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The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar

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The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 Jan 2019, 23:46
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63% (01:57) correct 37% (02:11) wrong based on 4425 sessions

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The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

(A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

(B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also

(C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but

(D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also

(E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

The first trenches cut into the large 500-acre site, Tell Hamoukar, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East apparently arose simultaneously but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq. In the conventional view, civilization was thought to begin solely in the south and then move north through trade and colonization.

Attachment:

01.jpg [ 150.95 KiB | Viewed 28741 times ]

Attachment:

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Originally posted by jerrywu on 28 Aug 2006, 10:59.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Jan 2019, 23:46, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2013, 08:07
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greatps24 wrote:
Can some one explain "why A is wrong"?.

E: States: Trenches cut into a 500-acre site . How can Trenches cut themselves?

Hi greatps24,

The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

(A) is incorrect because of two reasons, "evidence for" is incorrect and "that" in the relative clause "that were arising simultaneously.." may either refer to "northern regions" or "centrally administered societies". The correct answer choice (E) express this clearly and concisely.

"The trenches cut into a 500-acre" is not implying that the "The trenches" cut themselves.

For example.

The apple cut into four pieces is being loved by all.

Actually the sentence is saying "The apple that was cut into four pieces is being loved by all"

We can drop the "that was" part without changing the meaning of the sentence.

consider one more example: Both the sentences convey the same thing; however, the first one will be better because of concision.

The movies produced by Steven Spielberg are unique in their cinematographic techniques.

The movies that are produced by Steven Spielberg are unique in their cinematographic techniques.

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2010, 17:32
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Ok,I did POE and reached at E

First subject is trenches --- anywhere you see yields is out , B and D - out

left with A, C and E - having is almost always wrong on gmat - quickly eliminated C

A has got evidence for and E has got evidence that

evidence that is correct - So,E
Also, not sure whether were arising is correct in A , since the question talks about past - arose is better
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2006, 12:46
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jerrywu wrote:
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

Trenches is plural, so 'yields' is wrong - B, D are out.
-ing forms to be avoided unless necessary - C is out.
A is out for the same reason as C - 'were arising'.

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 21:28
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Quote:
In learning of foundation of prounouns, such as that, I probably have lost the track here!
Isn't "that" suppose to refer to a singular idea/thing?

Q1) Is usage of that appropriate here ? And why?

Q2) Shouldn't it be "those" here, instead of "that"?

Q3)
What does prounoun "that" refer to?

Yes That is supposed to refer to the singular idea/thing.
A1: Usage of that is inappropriate because you already have a main subject "the trenches". Why would you want to reiterate a subject which already exists immediately after you have introduced it, right? Later on in the sentence it makes sense to refer to it but not immediately after introduction.

A2: No. We should not use either that or those so early on. This is again drawing on answer to point 1.

A3: Correct. That here refers to the complex societies. But is wrongly used. This is the reason why the correct answer eliminates all usage of that completely. There is no ambiguity of that or those at all.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2013, 03:48
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Hi guy

In all fairness, I think is wrong to attack such complex question in the way you did, with the use of that as pivot point.

Moreover, I'm honest to say that me too had problems simply because
- this kind of question is difficult only for the reason that when you read it from the beginning, when you are in the end of the phrase you already forgot where you stand: lost

- is important to understand the exact time line, without this process you always will pick such question wrong or at least you pick right but after five minute (during the exam the pressure blow your mind for sure) that is the same to pick it wrong.

Now back to the question: the acheologists do something NOW (cut a site into pieces) and discover something else (in that place complex societies took place) and the societies AROSE, in the past.

If you use arise or arising the societies seem still there. as an ongoing situation

cut (now) into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously (one time) with but and so on

If you do not understand clearly thi first split (the land were cut not in the past but NOW) by someone. They cut the land into acres $$NOW$$

Focus on the whole picture. Grammar is important but try to understand a macro vision of the sentence

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2013, 12:06
10
12
fameatop wrote:
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.
(A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
(B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
(C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
(D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
(E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

Although I accept that "evidence for" is wrongly used and "evidence that" is the right usage, some discussions said about the use of "that"
Why don't we need "that" after trenches ?
How do we know that author is talking about "first trenches" or he is talking about the "first trenches that were cut into"?
And for the second "that" used after "Middle East" is there any reason why it is wrongly used other than that it modifies "middle east" ,although it should have modified "societies"

I'm happy to help with this. This is SC#70 from the OG13.

