal , why does not "it" refer to animal

The "it" is arguably ambiguous here, but a key thing to remember is that pronoun ambiguity is NOT an absolute rule on the GMAT (see this video for more on that issue).

And more importantly, you don't have any other plausible alternatives on this particular question:

Quote:
A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it

The comparison is an absolute disaster: "the eyes of the elephant seal" are being compared to "any other animal." That can't possibly be right.

Quote:
B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them

This has the exact same comparison problem as (A). Plus, "them" (in the phrase "allowing them to hunt...") logically needs to refer to "elephant seals." Trouble is, "elephant seal" is singular in (B). So this is unambiguously wrong, too.

Quote:
C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

Yup, the pronoun "it" is kinda ambiguous: it could, in theory, refer to either "the elephant seal" or "any other animal." But if you read this sentence in real life, would you actually be confused by it? Probably not. You can tell from the context that "it" must be the elephant seal, since the anatomy of that particular critter is the topic of the sentence.

Don't get me wrong: sometimes the GMAT considers this sort of ambiguity wrong. But it's not an absolute rule, and you don't want to eliminate (C) based SOLELY on the ambiguity.

(Speaking of the anatomy of elephant seals: male elephant seals can weigh up to FIVE TONS. They're hilarious. Gigantic, relaxed, log-shaped brutes with these funny little flippers that actually have fingers. They just lay on the beach next to each other, like a bunch of cigars in a box, but without the box. And they smell worse than a cigar. When I was in Antartica, an ex-researcher admitted that he used to go "log-rolling" on elephant seals: jumping from animal to animal. They never really reacted, apparently. To an elephant seal, a puny human felt like nothing at all.)

Anyway, let's keep (C) and see what else they've got for us.

Quote:
D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it

Again, this comparison is completely, unambiguously wrong: "they" seems to refer to "the eyes of the elephant seal", and it doesn't make sense to compare the eyes to "any other animal."

Quote:
E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them

And both the "it" and the "they" are dead wrong here. Logically, the part after the comma is trying to say that the eyes allow the elephant seal to hunt efficiently -- so the sentence should say "they allow it to hunt more efficiently..."

So we're stuck with (C), despite the ambiguity.

And this is typical GMAT: the correct answer might not be the best thing ever. And in another context, the GMAT might view the ambiguity in (C) as cause for elimination. But in this case, it's definitely not the worst crime among the answer choices.

I hope this helps!
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2018, 05:50
GMATNinja wrote:
The "it" is arguably ambiguous here, but a key thing to remember is that pronoun ambiguity is NOT an absolute rule on the GMAT (see this video for more on that issue).



Dear GMATNinja

I totally agree with you bout any rules of pronoun in GMAT. But actually the question at hand has something very powerful. The non-underline part has possessive pronoun 'its' which gives indication that a pronoun 'it' is acceptable (in line with its )and not ambiguous in that sentence.

What are your thoughts?
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2018, 06:01
I choose A over C.
And In C
Quote:
C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

found "than do those" in C bit wordy.
expert help needed.
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2018, 19:26
mayursurya wrote:
I choose A over C.
And In C
Quote:
C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

found "than do those" in C bit wordy.
expert help needed.

You're in good company - (C) sounds a little goofy to me too! But goofiness is not a good reason to eliminate an answer choice. If one answer choice is logical and grammatically correct, and the other four all have identifiable issues, well, then we just have to accept that the OA might sound a little funny. (And if it didn't sound funny, the question wouldn't be difficult, right?)

Let's reexamine (A):
Quote:
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested

Sounds fine to the ear, but look at that comparison - one animal's eyes are compared to other animals. It's fine to compare one animal's eyes to another animal's eyes. It's perfectly OK to compare one animal to another. But it's nutty to compare eyes to animals. It doesn't matter if this is the world's most eloquent, poetic, beautiful-sounding sentence -- the thing is illogical, and needs to be eliminated.

Compare that with (C):
Quote:
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

Sounds weird, right? But let's look at the comparison again. The plural pronoun "those" must refer to the preceding plural noun "the eyes." So now the eyes of the elephant seal are correctly compared to the eyes of "any other animal". Perfectly logical.

The takeaway: if one answer choice sounds good, but is illogical, and another option sounds weird but makes perfect sense, the second sentence will always be preferred on the GMAT.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2018, 09:49
Hey jennpt

Could you please solve this question for us, i.e. the way you would solve in exam including strategy!! thanks!!
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2019, 10:17
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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question to narrow it down to the correct answer. First, here is the original question with the main differences between the 5 options highlighted in orange:

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it to hunt efficiently under the gloomy conditions at its feeding depths of between 300 and 700 meters.

