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The promise of finding long-term technological solutions

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The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2011, 18:28
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+1 kudos to all the posts containing proper explanations for all questions

The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable and to yield food products culturally unacceptable to their consumers. Recent innovations such as opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill, and the wheat-rye hybrid triticale seem more promising, but it is too early to predict their ultimate fate.

One characteristic common to unsuccessful food innovations has been that, even with extensive government support, they often have not been technologically adapted or culturally acceptable to the people for whom they had been developed. A successful new technology, therefore, must fit the entire sociocultural system in which it is to find a place. Security of crop yield, practicality of storage, palatability, and costs are much more significant than had previously been realized by the advocates of new technologies. For example, the better protein quality in tortillas made from opaque-2 maize will be of only limited benefit to a family on the margin of subsistence if the new maize is not culturally acceptable or is more vulnerable to insects.

The adoption of new food technologies depends on more than these technical and cultural considerations; economic factors and governmental policies also strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation. Economists in the Anglo-American tradition have taken the lead in investigating the economics of technological innovation. Although they exaggerate in claiming that profitability is the key factor guiding technical change—they completely disregard the substantial effects of culture—they are correct in stressing the importance of profits. Most technological innovations in agriculture can be fully used only by large landowners and are only adopted if these profit-oriented business people believe that the innovation will increase their incomes. Thus, innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce the availability of food in a country. Further, should a new technology promise to alter substantially the profits and losses associated with any production system, those with economic power will strive to maintain and improve their own positions. Since large segments of the populations of many developing countries are close to the subsistence margin and essentially powerless, they tend to be the losers in this system unless they are aided by a government policy that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy. Therefore, although technical advances in food production and processing will perhaps be needed to ensure food availability, meeting food needs will depend much more on equalizing economic power among the various segments of the populations within the developing countries themselves.

1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?

(A) A suggestion is made and arguments in its favor are provided.
(B) A criticism is levied and an alternative proposal is suggested.
(C) A generalization is advanced and supporting evidence is provided.
(D) An example is analyzed and general conclusions are derived from it.
(E) A position is stated and evidence qualifying it is provided.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author was unable to assess the truth of which of the following statements about opaque-2 maize?

(A) It is a more recent innovation than the use of fish-protein concentrate.
(B) It can be stored as easily as other varieties of maize.
(C) It is more popular than the wheat-rye hybrid triticale.
(D) It produces tortillas of greater protein content than do other varieties of maize.
(E) It is more susceptible to insects than are other varieties of maize.

3. The passage mentions all of the following as factors important to the success of a new food crop EXCEPT the

(A) practicality of storage of the crop
(B) security of the crop yield
(C) quality of the crop’s protein
(D) cultural acceptability of the crop
(E) costs of production of the crop

4. According to the passage, the use of Antarctic krill as a food is an innovation whose future is

(A) basically gloomy but still uncertain
(B) somewhat promising but very tentative
(C) generally bright and virtually assured
(D) tied to the success of opaque-2 maize
(E) endangered by certain technical problems

5. The author suggests that, in most developing countries, extensive government intervention accompanying the introduction of a food innovation will

(A) usually be sufficient to guarantee the financial success of the innovation
(B) be necessary to ensure that the benefits of the innovation will be spread throughout the society
(C) provide the incentive necessary to convince landowners to try the innovation
(D) generally cost the country more than will be earned by the innovation
(E) normally occur only when the innovation favors large landowners

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the solution to food shortages in developing countries?

(A) The introduction of technological innovations to reap profits might alleviate food shortages to some degree, but any permanent solution can come only from effective governmental intervention in the socioeconomic system.
(B) Innovations in agricultural technology will be of little help, and perhaps even harmful, in combating food shortages, no matter how well designed they are to suit local circumstances.
(C) Long-lasting solutions will not be found until large landowners adopt improvements that will make production more efficient and thus more profitable.
(D) In order to achieve a meaningful solution to the problem of food shortages, the tastes of the general population must be educated to accept the new food products of modern agricultural technology.
(E) Although a short-term solution to food shortages can be achieved by importing food from other countries, a long-term solution requires a restructuring of the countries’ socioeconomic system.

