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# The government has made great strides in implementing

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Senior Manager
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26 Aug 2009, 08:15
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63% (01:00) correct 37% (01:11) wrong based on 1688 sessions

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I have one question here:

Why B is wrong?

The government has made great strides in implementing immunization in public school systems despite its cost. When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health.

Which of the following identifies an assumption in the author's argument?

Only public schools require immunization.
Children are not already properly immunized.
If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease.
Immunization is effective enough to justify its cost to the taxpayer.
Immunization is the only precaution necessary to guarantee a child's health.
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2010, 14:03
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amma4u wrote:
3) If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease.

and this will not keep good health.

This is a trick used by GMAT. What you need to understand for these questions is the concept of necessary and sufficient conditions.

Immunization is one of the things that ensure the health of children (there are other factors such as nutrition, clean environment etc).
The author assumes that immunization is sufficient to ensure the health of children. That nothing else is needed. He says, "When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health." That is his incorrect assumption. Answer is (E)

Let me come to why (C) is not the answer.
We know he believes that when all children all properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health. But do we know what he thinks will happen if they are not immunized? Does he think most of them will fall victim to disease? Does he think they will be vulnerable to disease? We do not know. All we know is that he is assuming that if you vaccinate children, they will remain healthy. He is not assuming anything about what will happen if you do not vaccinate the children.
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17 Oct 2010, 17:26
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The government has made great strides in implementing immunization in public school systems despite its cost. When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health.

Which of the following identifies an assumption in the author's argument?

Only public schools require immunization.
Children are not already properly immunized.
If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease.
Immunization is effective enough to justify its cost to the taxpayer.
Immunization is the only precaution necessary to guarantee a child's health.

I liked this question and want to see the reasons why you all think the choices are wrong or right.

Please KUDOS me if you like the question.

Spoiler: :: explanation
"Ensuring kids' health" is a pretty broad and ambitious agenda, but the author says that it's a reachable goal if all kids are properly immunized. He must be assuming that nothing else is needed to achieve the goal, and that makes (E) right.

The possibility that other institutions (A) and, inferably, other populations, might need to be immunized falls outside of the scope, which deals with the health of kids only. (B), while tempting, is not something the author is counting on to be true; if, contrary to (B), the author were to learn that all kids are immunized, he'd simply say "Great! So their health is ensured." (This use of the Kaplan Denial Test—a concept we'll take up in the Challenge Workshop—demonstrates that (B) is not a necessary assumption.) (C) represents a common logical flaw. Yes, the author believes that immunization will ensure kids' health. That doesn't mean that lack of immunization will lead all to disease vulnerability. (D), meanwhile, goes way outside the scope in bringing in the cost issue, which is only a side note, not a major part of the logic.
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26 Aug 2009, 10:06
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IMO E

Argument "When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health."

Only public schools require immunization. - Not related to the argument
Children are not already properly immunized. - Close but I would say it is not a required assumption because some may already be immunized and some may not be.
If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease. - Out of Scope
Immunization is effective enough to justify its cost to the taxpayer. - Argument is about health not cost
Immunization is the only precaution necessary to guarantee a child's health. - Perfect fit as argument says because of X then Y. Doesn't allow the counter of because of X and Z then Y
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26 Aug 2009, 11:21
yeah i agree. The gov is trying to ensure the children's health and immunization is a means. E basically says that to succeed (ensure health) immunization is needed.
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26 Aug 2009, 12:19
netcaesar wrote:
I have one question here:

Why B is wrong?

The government has made great strides in implementing immunization in public school systems despite its cost. When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health.

Which of the following identifies an assumption in the author's argument?

Only public schools require immunization.
Children are not already properly immunized.
If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease.
Immunization is effective enough to justify its cost to the taxpayer.
Immunization is the only precaution necessary to guarantee a child's health.

I'd go with B only, post the OA from the source and we could dissect the train of thought.
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26 Aug 2009, 17:33
I will go with E.