(A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it
(B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them
(C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it
(D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it
(E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them

While the 5 options have a lot of differences, here are just 2 that we can focus on for now. Each of these items will eliminate 2-3 options, which will hopefully leave us with only one option left:

1. "any other animal" vs. "do those of any other animal" (parallelism & comparisons)
2. "it" vs. "them" (pronoun-antecedent agreement)


Let's begin with #1 on our list: "any other animal" vs. "do those of any other animal." We can see that in the original sentence, these phrases are part of a comparison:

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it to hunt efficiently under the gloomy conditions at its feeding depths of between 300 and 700 meters.

What are the two things being compared here? The one part of this comparison that remains constant among all 5 options is "the eyes of the elephant seal." Remember that the two things being compared MUST be parallel. This means that the sentence MUST compare the eyes of elephant seals to the eyes of other animals! Let's see which sentences do this correctly, and eliminate those that aren't parallel:

(A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it --> NOT PARALLEL (compares eyes to any other animal)
(B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them --> NOT PARALLEL (compares eyes to any other animal)
(C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it --> PARALLEL ("those of" is referring to the eyes of other animals, so we're comparing eyes to eyes, which is parallel)
(D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it --> NOT PARALLEL ("they" is referring to the eyes of the elephant seal, which is still comparing eyes to any other animal)
(E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them --> PARALLEL ("those of" is referring to the eyes of other animals, so we're comparing eyes to eyes, which is parallel)

We can eliminate options A, B, & D because the comparisons made in each sentence are not parallel in type. Instead of comparing the eyes of the elephant seal to the eyes of other animals, they compare the eyes of the elephant seal to the entire bodies of any other animals, which isn't parallel.

Now that we're left with only 2 options, let's tackle #2 on our list: it vs. them. This is an issue of pronoun-antecedent agreement! We need to look closely to determine what each pronoun is referring back to, and make sure they match up:

(C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

This is CORRECT! The singular pronoun "it" is referring back to the singular antecedent "the elephant seal."

(E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, the singular pronoun "it" in this sentence is actually referring back to the plural "eyes," which isn't parallel. Also, the plural pronoun "them" is referring back to the singular "elephant seal," which is also not parallel. To fix this, the phrase would have to say "they allow it."

There you have it - option C is the correct choice! It's the only option that uses parallelism correctly throughout the entire sentence! By focusing on two main difference between the options, we were able to narrow down the options quickly to find the correct choice.


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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2019, 21:13
GMATNinja
Hi GmatNinja,

In option C here, could you help explain why we need to have "do" after than? Can we eliminate it? I dont really understand why we have to include "do" here

Also, if we need to have "do", shouldn't it be placed as "more quickly than those of any other animal yet tested DO"?

Thanks a lot.
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2019, 05:56
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duybachhpvn wrote:
GMATNinja
Hi GmatNinja,

In option C here, could you help explain why we need to have "do" after than? Can we eliminate it? I dont really understand why we have to include "do" here

Also, if we need to have "do", shouldn't it be placed as "more quickly than those of any other animal yet tested DO"?

Thanks a lot.

Excellent question! The only time you need "do" is if the sentence is unclear or ambiguous without it.

For example, "Jen owns more puppies than Jack and Diane." This sentence could be interpreted two ways:

    1) that Jack and Diane are puppies Jen owns, but they're not her only dogs, or
    2) that the number of puppies Jack and Diane own is greater than the number of puppies that Jen owns.

If we want to make it clear that we prefer the second interpretation, we'd write, ""Jen owns more puppies than Jack and Diane do." (Or, to address your second question, we could write "Jen owns more puppies than do Jack and Diane." Changing the placement of "do" doesn't alter the meaning of the sentence.)

Otherwise, it's up to the discretion of the writer. In (C), if you were to remove "do," there still only seems to be one sensible way to interpret the sentence, so I think that construction would be fine. Fortunately, the other four answer choices all have definitive comparison errors in which eyes are compared to animals, so there's no need to waste your energy worrying about the use of "do" here.

Put another way, the GMAT would never ask you to choose between "The eyes of a seal move faster than do those of any other animal" and "The eyes of a seal move faster than those of any other animal." Both are fine, so we'd have to look for other decision points.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 13:28
Can somebody please explain 'than do those of' in option C. Shouldn't it be 'than those of'

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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2019, 19:58
ADS2021 wrote:
Can somebody please explain 'than do those of' in option C. Shouldn't it be 'than those of'
When do is used in place of a verb the way it has in option C, we can change the normal order in which the subject and verb occur.

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested...

is another way of saying

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than those of any other animal yet tested do...
or
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than those of any other animal yet tested adapt to darkness...

Adding the do makes the sentence clearer. Take a look at what happens if we drop the do (if that is what you were asking):

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than those of any other animal yet tested...