7. The first paragraph of the passage best supports which of the following statements?

(A) Too much publicity can harm the chances for the success of a new food innovation.
(B) Innovations that produce culturally acceptable crops will generally be successful.
(C) A food-product innovation can be technically feasible and still not be economically viable.
(D) It is difficult to decide whether a food-product innovation has actually been a success.
(E) Triticale will not be a success as a food source for most developing countries.

8. The author provides a sustained argument to support which of the following assertions?

(A) Profitability is neither necessary nor sufficient for a new technology to be adopted.
(B) Profitability is the key factor guiding technological change.
(C) Economic factors and governmental policies strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation.
(D) Opaque-2 maize is of limited benefit to poor families in developing countries.
(E) Innovations carrying high rewards for big agribusiness groups harm the poor.

9. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss the

(A) means of assessing the extent of the world food shortage
(B) difficulties of applying technological solutions to the problem of food shortages
(C) costs of introducing a new food technology into a developing country
(D) Anglo-American bias of those trying to alleviate world food problems
(E) nature of the new technological innovations in the area of food production

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The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 22:30
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1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?


(A) A suggestion is made and arguments in its favor are provided.
(B) A criticism is levied and an alternative proposal is suggested.
(C) A generalization is advanced and supporting evidence is provided.
(D) An example is analyzed and general conclusions are derived from it.
(E) A position is stated and evidence qualifying it is provided.

The best answer is C. The first paragraph begins by making a generalization about long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages: the "promise of finding" such solutions "seems difficult to fulfill." The remainder of the paragraph provides evidence to support this generalization. The author notes that many once-promising innovations, like fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae, "have since fallen by the wayside." More recent innovations, like opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill, and wheat-rye triticale, are also mentioned and their potential contribution deemed "promising," but largely unknown. Of the other choices, A can be eliminated because the author does not suggest any course of action, B because no criticism is made or alternative proposed, D because no specific example is analyzed and the author begins with a generalization rather than by drawing a conclusion, and E because the author attempts to support, not qualify, the initial observation.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author was unable to assess the truth of which of the following statements about opaque-2 maize?


(A) It is a more recent innovation than the use of fish protein concentrate.
(B) It can be stored as easily as other varieties of maize.
(C) It is more popular than the wheat-rye hybrid triticale.
(D) It produces tortillas of greater protein content than do other varieties of maize.
(E) It is more susceptible to insects than are other varieties of maize.

The best answer is E. The question asks you to determine which characteristic of opaque-2 maize is left in doubt by the author. The author states that "opaque-2 maize will be of only limited benefit ... if the new maize is not culturally acceptable or is more vulnerable to insects." The author's use of the conditional "if' implies that opaque- 2 maize had not been definitely assessed in regard to two characteristics: its cultural acceptability and its vulnerability to insects. Of the five answer choices, only E focuses on one of these two characteristics: opaque-2 maize's susceptibility to insects.

3. The passage mentions all of the following as factors important to the success of a new food crop EXCEPT the

(A) practicality of storage of the crop
(B) security of the crop yield
(C) quality of the crop's protein
(D) cultural acceptability of the crop
(E) costs of production of the crop

The best answer is C. This question requires you to evaluate each answer choice and to judge which is not mentioned in the passage as an important factor contributing to the suc- cess of a new food crop. Choices A, B, and E are mentioned as factors "much more significant than had previously been realized" in the success of a new technology. Choice D is mentioned as one of the factors critical to determining whether a new crop, opaque-2 maize, will be beneficial. Choice C is mentioned, but only in the context of opaque-2 maize, and only as a benefit of this type of maize, not as a factor that may contribute to the success of a new food crop.