The opening choices ------
"The first trenches that were cut ...." ----- this modifies "trenches" with a subordinate clause, a clause beginning with "that". This is perfectly correct.
"The first trenches having been cut ...." --- participle with a strange tense, not correct
"The first trenches cut ...." ---- as fameatop pointed out above, this is participial phrase, also 100% correct. For more on participial phrases, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/participle ... -the-gmat/

The difference between this would be like the difference between
(a) The horse that was traded for an electric guitar was now .....
(b) The horse, traded for an electric guitar, was now ....
(a) is a "that" clause construction, (b) is a participial construction, and both are correct.

You see, grammar is complex. You can just memorize a simple rule like don't drop the word "that" ----- There are two very different "that" clauses to consider.

Category #1: relative clauses
This is what appears in this sentence. Here, the word "that" acting as a relative pronoun -- others include who, whom, whoever, etc. Within the relative clause, the relative pronoun acts as a pronoun within the clause, often the subject of the clause. Let's look at (A) from the prompt ---- the relative clause is in green.
(1) The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria have yielded ...
Within that clause, the pronoun "that" is the subject of the clause, the subject of the verb "were cut."
Other examples includes
(2) The horse that was traded for an electric guitar was now ....
(3) The regions of Europe that Julius Caesar conquered were not .....
In #2, the word "that" is also the subject of the clause, now the subject of the verb "was traded." In #3, the word "that" is the direct object of the verb "conquered."

Nobody drops the "that" from a relative clause ----- since "that" is acts as a pronoun in the clause, it always sound terribly awkward to drop a pronoun. Pick any sentence with a pronoun, and say the sentence without the pronoun --- it will sound bizarre and incomplete Nobody makes this mistake. The dropping the "that" mistake is never a concern with relative clauses.

Category #2: substantive clauses
For more on this structure, read these two posts:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/substantiv ... -the-gmat/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-idiom ... ieve-that/
This is what we have following the word "evidence" in the SC sentence above ---- evidence that ..., know that ...., hope that ...., wish that ...., believe that ..... hypothesis that .... etc. etc. etc.
Here, the word "that" is followed by a full [noun] + [verb] clause. Examples, with substantive clause in green ----
(4) .... evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.
(5) The Declaration of Independence states that all men are created equal.
(6) The senator said that he will not seek reelection.
In all three cases, what follows "that" is a full clause --- in each case, we could extract the green section, throw away the word "that", and the rest of the green part could stand on its own as a full complete sentence. Here, the word "that" is NOT acting as a pronoun --- rather, it is serving to introduce a full clause. Because the word "that" plays no essential role within the clause, it is very tempting to drop it --- in fact, people do all the time in casual conversation, and the GMAT always tests this. This is where one has to have one's antennae up, looking for this very predictable mistake.

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2013, 22:09
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Archit143 wrote:
Hi
i have doubt with option E.
"cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but"
"The first trenches cut into........." is a clause.
I think cut is a verb for the subject "first trenches"......Now in the same sentence, another verb "have yielded" too stands fr the subject "The first trenches"
So my doubt is hwo can there be two verb fr the same subject, when there is no connector.

Consider kudos if my post helps!!!!!

Archit

"cut into a 500 acre ..." is a modifier. It modifies 'trenches' i.e. it tells you more about the trenches.
As pointed out by Vercules above, "cut into a 500 acre" can be replaced by "that were cut into a 500 acre". The meaning doesn't change but you can see clearly that "cut into..." is modifying trenches.
The verb is 'have yielded'.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2013, 23:42
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2013gmat wrote:

1)that were cut(verb)
2)cut into(modifier)

then which one should I choose? and are there any specific rules for that???

First, meaning is key to solve this question
The trenches cut into something (Active voice)
--OR--
The trenches were cut into something? (Passive voice)

Clearly, the trenches only cut into something (how the trenches were cut (passive voice) into something? )

The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
Wrong. Passive voice is wrong.

