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The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted

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The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2019, 02:43
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  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

64% (01:42) correct 36% (01:34) wrong based on 87 sessions

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The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted many small firms, that, having been sued and having no funds set aside for legal defense, were forced to liquidate in the face of mounting legal expenses.

(A) small firms, that, having been sued and having no funds set aside for legal defense,

(B) small firms having been sued; they had no funds set aside for legal defense, and

(C) small firms, those that were sued; these small firms had no funds set aside for legal defense, and

(D) small firms that were sued; they had no funds set aside for legal defense, and

(E) small firms that were sued; having had no funds set aside for legal defense,
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Re: The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2019, 06:28
shridhar786 wrote:
The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted many small firms, that, having been sued and having no funds set aside for legal defense, were forced to liquidate in the face of mounting legal expenses.

(A) small firms, that, having been sued and having no funds set aside for legal defense,

(B) small firms having been sued; they had no funds set aside for legal defense, and

(C) small firms, those that were sued; these small firms had no funds set aside for legal defense, and

(D) small firms that were sued; they had no funds set aside for legal defense, and

(E) small firms that were sued; having had no funds set aside for legal defense,


A - having been sued is past perfect. Having no funds is present tense. It should say having been sued having had no funds or something like that so that these two expressions joined by and are parallel.


B - having been sued is present perfect and is not parallel with past perfect "has bankrupted" The way it is tacked on at the end of the sentence is awkward and it is unclear what "having been sued" is the verb of.

C - "Those that were sued" narrows firms, and should be an essential modifier without commas


D - Essential modifier "that were sued" is used correctly without commas. "they had no funds and were forced to liquidate" correctly uses past perfect "had no funds" with past were forced to liquidate in a logical manner - looks good

E - Having had changes the meaning to indicate the firms still have no funds, when this was not indicated in the original sentence.

OA should be D
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Re: The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2019, 06:28

The litigious culture prevailing in American business has bankrupted

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