4. According to the passage, the use of Antarctic krill as a food is an innovation whose future is


(A) basically gloomy but still uncertain
(B) somewhat promising but very tentative
(C) generally bright and virtually assured
(D) tied to the success of opaque-2 maize
(E) endangered by certain technical problems

The best answer is B. Antarctic krill is described as an innovation that seems "more promising" but whose ultimate fate "it is too early to predict." Thus, the possibility of future use of Antarctic krill, though promising, is still very tentative.

5. The author suggests that, in most developing countries, extensive government intervention accompanying the introduction of a food innovation will


(A) usually be sufficient to guarantee the financial success of the innovation
(B) be necessary to ensure that the benefits of the innovation will be spread throughout the society
(C) provide the incentive necessary to convince landowners to try the innovation
(D) generally cost the country more than will be earned by the innovation
(E) normally occur only when the innovation favors large landowners

The best answer is B. Government intervention accompanying the introduction of a food innovation is mentioned in lines 30-32 and lines 49-59. Lines 30-32 indicate that governmental policies can strongly influence an innovation's success. Lines 49-59 suggest that those with little economic power lose out on the benefits of technological innovation unless government intercedes on their behalf. In particular, lines 52-54 state that a government policy is required "that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy," and lines 55-57 emphasize the importance of equalizing economic power. Thus, the author strongly suggests that spreading the benefits of technological innovation throughout a society is an important goal that can best be achieved through government intervention.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the solution to food shortages in developing countries?


(A)The introduction of technological innovations to reap profits might alleviate food shortages to some degree, but any permanent solution can come only from effective governmental intervention in the socioeconomic system.
(B)Innovations in agricultural technology will be of little help, and perhaps even harmful, in combating food shortages, no matter how well designed they are to suit local circumstances.
(C)Long-lasting solutions will not be found until large landowners adopt improvements that will make production more efficient and thus more profitable.
(D) In order to achieve a meaningful solution to the problem of food shortages, the tastes of the general population must be educated, to accept the new food products of modern agricultural technology.
(E) Although a short-term solution to food shortages can be achieved by importing food from other countries, a long-term solution requires a restructuring of the countries' socioeconomic systems.

The best answer is A. In lines 54-59, the author gives an overall assessment of the ways in which food shortages can best be met in developing countries. Although technological innovations are acknowledged as "perhaps" being necessary to ensure food availability, the author argues that "meeting food needs will depend much more on equalizing economic power." To equalize economic power, as the author indicates in lines 42-54, government intervention in the socioeconomic system is required, because only government is able to appreciate "the needs of all sectors of the economy" and to challenge those who are economically most powerful. Thus, for the author, the solution to food shortages is much more a matter of effective government intervention in the socioeconomic system than of technological innovation.

7. The first paragraph of the passage best supports which of the following statements?


(A) Too much publicity can harm the chances for the success of a new food innovation.
(B) Innovations that produce culturally acceptable crops will generally be successful.
(C) A food-product innovation can be technically feasible and still not be economically viable.
(D) It is difficult to decide whether a food-product innovation has actually been a success.
(E) Triticale will not be a success as a food source for most developing countries.

The best answer is C. Lines 6-8 state that a number of innovations "were technically feasible" but "economically unviable." Choice A can be eliminated because no connection is made in the paragraph between publicity and success or failure. Choice 8 can be eliminated because innovations must be technically feasible as well as culturally acceptable. Choice D can be eliminated because the paragraph does not discuss the difficulty of determining the success or failure of a food innovation. Choice E can be eliminated because the author states that "it is too early to predict" the fate of triticale.

8. The author provides a sustained argument to support which of the following assertions?


(A) Profitability is neither necessary nor sufficient for a new technology to be adopted.
(B) Profitability is the key factor guiding technological change.
(C) Economic factors and governmental policies strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation.
(D) Opaque-2 maize is of limited benefit to poor families in developing countries.
(E) Innovations carrying high rewards for big agribusiness groups harm the poor.

