Last visit was: 12 Sep 2024, 22:05 It is currently 12 Sep 2024, 22:05
Toolkit
GMAT Club Daily Prep
Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History
Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

# The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed

SORT BY:
Tags:
Show Tags
Hide Tags
Intern
Joined: 14 May 2008
Posts: 17
Own Kudos [?]: 795 [192]
Given Kudos: 0
Director
Joined: 26 Oct 2016
Posts: 506
Own Kudos [?]: 3423 [90]
Given Kudos: 877
Location: United States
Schools: HBS '19
GMAT 1: 770 Q51 V44
GPA: 4
WE:Education (Education)
Manhattan Prep Instructor
Joined: 21 Jan 2010
Affiliations: ManhattanGMAT
Posts: 323
Own Kudos [?]: 7087 [46]
Given Kudos: 11
Location: San Francisco
Concentration: Journalism
Q47  V47 GMAT 2: 770  Q49  V48
Experts' Global Representative
Joined: 10 Jul 2017
Posts: 5129
Own Kudos [?]: 4699 [5]
Given Kudos: 38
Location: India
GMAT Date: 11-01-2019
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
3
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
quantum
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

(A) which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

(B) which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view

(C) by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing

(D) including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing

(E) including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of the crucial part of this sentence is that the instructions will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity by including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

Concepts tested here: Subject-Verb Agreement + Meaning + Modifiers + Verb Forms + Parallelism + Awkwardness/Redundancy

• “to + base form of verb” is the correct infinitive verb form construction, which is used as a noun, to show purpose/intent of an action, and to modify adjectives and verbs.
• The infinitive verb form ("to + base form of verb") is preferred over the present participle ("verb+ing") for referring to the purpose/intent of an action.
• "who/whose/whom/which/where", when preceded by a comma, refer to the noun just before the comma.
• All elements in a list must be parallel.

A: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the noun phrase "check's authenticity" with the phrase "which includes reminders...", illogically implying that the instructions will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, and as a separate action this authenticity includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light; the intended meaning is that the instructions include reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light, and by doing so they will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity; remember, "who/whose/whom/which/where", when preceded by a comma, refer to the noun just before the comma.

B: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the singular noun "authenticity" with the plural verb "include". Further, Option B incorrectly refers to the noun phrase "check's authenticity" with the phrase "which include reminders...", illogically implying that the instructions will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, and as a separate action this authenticity includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light; the intended meaning is that the instructions include reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light, and by doing so they will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity; remember, "who/whose/whom/which/where", when preceded by a comma, refer to the noun just before the comma. Additionally, Option B fails to maintain parallelism among "for watching the endorsement", "to compare signatures", and "(to) view the watermark..."; remember, all elements in a list must be parallel.

C: This answer choice refers to the purpose of the action "including reminders" with the present participle ("verb+ing" - "watching", "comparing", and "viewing" in this sentence); remember, the infinitive verb form ("to + base form of verb") is preferred over the present participle ("verb+ing") for referring to the purpose/intent of an action. Further, Option C is needlessly wordy, as "by" can be deleted without a loss of clarity.

D: This answer choice fails to maintain a correct infinitive verb construction, as it utilizes the construction "to + present participle ("verb+ing" - "comparing" and "viewing" in this case)"; please remember, “to + base form of verb” is the correct infinitive verb form construction.

E: Correct. This answer choice avoids the subject-verb disagreement seen in Option B, as it uses the present participle ("verb+ing" - "including" in this sentence) rather than an active verb. Further, Option E uses the "comma + present participle ("verb+ing" - "including" in this sentence)" construction, conveying the intended meaning - that the instructions include reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light, and by doing so they will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity. Additionally, Option E uses the infinitive verb form ("to + base form of verb" - "watch", "compare", and "view" in this sentence) to refer to the purpose of the action "including reminders" and maintains the correct infinitive verb form construction, "to + base form of verb". Option E also maintains parallelism among "to watch the endorsement", "(to) compare signatures", and "(to) view the watermark...". Besides, Option E is free of any awkwardness or redundancy.

Hence, E is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Infinitive" vs "Present Participle" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the use of "Which, Who, Whose, and Where" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
Experts' Global Team
General Discussion
Intern
Joined: 09 May 2008
Posts: 48
Own Kudos [?]: 89 [10]
Given Kudos: 0
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
9
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the
company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes
reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
the watermark while
holding the check to the light.
A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and
view
-"which" incorrectly refers to "printed instructions"
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures
and view
-"which" incorrectly refers to "printed instructions"
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and
viewing
-"by including" is not required here.
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
- to watch the endorsement,[to] comparing signatures and [to] viewing - incorrect right ?
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
-correct
Manager
Joined: 15 Mar 2010
Posts: 56
Own Kudos [?]: 230 [3]
Given Kudos: 30
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
3
Kudos
angel2009
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the
company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes
reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
the watermark while
holding the check to the light.
A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and
view
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures
and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and
viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

What is the problem with C ?

IMO 'E'

'C' is wrong.. read the above sentence as below(removing the sentence in bracket):

The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions (that the
company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity), which includes
reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while
holding the check to the light.

