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The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstre

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The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of food that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends.


(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.

(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.

(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.

(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet change can.

(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.

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Originally posted by alimad on 17 Jul 2007, 17:25.
Last edited by Bunuel on 24 Jul 2018, 20:40, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the question, added OA.
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New post 30 Jul 2013, 04:39
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Applying the negation technique:

(C)People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function
(C-1)People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function

(E)Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.
(E)Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.

We have to evaluate their impact on this:
Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of food that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Even if those people have other healths problems (C), they could still improve their lung function by increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins.
The argument holds.
If smoking introduces chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream, increasing the intake of such food will not help because the helpful substances will be destroyed by the effect of smoking.
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Re: The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstre  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2013, 20:40
(A) may help explain observations made in the passage (supporting leg) however, they are not related to the argument.

Observations made:
1) good vitamin levels = good lungs
2) smokers = bad lungs
3) non-smokers = good lungs

Using gmatpill linked chains framework #2, you'll make the connection that non-smokers have good vitamin levels and smokers have bad vitamin levels.

What (A) is doing is saying that smokers have bad diets (not bad vitamin levels) - so it's making a stretch...it's assuming that diet and vitamin levels are closely connected. So (A) is making a stretched statement using an assumption...

But we're trying to find an assumption that supports ANOTHER stretched statement...the last sentence in the passage.

Think about it, what do "vitamin levels" have to do with "diet"? The argument is about a specific action...increasing diet of these vitamins. Does that improve lung function? Is there a good connection between "diet" and "vitamin levels in bloodstream"? Will a vitamin-high diet necessarily lead to vitamin high levels in bloodstream?

That's what we need to solve, supporting the passage's conclusion, not finding another conclusion in the answer choice.

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New post 16 May 2014, 04:59
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The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.
Which of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?

(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.ISNT THIS ALSO AN ASSUMPTION??? ARENT WE ASSUMING THAT THE SMOKERS DONT ALREADY HAVE DIET RICH IN VITAMINS AND MINERALS??
(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.
(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS??
(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can.WE NEGLECT THIS BECAUSE THIS OPTION IS TESTING OUR COMMON KNOWLEDGE RIGHT?
(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.

I AM FINDING ALL CORRECT EXCEPT 1... E DIDNT SEEM THE 'BEST' CHOICE TO ME :(
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New post 10 Jul 2014, 13:46
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Argument says that smokers have to increase their intake of vitamins and minerals.
That means the current one is not sufficient
We are not concerned about what is the current diet level. We just want to prove that eating more vitamins will help smokers improve the lung function.

what if smoking blocks absorption into bloodstream. In this case, however much the person increases intake of vitamins, his lungs won't improve.
because the vitamins are never absorbed.
This destroys the argument.

Therefore, E is the correct answer choice. It says that smoking does not prevent vitamins from entering the bloodstream. So if the non-smokers increase their intake of vitamins then their lung function will improve.

NGGMAT wrote:
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.
Which of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?

(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.ISNT THIS ALSO AN ASSUMPTION??? ARENT WE ASSUMING THAT THE SMOKERS DONT ALREADY HAVE DIET RICH IN VITAMINS AND MINERALS??
(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.
(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS??
(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can.WE NEGLECT THIS BECAUSE THIS OPTION IS TESTING OUR COMMON KNOWLEDGE RIGHT?
(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.

I AM FINDING ALL CORRECT EXCEPT 1... E DIDNT SEEM THE 'BEST' CHOICE TO ME :(
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New post 22 Sep 2014, 22:54
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souvik101990 wrote:
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals. Which of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?

A. Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.

B. The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.

C. People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.

D. Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can.

E. Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.

E it is.
Fact 1: The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second.
Vitamins and minerals in blood stream helps lungs to perform functions.
Fact 2: The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers.

Conclusion: one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.
Smokers can improve lung function by intake of vitamins and minerals.

A. Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.
If true, This additional information strengthens the argument. Incorrect.
B. The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.
If true, This additional information strengthens the argument.As taking V&M will help the smoker to enhance their lung functions. Incorrect.
C. People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.
Not related to Smokers ,so, It is irrelevant.
D. Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can.
This is out of scope.As it is introducing new way to enhance lung function.
E. Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.
What if smoking introduce body chemicals that prevent the V&M from entering blood stream? Then the conclusion will not stand true.hence, It is a necessary assumption for argument.correct.
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New post 23 Sep 2014, 00:46
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second.
The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers.

Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Which of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?

IMO E is correct. Possible contenders are A,B and E.But only E sets up the link between bloodstream and V&M.
A. Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.
B. The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.
C. People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.
>>Other HP r not concern here.
D. Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can.
>>Other factors r not concerned here.
E. Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.
>>Hit the nail on the head. If V & M can't be passed into bloodstream whole conclusion fails.
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New post 13 Jun 2016, 11:21
A. Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals. Out of Scope

B. The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets. The passage doesn't imply the improvement will be better.

C. People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function. Out of Scope

D. Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can. Does not relate to the conclusion

E. Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream. Deals with the clear assumption that what if the benefits of Vit. & Minerals are subdued because of smoking

IMO E.
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New post 20 Jun 2016, 03:53
sondenso wrote:
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.
Which of the following is an assumption on which this argument depends?


Premise: Lung function is measured as amount of air expelled / second.

Premise:
Smoker’s lung function is worse. Non smokers have better lung function.

Conclusion: Intake (food with vit & minral)  improve (lung function)


Defender assumptions answer choices can be one of these:

#1. No Intake - No Improvement
#2. Anything else apart from INTAKE OF food with vit & minral CANNOT -- improve lung function
#3. Improvement does not cause intake of vit& minral

Choice E matches #1. Hence is the correct answer.
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New post 10 Oct 2016, 12:23
I dont understand why D isnt correct. isnt D providing alternate cause for better lung function , assumption sometimes
play defender role , eliminating the alt cause for effect and negating it is having direct effect on conclusion
Quiting smoking is better than any diet . Why isnt this is correct ?if someone can please help
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New post 10 Oct 2016, 12:51
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megha_2709 wrote:
I dont understand why D isnt correct. isnt D providing alternate cause for better lung function , assumption sometimes
play defender role , eliminating the alt cause for effect and negating it is having direct effect on conclusion
Quiting smoking is better than any diet . Why isnt this is correct ?if someone can please help


Check the stimulus carefully -

Quote:
Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.


The stimulus talks about improving lung function of smokers...

If we take (D) as an assumption then we are stressing -

One way for smokers to improve their lung function is - Quting to smoke...

Back to the Stimulus -

Quote:
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers.


If smokers quit smoking then the comparison between smokers lung function will not be feasible..

hence (D) is not a good option..

Feel free to revert in case of any doubt...
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New post 05 Sep 2017, 21:40
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of foods that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Type - assumption
Boil it down - smokers increase their intake of vitamin & mineral foods --> lung function will improve
- But will intake of such food increase the levels of vitamin & mineral in the bloodstream

(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals. - Irrelevant - mild strengthener
(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets. - Irrelevant
(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function. - Out of scope - other health problems is beyond scope
(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet changes can. - Irrelevant
(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream. - Correct

Answer E
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New post 06 Sep 2017, 01:22
The answer is E
B and C can be rejected outright because these two are out of scope .
D is talks about something else entirely stopping smoking we are not concerned by that .
A if this is the case then it strengthens the argument as it tells us that if diets based on minerals and vitamins are consumed lungs will improve .
E is the assumption
Negate this choice and the whole argument comes crushing down .

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New post 19 Sep 2019, 08:41
alimad wrote:
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of food that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends.


(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.

(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.

(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.

(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet change can.

(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.