The best answer is C. In the third paragraph, the author argues that "economic factors and governmental policies also strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation." Lines 32-49 discuss the importance of profitability and show that innovations are generally adopted only if they provide greater profits for large landowners. Lines 49-59 discuss the role of government and argue that government intervention is crucial to ensure that a new technology is successful for all segments of the population. The other four choices can be eliminated because they are directly contradicted by the passage- A in lines 37-41, B in lines 34-36, D because the fate of opaque-2 maize is still unknown (lines 12-13), and E because lines 42-45 say that innovations can hurt the poor, not that they must do so.

9. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss the


(A) means of assessing the extent of the world food shortage
(B) difficulties of applying technological solutions to the problem of food shortages
(C) costs of introducing a new food technology into a developing country
(D) Anglo-American bias of those trying to alleviate world food problems
(E) nature of the new technological innovations in the area of food production

The best answer is B. The passage begins by stating that the "promise of. ..technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages seems difficult to fulfill." The rest of the first paragraph goes on to give examples of promising technologies that have failed, or whose ultimate fate is still unknown. The second paragraph continues to examine the problem of innovations by analyzing one type of difficulty that many failed technologies have encountered: improper fit with the intended sociocultural system. Finally, the last
paragraph discusses two major factors, economic considerations and governmental policies, crucial to the success of new food technologies. It also points out some ways in which these factors can impede straightforward technological solutions to the problem of food shortages.
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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2011, 00:52
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fanatico wrote:
The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable and to yield food products culturally unacceptable to their consumers. Recent innovations such as opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill, and the wheat-rye hybrid triticale seem more promising, but it is too early to predict their ultimate fate.

In this paragraph, is the first sentence a generalization or a position?


The first sentence is the topic sentence of this paragraph. It states that the promise seems difficult to fulfill. The rest of the paragraph explains the reasons.

The first sentence, in my opinion, is a position. The author expressed his opinion that the promise is difficult to promise and then gave the explanation for his/her thinking.

At first, I thought it was a generalization, but I changed my mind after reading the definition of generalization on wikipedia:

Quote:
A generalization (or generalisation) of a concept is an extension of the concept to less-specific criteria. It is a foundational element of logic and human reasoning.[citation needed] Generalizations posit the existence of a domain or set of elements, as well as one or more common characteristics shared by those elements. As such, it is the essential basis of all valid deductive inferences. The process of verification is necessary to determine whether a generalization holds true for any given situation.
The concept of generalization has broad application in many related disciplines, sometimes having a specialized context-specific meaning.
Of any two related concepts, such as A and B, A is considered a "generalization" of concept B if and only if:
every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and
there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B.
For instance, animal is a generalization of bird because every bird is an animal, and there are animals which are not birds (dogs, for instance).


Let me know your inputs.
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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2011, 08:27
Even I thought that the first sentence was a position. My reasoning was that it uses the word "seems" - "seems" to the author. Therefore it should be a position.

While I was doing a question on this paragraph the OA stated that the sentence is a generalization.
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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2011, 20:56
I think both "keywords" can be used interchangeably without any contradiction.

If this is bold face then the other choices must be half wrong. Because the split cannot be made just between - generalization / position

Pls post the other answer choice :)

fanatico wrote:
Even I thought that the first sentence was a position. My reasoning was that it uses the word "seems" - "seems" to the author. Therefore it should be a position.

While I was doing a question on this paragraph the OA stated that the sentence is a generalization.
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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2011, 00:10
The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable and to yield food products culturally unacceptable to their consumers. Recent innovations such as opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill, and the wheat-rye hybrid triticale seem more promising, but it is too early to predict their ultimate fate.

In this paragraph, is the first sentence a generalization or a position?


In my opinion this is a position because a generalization is more of a conclusion or result or some kind of finding after analyzing some cases. Here in the very first statement author used the word "seems" and in my opinion he may not be 100% sure about it or something for which he can give some guarantee.

Rather he sets up his position and then give arguments about his position.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 00:10
2
1) b
A criticism of no viable solution for food shortage is mentioned.
In the end - an alternate proposal is provided.