Conclusion :- When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health

E undermines this conclusion

B - using Assumption negation technique becomes:-

does not undermine the conclusion. infact it agrees with the conclusion
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28 Aug 2009, 10:30
OA is E.
I do not understand the last post.
In my opinion. if you negate B you negate the conclusion, but it is wrong here and I want to know WHY!!!
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28 Aug 2009, 10:42
I think the issue in B is that it comes down to do we really need to assume this for the conclusion to be correct.

Conclusion
Through Immunization we will be able to ensure their health.

Scenario a) Children are not immunized vs b) Children are immunized
Does it really change whether or not we will be able to ensure their health? Not really. The question comes down do how can we ensure their health. The author is claiming immunization ensures health.
This is why E is correct
Immunization is the only precaution necessary to guarantee a child's health.

If E wasn't true then there would no way to ensure health because immunization might not protect against second hand smoke, radiation etc.
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28 Aug 2009, 11:27
IMO E

Not B because its not only about immunization but also about ensuring of health..
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2010, 03:02
1
Premise: The govn't implemented the immunization in public schools despite its costs.
Premise: All children are properly immunized
Conclusion: We will be able to ensure children's health

The children's health can be ensured when they received proper immunization and they don't need other preventive methods.

Only public schools require immunization.--> Not relevant
Children are not already properly immunized. --> If children are not properly immunized, then now the gov't will provide them proper immunization. This is not the assumption the author based on to make conclusion
If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease. --> not relevant
Immunization is effective enough to justify its cost to the taxpayer.--> not relevant
Immunization is the only precaution necessary to guarantee a child's health. --> This is the assumption the author based on to make conclusion. Children may suffer certain disease through eating habits --> children's health cannot be ensured.
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2010, 12:56
3) If not immunized, most children will fall victim to disease.

and this will not keep good health.
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2010, 06:07
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Werewolf wrote:
Why not B, Karishma?

An assumption is a missing [highlight]necessary[/highlight] premise. The validity of author's conclusion is based on the validity of the assumption.

Conclusion: When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health.

In his conclusion, he is not assuming that children are not immunized. He is saying that if they are, they will be healthy. The validity of this conclusion is not based on whether children are already immunized or not.

If I were to negate the assumption in option (B) and say 'Children are already properly immunized', his conclusion doesn't fall apart. According to the author then, they are healthy.
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2010, 20:05
Thanks Karishma. It's clear to me now.
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2010, 19:55
It was a close call between C and E for me...But I choose E because it seems to be a missing premise for author's conclusion.
Assumptions are nothing but missing premises, an additional reason to prove that the conclusion is valid. On that note I think E is more accurate than C.
IMO (E)
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Re: Government immunization - Kaplan CR [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2010, 03:25
It took 1.41 secs to me to reach to the correct answer.

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23 Apr 2012, 09:28
+1 E

As the Powerscore CR Bible mentions: In CR, when the author concludes about a causality relationship, he or she assumes that the cause mentioned is the ONLY cause for the described effect. There are NOT other possible causes.
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23 Apr 2012, 22:08
I went with C, E sounds too strong, since it uses "only"
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24 Apr 2012, 00:04
ashish8 wrote:
I went with C, E sounds too strong, since it uses "only"

The answer can be strong because in this case the use of word all makes the conclusion strong. On the other hand: B can be or cannot be true according to the conclusion, because the disease is not mentioned in the argument.
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11 Nov 2012, 15:35
Hi all,

I find this question not trick but poorly worded.

The government has made great strides in implementing immunization in public school systems despite its cost. When all children are properly immunized, we will be able to ensure their health.

One interpretation of question is what you guys have discussed above. According to that E is the answer. However, look at the highlighted text above. This could be a potential interpretation. Premise states about immunization is public school and then they say if "all children". This can mean they are assuming all the children are in public school and hence leads to assumption as answer A "Only public schools require immunization."

can any expert throw some light on my interpretation and tell me if I my understanding is wrong.

thank you!
-k
Re: The government has made great strides in implementing   [#permalink] 11 Nov 2012, 15:35

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