B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
Wrong.
Same as in A. --> Passive voice is wrong.
Trenches is plural --> "yields" is wrong.
Wrong idiom: but also (the correct one is: not only... but also)

C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
Wrong. "having been cut" is ungrammatical.

D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
Wrong idiom: but also (the correct one is: not only... but also)

E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but
Correct.
Active voice "the trenches cut into something" <-- correct.
Contrast meaning: arose simultaneously with but independently.... <-- correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 08:50
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Let me give a different perspective about the use of active and passive voices here.
Quote:
The trenches that were cut
The trenches cut

IMO, both the above are passive voices. One may say that first one is wordier by two words. You might see that a trench has to be cut by somebody. It cannot cut itself or cut another. The cut is used in the sense of a past participle and not past tense at best; one may say that the first is wordier by two words
So whenever you use trench with the verb cut, it will always be in passive. However a trench can run along some route, when it will be in active voice. I hope this difference is realized
Therefore the reason that A is wrong is because of that idiom, evidence for; evidence that is the accepted idiom, So E wins.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 00:57
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nelz007 wrote:
The first trenches ...

that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,

Contd...have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East

that( Refers to societies) were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

I have a question regarding the idiom "Evidence that", "Evidence for" and "Evidence of". Evidence that is the right idiom? It was between A and E ( I eliminated A cos it was passive voice) Others had subject-verb agreement issues ( yields)

Hi Nelson,

Let me address your confusion regarding the above mentioned usages of “evidence” with simple examples.

a. The police found evidence that Syrio was present at the crime scene when the crime happened.
b. The police found evidence for Syrio was present at the crime scene… (Police found evidence because Syrio was present at the crime scene. Changes the meaning).
c. The police found evidence of Syrio was present at the crime scene…(Completely incorrect. It doesn’t make sense to use a clause after “evidence of”)
d. There was ample evidence for the police to file a case against Syrio.
e. The police found no evidence of gun at the crime scene.

Notice how when “evidence” is followed by that, the “that clause” describes what that evidence in fact is. This is absolutely in line with how a typically noun modifier works. You have a noun that is followed by a that clause that explains this noun.

Likewise, when evidence is followed by “for” or “on”, you can see that it is followed by a noun.

So really speaking you do not need to think of “evidence” in terms of an idiom. It works in the same way as any other noun entity would work. But yes, whether evidence should be followed by “that” or by a preposition “for” or “on” depends on what you want to communicate through the sentence.

Hope this helps!

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 05:34
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jrashish wrote:
jerrywu wrote:
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

In option A

that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

Does 2nd that modifies middle east?
Is it necessary that placement of that always modified the noun preceding it in this case it is middle east but logically it should be societies

Dear Ashish,

"That" is a relative pronoun. Relative pronouns take the number of the nouns they refer to. So, in some cases, the verb after "that" can give you a clue about what it is referring to. In this case, the verb is "were". So "that" cannot refer to the singular "Middle East".

So, it is not necessary for "that" to be immediately after the noun it refers to.

I hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna
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The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site  [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2014, 06:23
4
OG 13 : SC-70.

The first trenches
that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,
have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societiesin northern regions of the Middle East
that were arising simultaneously with but
independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

(A). that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but ----> Not sure what really wrong

1. I have choose the answer A , after down to A and E kind stuck and did not found any clue to start , now when reading post looks like we have another issues like idioms , but is there any other easy iussue that we can look esially , actually the idiomic list is very long and always confusing as what to use with what ?

2. I was confused in “Tell Hamoukar, Syria,Have …” (to many commas was not sure its correct) can someone point out similar structure ?

(B). that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also --> S-V error

(C). having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but --> Having been

(D). cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also --> S-V error

(E). cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but --> same as Ans choice A , I was stuck as did not see any clue to choose or eliminate

Any help from Verbal forum experts on above doubts ?
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site  [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2014, 11:57
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2
OG 13 : SC-70.

The first trenches
that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,
have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societiesin northern regions of the Middle East
that were arising simultaneously with but
independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

(A). that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but ----> Not sure what really wrong

1. I have choose the answer A , after down to A and E kind stuck and did not found any clue to start , now when reading post looks like we have another issues like idioms , but is there any other easy iussue that we can look esially , actually the idiomic list is very long and always confusing as what to use with what ?