2) E
2nd para last line states that
Author is not sure if the opaque - 2 will be culturally acceptable to more susceptible to disease

3) C
Security of crop yield, practicality of storage, palatability, and costs are much more significant.

opaque-2 maize will be of only limited benefit to a family on the margin of subsistence if the new maize is not culturally acceptable

4) B
First para, last line states clearly that author think it can be promising alternative but it is too early to predict its success.

5) B
they tend to be the losers in this system unless they are aided by a government policy that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy

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New post 15 Aug 2018, 00:34
6) A
innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce the availability of food in a country

Last para mentions the need of government intervention

7) C
only b and c comes close
Para states why a crop did't succeed - - - because it was not economical and culturally viable.

We can't assume the opposite would be true

8) B
E and B are close

E is wrong because - innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted EVEN IF they harm segments of the population.

10) frankly speaking, I don't like any of the choices as all of them contains partial scope IMHO. Can someone please comment on this. Will go for E



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New post 15 Aug 2018, 07:11
14 mins 50 secs

All correct.

workout This was a very long passage in terms of content. Are we going to see passage this big on the D-Day??
I am expecting one though.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 07:15
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warrior1991 wrote:
14 mins 50 secs

All correct.

workout This was a very long passage in terms of content. Are we going to see passage this big on the D-Day??
I am expecting one though.


warrior1991

The number of questions will be definitely less but the length of the passage looks good for a long passage.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 07:26
sumit411 wrote:
6) A
innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce the availability of food in a country

Last para mentions the need of government intervention

7) C
only b and c comes close
Para states why a crop did't succeed - - - because it was not economical and culturally viable.

We can't assume the opposite would be true

8) B
E and B are close

E is wrong because - innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted EVEN IF they harm segments of the population.

10) frankly speaking, I don't like any of the choices as all of them contains partial scope IMHO. Can someone please comment on this. Will go for E



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I think you are asking about Q#9

Overall the passage is trying to say that technological innovation as a solution is not going to help counter the problem of food shortage. We need to assess the some other factors as well :- economic viability and cultural acceptance by consumers.

9. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss the

(A) means of assessing the extent of the world food shortage

Assessing the extent of world food shortage. Not matches with our pre-thinking. Irrelevant

(B) difficulties of applying technological solutions to the problem of food shortages

Yes. This is the option we are looking for. Hold.

(C) costs of introducing a new food technology into a developing country

Not matches with our pre-thinking. Irrelevant

(D) Anglo-American bias of those trying to alleviate world food problems

Not matches with our pre-thinking. Irrelevant

(E) nature of the new technological innovations in the area of food production

We are not discussing the nature of technological innovations. We are simply saying that technically the solutions are feasible but other factors also play an important role.

Always look for the broader picture while solving such questions. Any answer choice that limits to a specific part of the passage is always incorrect.


Option B is correct IMO.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 07:28
workout wrote:
warrior1991 wrote:
14 mins 50 secs

All correct.

workout This was a very long passage in terms of content. Are we going to see passage this big on the D-Day??
I am expecting one though.


warrior1991

The number of questions will be definitely less but the length of the passage looks good for a long passage.



Thanks for clarifying workout. This passage was good.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 07:35
1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?

IMO C .

(A) A suggestion is made and arguments in its favor are provided.
Suggestion. We are not making any suggestion.

(B) A criticism is levied and an alternative proposal is suggested.
Criticism is a strong word to use for this passage Incorrect.

(C) A generalization is advanced and supporting evidence is provided.
Gotta Keep this choice. Looks good.

(D) An example is analyzed and general conclusions are derived from it.
We are not analyzing any example but a position in hand.Incorrect.

(E) A position is stated and evidence qualifying it is provided.
Evidence qualifying means the evidence that throws doubt rather than support .

workout
I hope my reasoning for option E is correct. Please suggest.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 08:28
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Workout

Plz help with my conundrum for Q1
the problem SEEMS difficult.