Hi VeritasKarishma, can you please explain why option D is wrong?
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New post 19 Sep 2019, 17:39
The argument is that smokers can improve their lung function by increasing their consumption of vitamin/mineral rich foods.
This is based on the fact that the higher level of V and M found in the bloodstream the better the lung functionality and smokers were found to have significantly worse lung functionality.
Lung functionality measured by amount of air expelled in one breath.

A - I incorrectly chose A. Even if smokers have the same level of intake of vitamin rich food as non-smokers, smokers may still have weaker lung functionality.
Inserting this:
- Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals. Therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of food that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Its still a bit unclear how the increase in intake results in improved lung functionality and A actually inherently assumes that food consumption is the only way to improve vitamin/mineral blood count.

Negating this
Even smokers are not less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.
So there must be some other reason why the vitamin/ mineral blood count is lower.
This is where E does a good job of more clearly linking the premise and conclusion with specifics.

B is incorrect - it runs counter to the argument so how can it be assumed?
C is the 'alternate plan/explanation' - we are only concerned with proving whether the argument is correct and we do this through a validated assumption.
D is incorrect - for similar reasons to C
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New post 19 Sep 2019, 21:28
shobhitkh wrote:
alimad wrote:
The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function, as measured by the amount of air the person can expel in one second. The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers. Clearly, therefore, one way for smokers to improve their lung function is for them to increase their intake of food that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends.


(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.

(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.

(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.

(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet change can.

(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.


Hi VeritasKarishma, can you please explain why option D is wrong?


The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstream, the better a person's lung function.
The lung function of smokers is significantly worse, on average, than that of nonsmokers.

Conclusion: Smokers can improve their lung function by increasing their intake of food that are rich in these helpful vitamins and minerals.

The argument tells us that there is a correlation between the level of vitamins and lung function.
It also tells us that lung function of smokers is worse than that of non smokers.

It concludes that low lung function smokers can improve their lung function by taking vitamins. It assumes a causation between vitamins and lung function. It assumes that smoking is not the cause of both low lung function and low vitamin level. The argument only gives us a correlation between vitamins and lung function. It is possible that smoking causes both low lung function and low vitamin level and that is why we see the correlation between them. But our conclusion assumes that that is not the case. It assumes that vitamins increase lung function.


(A) Smokers are less likely than nonsmokers to have diets that are rich in vitamins and minerals.

This shows that a diet rich in vitamins could actually benefit. Because smokers have low levels of vitamins, they have lower lung function. So improving diet could help. This is not the assumption the argument makes.

(B) The lung function of smokers whose diets are rich in those vitamins and minerals is generally better than that of nonsmokers with comparable diets.

This says that with same diet, smokers have better lung function. Makes no sense with our argument.

(C) People whose diets are deficient in those vitamins and minerals do not typically have other health problems in addition to diminished lung function.

Irrelevant to our argument.

(D) Stopping smoking will not typically improve lung function more than any diet change can.

The argument does not talk about whether stopping smoking will improve lung function. It mentions that one way for smokers (people with low lung function) to improve lung function is increasing vitamin level. It is certainly possible that stopping smoking is the best way to improve lung function. Our argument does not care about it. It cares about whether increasing vitamin level is one way.

(E) Smoking does not introduce into the body chemicals that prevent the helpful vitamins and minerals from entering the bloodstream.

Correct. This is an assumption the argument makes. Basically this says that smoking is not the causation factor of low vitamin level. If smoking does introduce chemicals that prevent absorption of vitamins, then smokers taking vitamins may be useless. Anyway the vitamins will not get absorbed.

Answer (E)
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New post 19 Sep 2019, 22:03
Its important to note that A doesn't bridge the gap between consumption and nutrient uptake. This isn't general knowledge, but if it is bridged in an answer choice then it would make more sense to go with that AC.
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Re: The higher the level of certain vitamins and minerals in the bloodstre   [#permalink] 19 Sep 2019, 22:03
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