2. I was confused in “Tell Hamoukar, Syria,Have …” (to many commas was not sure its correct) can someone point out similar structure ?

(B). that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also --> S-V error

(C). having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but --> Having been

(D). cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also --> S-V error

(E). cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but --> same as Ans choice A , I was stuck as did not see any clue to choose or eliminate

Any help from Verbal forum experts on above doubts ?

You have correctly identified the S-V agreement errors in the options. However, you have missed the errors caused by the incorrect idiomatic usage.
Let’s first understand the structure and the meaning of the sentence:

The first trenches (CLAUSE-1)
o that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, (CLAUSE-2)
have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East (CLAUSE-1 CONTINUED)
o that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, (CLAUSE-3)
o in what is now southern Iraq. (CLAUSE-4)

MEANING

• This sentence tells us that the first trenches dug in a particular place have yielded strong evidence about something. The evidence tells us that some specific societies in northern regions of the Middle East societies were growing along with something.
• The sentence further tells us that the societies were arising simultaneously with but independently of the city-states of southern Mesopotamia. This is the area in which southern Iraq now lies.

So, the main point the sentence wants to convey is that certain evidence suggests that certain complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising at the same time but independently of city-states of southern Mesopotamia.

ERROR ANALYSIS

1. The phrase ‘strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies’ is idiomatically incorrect. This means that the evidence is for the societies. This meaning is illogical in the context of the sentence since the evidence is about the societies, not for the societies.

When we have to state what the evidence is, then the idiom ‘evidence that’ is used. Here, ‘that’ is always followed by a clause, and this clause represents the evidence.
The expressions ‘evidence of’ and ‘evidence for’ are always followed by a noun. Hence these expressions tell us what the evidence is of/for.

The police did not find any evidence of a gun at the crime scene. (Followed by a noun)

There was ample evidence for the police to register a case against the landlord. (Followed by a noun)

The police found evidence that the accused came to the crime scene after 4:30 pm. (Followed by a clause)

So, the usage of ‘evidence ….’ depends on the meaning that we want to convey through the sentence. Accordingly, it is followed by ‘of/for/that’. Please refer to the following article to learn more about the usage of “evidence that” and “evidence of”:
evidence-of-versus-evidence-that-171574.html

2. Although it’s not incorrect to say “the first trenches that were cut into…. ”, options D and E remove ‘that were’ and make the sentence less wordy.

PROCESS OF ELIMINATION

OPTION A
As discussed in the error analysis, option A is incorrect.

OPTION B
1) SV Agreement Error: The singular verb ‘yields’ does not agree with the plural subject ‘The first trenches’.

OPTION C
1) Idiom Error: The removal of ‘with’ from the phrase ‘arising simultaneously with’ makes it unidiomatic. The correct idiomatic usage is:

Event A and B happened simultaneously. Correct
Event A happened simultaneously with event B. Correct
Event A happened simultaneously event B. Incorrect

2) Although using ‘having been cut’ is not incorrect, it makes the sentence unnecessarily wordy. This part can be made more precise as it is in option D and E.

OPTION D
1) SV Agreement Error: The singular verb ‘yields’ does not agree with the plural subject ‘The first trenches’.

2) Idiom Error:
a) The phrase ‘evidence of centrally administered complex societies’ implies that the evidence is of centrally administered complex societies. This is illogical.
b) The removal of ‘with’ from the phrase ‘arising simultaneously with’ makes it unidiomatic.

OPTION E
1) This option corrects the only error in the original sentence by replacing ‘evidence for’ with ‘evidence that’. Now, the dependent clause becomes “that centrally administered complex societies arose simultaneously with’. As discussed in the error analysis this is grammatically correct and does not change the meaning.

2) It also replaces ‘The first trenches that were cut’ with ‘the first trenches cut’ that converts the verb ‘cut’ into a verb-ed modifier, but it does not change the meaning of the sentence. However it is more precise as compared to the original sentence.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2014, 13:53
8
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar. Svria. have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

evidence for or evidence of is incorrectly used in option A and D. centrally administered complex societies is not the intended object that preposition of or for meaning wise intends to modify. In some cases we can use evidence of or for but in this question it is used in a worst manner.