So it looks like the author's position. What is the difference between position and generalization.

Secondly, what does qualifying means in option E

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New post 15 Aug 2018, 09:04
sumit411 wrote:
Workout

Plz help with my conundrum for Q1
the problem SEEMS difficult.

So it looks like the author's position. What is the difference between position and generalization.

Secondly, what does qualifying means in option E

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sumit411

I have merged my post with an existing post where the first question is discussed extensively. Please check the first few posts.
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New post 15 Aug 2018, 09:52
Thanks for merging the topic but I still can't see any concrete explanation on this.

Secondly, what does *qualify* means in general and in option E.

Sorry for bothering you again but I want to cement my understanding.

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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2018, 09:52
workout wrote:
sumit411 wrote:
Workout

Plz help with my conundrum for Q1
the problem SEEMS difficult.

So it looks like the author's position. What is the difference between position and generalization.

Secondly, what does qualifying means in option E

Sent from my ONEPLUS A3003 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


sumit411

I have merged my post with an existing post where the first question is discussed extensively. Please check the first few posts.
Thanks for merging the topic but I still can't see any concrete explanation on this.

Secondly, what does *qualify* means in general and in option E.

Sorry for bothering you again but I want to cement my understanding.

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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 20:55
8. The author provides a sustained argument to support which of the following assertions?

(A) Profitability is neither necessary nor sufficient for a new technology to be adopted.
(B) Profitability is the key factor guiding technological change.
(C) Economic factors and governmental policies strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation.
(D) Opaque-2 maize is of limited benefit to poor families in developing countries.
(E) Innovations carrying high rewards for big agribusiness groups harm the poor.

I rejected C because of the highlighted part in Q8. Can anyone help me out with this question?
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New post 19 Aug 2018, 01:38
sandman13 wrote:
8. The author provides a sustained argument to support which of the following assertions?

(A) Profitability is neither necessary nor sufficient for a new technology to be adopted.
(B) Profitability is the key factor guiding technological change.
(C) Economic factors and governmental policies strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation.
(D) Opaque-2 maize is of limited benefit to poor families in developing countries.
(E) Innovations carrying high rewards for big agribusiness groups harm the poor.

I rejected C because of the highlighted part in Q8. Can anyone help me out with this question?


Hello sandman13

You shouldn't worry about "any" in option C as the author himself stated the exact statement at the beginning of the third paragraph.
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New post 26 Aug 2018, 21:32
fanatico wrote:
+1 kudos to all the posts containing proper explanations for all questions

The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable and to yield food products culturally unacceptable to their consumers. Recent innovations such as opaque-2 maize, Antarctic krill, and the wheat-rye hybrid triticale seem more promising, but it is too early to predict their ultimate fate.

One characteristic common to unsuccessful food innovations has been that, even with extensive government support, they often have not been technologically adapted or culturally acceptable to the people for whom they had been developed. A successful new technology, therefore, must fit the entire sociocultural system in which it is to find a place. Security of crop yield, practicality of storage, palatability, and costs are much more significant than had previously been realized by the advocates of new technologies. For example, the better protein quality in tortillas made from opaque-2 maize will be of only limited benefit to a family on the margin of subsistence if the new maize is not culturally acceptable or is more vulnerable to insects.

The adoption of new food technologies depends on more than these technical and cultural considerations; economic factors and governmental policies also strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation. Economists in the Anglo-American tradition have taken the lead in investigating the economics of technological innovation. Although they exaggerate in claiming that profitability is the key factor guiding technical change—they completely disregard the substantial effects of culture—they are correct in stressing the importance of profits. Most technological innovations in agriculture can be fully used only by large landowners and are only adopted if these profit-oriented business people believe that the innovation will increase their incomes. Thus, innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce the availability of food in a country. Further, should a new technology promise to alter substantially the profits and losses associated with any production system, those with economic power will strive to maintain and improve their own positions. Since large segments of the populations of many developing countries are close to the subsistence margin and essentially powerless, they tend to be the losers in this system unless they are aided by a government policy that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy. Therefore, although technical advances in food production and processing will perhaps be needed to ensure food availability, meeting food needs will depend much more on equalizing economic power among the various segments of the populations within the developing countries themselves.
1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph?