HTH.
Manhattan Prep Instructor
Joined: 21 Jan 2010
Affiliations: ManhattanGMAT
Posts: 323
Own Kudos [?]: 7087 [2]
Given Kudos: 11
Location: San Francisco
Concentration: Journalism
Q47  V47 GMAT 2: 770  Q49  V48
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
1
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
Hey Angel,

Not so far as I can see: watch, compare, and view are just as parallel as watching, comparing, and viewing. What makes you feel like one is more parallel than the other?

-t
Intern
Joined: 19 Aug 2010
Posts: 14
Own Kudos [?]: 5 [3]
Given Kudos: 7
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
3
Bookmarks
Hi, Tom, (well maybe you won't see this post anymore.I just try)

could you clarify the usage of Ving here?

I read some rules about the usage of this on Manhattan forum, which is following:

the "comma + ing" modifier should only be used when:

(A)
it MODIFIES THE ENTIRE ACTION of the preceding clause, and it APPLIES TO THE SUBJECT of that clause;
AND
(B)
one of the following is true:
(1) the "ing" action is SIMULTANEOUS with the main action;
- i ran down the sidewalk, flapping my arms wildly
(2) the "ing" action is a DIRECT CONSEQUENCE of the main action;
- i got a 100 on the most recent exam, bringing my average up to 91

But the Ving here in Choice E doesn't fit in the above rules, right?

Also, presuming the choise A is using "include", will it be the best answer? Thank you very much!
Manhattan Prep Instructor
Joined: 21 Jan 2010
Affiliations: ManhattanGMAT
Posts: 323
Own Kudos [?]: 7087 [5]
Given Kudos: 11
Location: San Francisco
Concentration: Journalism
Q47  V47 GMAT 2: 770  Q49  V48
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
3
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
Kaja
Hi, Tom, (well maybe you won't see this post anymore.I just try)

could you clarify the usage of Ving here?

I read some rules about the usage of this on Manhattan forum, which is following:

the "comma + ing" modifier should only be used when:

(A)
it MODIFIES THE ENTIRE ACTION of the preceding clause, and it APPLIES TO THE SUBJECT of that clause;
AND
(B)
one of the following is true:
(1) the "ing" action is SIMULTANEOUS with the main action;
- i ran down the sidewalk, flapping my arms wildly
(2) the "ing" action is a DIRECT CONSEQUENCE of the main action;
- i got a 100 on the most recent exam, bringing my average up to 91

But the Ving here in Choice E doesn't fit in the above rules, right?

Also, presuming the choise A is using "include", will it be the best answer? Thank you very much!

Hey Kaja,

It's not modifying the previous clause, per se, but it's modifying such an ENORMOUS noun (already modified), that the -ing helps us clarify it.:

The principal feature of the redesigned checks is (a series [of printed instructions {that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity}])...

The part in parentheses is all one noun with modifiers set off by different parentheses. We want to modify that ENTIRE thing. Using just a relative pronoun wouldn't work, because it's so FAR from the word it's really modifying ("series"). And technically, the next modifier IS happening simultaneously (it's describing those very rules). I agree it's a bit of a stretch based on the rules we give, but it's far closer to the rules for -ing words than the rules for relative pronouns.

Hope that helps!

-t
Manager
Joined: 31 May 2012
Posts: 101
Own Kudos [?]: 411 [8]
Given Kudos: 69
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
8
Kudos
I am just rearranging the clause to make aware about usage of clause.

The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a X, that the compnay hopes will help merchant confirm a check's authenticity.

We are looking for the correctness of clause X.

C=> "a series of printed instructions by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing the watermark while
holding the check to the light."

E=> a series of printed instructions including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view. Correct.
Director
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Status:Retaking after 7 years
Posts: 860
Own Kudos [?]: 4574 [5]
Given Kudos: 221
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Economics
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V39
GPA: 3.75
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
5
Kudos
angel2009
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the
company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes
reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
the watermark while
holding the check to the light.
A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and
view
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures
and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and
viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

What is the problem with C ?

Hii Vishu.
Answer choice C has several errors. I am listing tem here:
1) Nowhere it seems that we are supposed to check the authenticity by watching the endorsement, by comparing signatures etc. If you have a doubt, please check the original sentence. On choosing C, you will be diverting from the original meaning.
2) Precedes the prepositional phrase by a comma.
3) There is a huge difference between "for verbing" and "to verb". The former implies that the action is taking place at present whereas the latter implies the "intent or more specifically Purpose".

Hope that helps.
RC & DI Moderator
Joined: 02 Aug 2009
Status:Math and DI Expert
Posts: 11510
Own Kudos [?]: 35970 [8]
Given Kudos: 333
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
4
Kudos
4
Bookmarks
RAHKARP27071989
Hi Experts / chetan2u,

I was confused between A and E.

Can you tell whats the differences between check’s authenticity, which includes and check’s authenticity, including...

I eliminated A because if we look on check’s authenticity, which includes and ask question WHAT IS INCLUDING
I hope we are talking about a series of printed instructions--> So, its PLURAL S-V disagreement.