We have not found any evidence of my brother stealing bread ( incorrect). Here intention is to express evidence of theft not evidence of my brother and that can be best expressed by using restrictive clause that and same is done in B, D, and E.

(A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

(B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
S-V error, trenches is plural but verb yields is in singular form. best half of But also that is not only is missing. thus, such use is incorrect.

(C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
99.99% use of having modifying a noun is incorrect in official incorrect options. I don't have any other reason to reject this choice.

(D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
S-V error + evidence of error as explained above.

(E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but[/quote]
Here cut is acting as -ed modifier modifying trenches. Evidence that is fine . Arose past tense verb is fine. simultaneously with but independently of X is fine.

Therefore, E is the best.

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2014, 00:25
TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

As explained in the video explanation in the portal, there is no mention of the two related events .

"were cut" and "were arising".

trenches were cut
societies were arising

Were arising should "describe an ongoing event when the other event occurred".

However, here logically we know that since the trenches provide evidence of the distant past there is no need for progressive tense to keep the sentence simple.

Societies arose is correct and coincidentally it is correct in correct choice too.

However, is above the valid reason to conduct POE as this reason is not mentioned in video explanation @portal.

Hi Saurabh,

No. This is not the valid reason to eliminate a choice. Since these events happened at a very distant time in the past, using either the simple past tense or the past continuous tense in the context of this sentence does not change the meaning.
So, we cannot eliminate any choice on the basis of this reasoning. Also, as mentioned in the video we have more concrete reasons to eliminate the choices.

Hope this helps!
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2016, 10:45
flowerchild wrote:
I understand that E is the correct answer but I don't get the meaning of the following part.
"(complex societies) arose simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia".
Isn't an idiom "simultaneously with" supposed to be followed by a noun, is it? Would anybody help explain the structure of the sentence?

Hi flowerchild, indeed it is followed by a noun (noun-phrase here):

..centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

So, the sentence is trying say that complex societies had two properties:

i) complex societies arose simultaneously with the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, but

ii) complex societies arose independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia

As is evident, simultaneously with is followed by noun phrase the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2017, 06:16
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2
sleepynut wrote:
Hi all,
I couldn't figure out the object of "that were arising simultaneously with..."
Why "with but" is correct here?

Could you help me with the break down of this sentence?
Thanks

"But" is a conjunction. Here "but" joins the two phrases "simultaneously with" and " independently of". ("But", instead of "and", is used to highlight the contrast between the two phrases).

Parallelism:
Parallelism marker: X BUT Y - X and Y should be parallel.
X = simultaneously with
Y = independently of

Consider the two elements separately:
...that were arising simultaneously with the more celebrated city-states...
...that were arising independently of the more celebrated city-states ...

Thus parallelism is properly maintained.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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19 May 2017, 02:17
rahulkiller321 wrote:
can we use "but also" or do we need to have "not only " before that
can you share an official example if any, where "but also" is used without"not only"

Logically "but also" can be used indepedently. The difference between the structure (a) "but also" without "not only" and (b) "not only X, but also Y" is as follows.

(a) "But also" without "not only":
The structure would be as follows:
Clause, but (also) Clause.
In this case two clauses are combined by the conjunction "but". No further parallelsim is applicable in such case.
You did your work in time, but you also made many mistakes.... correct.

(b) "Not only X, but also Y":
However for a "not only....but also" structure, the two elements can be anything: noun, verb, participles, modifiers etc.
Noun: I have not only a pen, but also a book.
Verb: I not only have a pen, but also can write with it.

When I come across an official example with the first structure, I shall revert back.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 03:03
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but - "evidence for" means "evidence because centrally administered complex..." clearly this does not make any sense + twice use of "that" makes it very wordy & complicated
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also - "yields" does not work with plural subject "trenches" + twice use of "that" makes it very wordy & complicated
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but - "having been" unnecessarily wordy + "simultaneously" must be followed by "with"
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also - "yields" does not work with plural subject "trenches" + "also is not unnecessary
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but - CORRECT "have" works with plural subject "trenches + "evidence that" is correct
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar   [#permalink] 28 Jun 2017, 03:03

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