This is not wrong, but it could be interpreted as "X adapts to A more quickly than B".
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New post 12 Oct 2019, 04:16
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it??to hunt efficiently under the gloomy conditions at its feeding depths of between 300 and 700 meters.

(A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it

(B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them

(C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

(D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it

(E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them



hi team,??



in the above questions, option A states that -:

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than [the eyes] any other animal yet tested.

my first question -:

1. why doesn't the elipses work in this case? 'the eyes' is already stated in the first part of the sentence and it can be considered in the second part.

2. according to one of the posts on E-gmat, an example sentence was -:

" John cooks better piza than his wife"

the only intended/logical comparison could be between john and his wife and hence the comparison is correct.


similarly in the prompt, the only logical comparison could be between the eyes of the elephant and the eyes of any other animal.??

we can't logically compare the eyes of the elephant to any other animal.??

hence, to add "those of" makes it redundant.??

kindly validate my thinking process and let me know where i am going wrong.
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2019, 08:15
ykejariw wrote:
The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it??to hunt efficiently under the gloomy conditions at its feeding depths of between 300 and 700 meters.

(A) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, thus allowing it

(B) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, allowing them

(C) The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it

(D) Because they adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested, the eyes of the elephant seal allow it

(E) Because the eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, it allows them



hi team,??



in the above questions, option A states that -:

The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than [the eyes] any other animal yet tested.

my first question -:

1. why doesn't the elipses work in this case? 'the eyes' is already stated in the first part of the sentence and it can be considered in the second part.

2. according to one of the posts on E-gmat, an example sentence was -:

" John cooks better piza than his wife"

the only intended/logical comparison could be between john and his wife and hence the comparison is correct.


similarly in the prompt, the only logical comparison could be between the eyes of the elephant and the eyes of any other animal.??

we can't logically compare the eyes of the elephant to any other animal.??

hence, to add "those of" makes it redundant.??

kindly validate my thinking process and let me know where i am going wrong.

Good question! For the e-gmat example, it ultimately comes down to whether there's a viable alternative meaning.

For the sentence "John cooks better pizza than his wife [does]," there's only one possible meaning: the pizza John cooks is the better than the pizza his wife cooks. No one would read that sentence and wonder if the pizza John cooks is better than the wife John cooks. (Which is exactly why Cannibal John keeps getting away with his hideous crimes. :shocked ) Because there's no ambiguity, this example is fine. The omitted word, "does" is implied.

However, if I write "John loves pizza more than his wife," there'd be two viable interpretations:

    1) John loves pizza more than his wife loves pizza, or
    2) John loves pizza more than he loves his wife.

If one interpretation of a sentence leads to a family ordering Mexican food for dinner, and the other leads to divorce, that's a problem. :)

So that's one difference. The other difference is that in the e-gmat example, the helping verb, "does," is omitted. In the elephant seal example a pronoun is omitted. It would be very hard to interpret the meaning of any sentence if the reader had to consider the possibility that shadow pronouns had been left out, but implied.

Take another look at one of the faulty comparisons:

    "The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any other animal yet tested."

The most straightforward way to read this sentence is that the eyes of the seal are being compared to other animals. Is it possible one might compare eyes to, say, a tiger? I suppose. But the context here makes it far more logical for the eyes of one animal to be better at adjusting than the eyes of another. Because "those" makes this comparison clearer and more logical, it's better.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 19:20
daagh wrote:
"The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than do those of any other animal yet tested, allowing it to hunt efficiently."

Logic is the cornerstone of SC, especially pronoun reference. “It” in this context will not refer to any other animal because there are over one million animal species on the earth. Which one shall we take? - The point here is that if we take ‘it’ to refer to the eyes, then we end up meaning that the Seal’s adaptation allows the eyes to hunt efficiently, which is illogical. For all that, we know that the eyes do not hunt but the animal does. Hence, “it” decisively refers to the Seal.


Thanks sir,
Seal here is part of prepositional phrase "of the elephant seal". I understand only noun can be antecedent of pronoun.
Is this okay.
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The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 15:06
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Rishikesh92 wrote:
Thanks sir,
Seal here is part of prepositional phrase "of the elephant seal". I understand only noun can be antecedent of pronoun.
Is this okay.



Hello Rishikesh92,

Although your question is not directed to me, here is my explanation for the same. :-)

A noun in a prepositional phrase cannot act as a subject of a clause. This is the only restriction on a noun in a prepositional phrase.

A pronoun or a noun modifier can very well refer to/modify a noun in a prepositional phrase. Hence, in the correct answer choice, the pronoun it correctly refers to the noun the elephant seal. Even if the elephant seal is preceded by a preposition, it itself is a noun entity.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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The eyes of the elephant seal adapt to darkness more quickly than any   [#permalink] 21 Nov 2019, 15:06

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