Additionally, if the option would be--

A. which INCLUDES reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view (Is that would be correct)

hi,
Quote:
I eliminated A because if we look on check’s authenticity, which includes and ask question WHAT IS INCLUDING
I hope we are talking about a series of printed instructions--> So, its PLURAL S-V disagreement.

yes 'include' is talking/modifying a series of printed instructions, but can this be done by 'which'.. NO
which can modify the nearest or a slight away noun ..
verb+ing is the correct usage if you ar etalking of the entire clause in general..
and hence 'including'..
Tutor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 15301
Own Kudos [?]: 68010 [6]
Given Kudos: 442
Location: Pune, India
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
4
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
angel2009
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and
view
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures
and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and
viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

What is the problem with C ?

Responding to a pm: Between (A) and (E), I would still go with (E) because the relative pronoun "which" seems to be modifying "authenticity". It is very far from "series" - the noun it is actually modifying.
Intern
Joined: 16 Apr 2016
Posts: 25
Own Kudos [?]: 10 [1]
Given Kudos: 188
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
1
Kudos
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check's authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

Hi experts, can you please explain what is "including" in choices D & E modifying? If it is modifying the "series of printed instructions" then how can it jump over the "that" clause preceding it?

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4490
Own Kudos [?]: 29032 [10]
Given Kudos: 130
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
5
Kudos
5
Bookmarks
Conquergmat5
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check's authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

Hi experts, can you please explain what is "including" in choices D & E modifying? If it is modifying the "series of printed instructions" then how can it jump over the "that" clause preceding it?

Dear Conquergmat5,

I'm happy to respond.

The participle "including" in (D) & (E) modifies the noun "printed instructions." This noun is followed by a vital noun modifier, the long "that" clause that goes up to the comma, and the participle "including" immediately follows the "that" clause. As you may appreciate, a vital noun modifier can come between a target noun and another modifier, creating for that second modifier a violation of the Modifier Touch Rule. See:
GMAT Grammar: Vital Noun Modifiers

Does all this make sense?
Mike
Manager
Joined: 26 Mar 2017
Posts: 62
Own Kudos [?]: 226 [5]
Given Kudos: 1
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
5
Kudos
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.
A. which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view --> which refers to authenticity; if you don't know whether this is correct you have to zoom out, cool down and understand what the sentence tries to transfer
B. which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view
C. by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing
D. including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
E. including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
Manager
Joined: 24 Oct 2012
Status:Active
Affiliations: NA
Posts: 187
Own Kudos [?]: 115 [0]
Given Kudos: 59
GMAT 1: 590 Q50 V21
GMAT 2: 600 Q48 V25
GMAT 3: 730 Q51 V37
GPA: 3.5
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
quantum
The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed instructions that the company hopes will help merchants confirm a check’s authenticity, which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view the watermark while holding the check to the light.

(A) which includes reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view
(B) which include reminders for watching the endorsement, to compare signatures and view
(C) by including reminders for watching the endorsement, comparing signatures, and viewing
(D) including reminders to watch the endorsement, comparing signatures and viewing
(E) including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view

Dear Experts,
How 'ing' modifier here is in agreement with the subject of the sentence , please explain.
Board of Directors
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Status:Emory Goizueta Alum
Posts: 3592
Own Kudos [?]: 5511 [2]
Given Kudos: 346
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
1
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
anje29
Dear Experts,
How 'ing' modifier here is in agreement with the subject of the sentence , please explain.

Hi anje29 ,

"Including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view" is giving extra information about the printed instructions.

Note that it is acting as a modifier, which is giving more information about the clause before the comma.

Does that make sense?
Manager
Joined: 24 Oct 2012
Status:Active
Affiliations: NA
Posts: 187
Own Kudos [?]: 115 [0]
Given Kudos: 59
GMAT 1: 590 Q50 V21
GMAT 2: 600 Q48 V25
GMAT 3: 730 Q51 V37
GPA: 3.5
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
abhimahna
anje29
Dear Experts,
How 'ing' modifier here is in agreement with the subject of the sentence , please explain.

Hi anje29 ,

"Including reminders to watch the endorsement, compare signatures, and view" is giving extra information about the printed instructions.

Note that it is acting as a modifier, which is giving more information about the clause before the comma.

Does that make sense?

Hi,
But only noun modifiers can provide extra information , what do you think here ? And since it logically fits to modify printed instructions and therefore correct.
Board of Directors
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Status:Emory Goizueta Alum
Posts: 3592
Own Kudos [?]: 5511 [1]
Given Kudos: 346
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
1
Kudos
anje29
Hi,
But only noun modifiers can provide extra information , what do you think here ? And since it logically fits to modify printed instructions and therefore correct.

Hi anje29 ,

We can use gerunds also to provide extra information.

Here we have two gerunds "including and holding". Hence, These modifiers have been correctly used.

Let me know in case of more queries.
Re: The principal feature of the redesigned checks is a series of printed [#permalink]
1   2   3
Moderators:
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
7056 posts
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
234 posts