(A) A suggestion is made and arguments in its favor are provided.
(B) A criticism is levied and an alternative proposal is suggested.
(C) A generalization is advanced and supporting evidence is provided.
(D) An example is analyzed and general conclusions are derived from it.
(E) A position is stated and evidence qualifying it is provided.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author was unable to assess the truth of which of the following statements about opaque-2 maize?

(A) It is a more recent innovation than the use of fish-protein concentrate.
(B) It can be stored as easily as other varieties of maize.
(C) It is more popular than the wheat-rye hybrid triticale.
(D) It produces tortillas of greater protein content than do other varieties of maize.
(E) It is more susceptible to insects than are other varieties of maize.

3. The passage mentions all of the following as factors important to the success of a new food crop EXCEPT the

(A) practicality of storage of the crop
(B) security of the crop yield
(C) quality of the crop’s protein
(D) cultural acceptability of the crop
(E) costs of production of the crop

4. According to the passage, the use of Antarctic krill as a food is an innovation whose future is

(A) basically gloomy but still uncertain
(B) somewhat promising but very tentative
(C) generally bright and virtually assured
(D) tied to the success of opaque-2 maize
(E) endangered by certain technical problems

5. The author suggests that, in most developing countries, extensive government intervention accompanying the introduction of a food innovation will

(A) usually be sufficient to guarantee the financial success of the innovation
(B) be necessary to ensure that the benefits of the innovation will be spread throughout the society
(C) provide the incentive necessary to convince landowners to try the innovation
(D) generally cost the country more than will be earned by the innovation
(E) normally occur only when the innovation favors large landowners

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the solution to food shortages in developing countries?

(A) The introduction of technological innovations to reap profits might alleviate food shortages to some degree, but any permanent solution can come only from effective governmental intervention in the socioeconomic system.
(B) Innovations in agricultural technology will be of little help, and perhaps even harmful, in combating food shortages, no matter how well designed they are to suit local circumstances.
(C) Long-lasting solutions will not be found until large landowners adopt improvements that will make production more efficient and thus more profitable.
(D) In order to achieve a meaningful solution to the problem of food shortages, the tastes of the general population must be educated to accept the new food products of modern agricultural technology.
(E) Although a short-term solution to food shortages can be achieved by importing food from other countries, a long-term solution requires a restructuring of the countries’ socioeconomic system.

7. The first paragraph of the passage best supports which of the following statements?

(A) Too much publicity can harm the chances for the success of a new food innovation.
(B) Innovations that produce culturally acceptable crops will generally be successful.
(C) A food-product innovation can be technically feasible and still not be economically viable.
(D) It is difficult to decide whether a food-product innovation has actually been a success.
(E) Triticale will not be a success as a food source for most developing countries.

8. The author provides a sustained argument to support which of the following assertions?

(A) Profitability is neither necessary nor sufficient for a new technology to be adopted.
(B) Profitability is the key factor guiding technological change.
(C) Economic factors and governmental policies strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation.
(D) Opaque-2 maize is of limited benefit to poor families in developing countries.
(E) Innovations carrying high rewards for big agribusiness groups harm the poor.

9. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss the

(A) means of assessing the extent of the world food shortage
(B) difficulties of applying technological solutions to the problem of food shortages
(C) costs of introducing a new food technology into a developing country
(D) Anglo-American bias of those trying to alleviate world food problems
(E) nature of the new technological innovations in the area of food production




Thanks for the share ! Can you explain me the Question no 2 ? I only got that one incorrect. Couldn't understand option E .
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Re: The promise of finding long-term technological solutions   [#permalink] 26 Aug 2018, 21:32

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