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# The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute

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Manager
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 03:39
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Director
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26 Aug 2004, 11:02
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I think its E
Evidence: fragement of bone flute can play 3rd to 6th notes
Concl: all notes of the scale could be played during that time (which is 1000s of yrs ago)

Concl will be true only if we assume that the missing fragments of flute bone could play the other missing notes
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26 Aug 2004, 11:45
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I think it is B.

Cause : bone flute excavation .
Effect : a hypothesis that it was used thousands of year before.

Another cause : There may be another instrument that i dated much earlier than the bone-flute with the same musical functionality.

The abov cause is negated in B. So, strengthens the argument.

E is a contender but the use of 'would have' is leading to no conclusive stuff that strengthens or weakens the hypothesis.

marine wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scaleâ€”the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

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Awaiting response,

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17 Jan 2005, 15:36
I chose B because it is relevant to the information given because it shows that the neanderthal is the first to have used the diatonic scale.

E addresses the possibility of playing the diatonic scale but there is no proof of whether they did or not
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17 Jan 2005, 15:43
B.
If a pre-neanderthal flute were found, it will weaken the hypothesis. Since B confirms that no pre-neanderthal flute exists, it is the answer.

E Gives information about length of the flute that is not relevant to the hypothesis.
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29 Jan 2005, 10:10
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Hello, I personally think it should be E.

premise
: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale with seven notes.

Conclusion: diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

We need to find something to support the premise, and it is usually the answer what ETS want.

Between B and E, we can use the negate skill.
If we negate B, that is, some musical instrument is known to be earlier than the bone flute, then we can still get the conclustion that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. In fact, we don't care about whether there is a instrument ealier than the bone flute and don't care about what is the earliest instrument. We just care about whether it is earlier than now.

But, on the other hand, if we negate E; that is, Neanderthal flute is not long enough to play one through seventh notes, then it directly weaken the premise that a diatonic musical scale has a seven scale.

Please must give me some suggestion after seeing.
Thank you.
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29 Jan 2005, 14:38
I have chosen (E) too.

Basically E gives more support that the bone is a musical instrument that utilized the seven scale musical notes, therefore the conclusion that a musical instrument of seven scale was used thousand years before the western culture.
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Re: CR # diatonic musical [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2005, 13:37
I tend to support B.

C and E immeediately out because the cave-bone is nowhere mentioned in the passage. D and A are also out of scope, and only if we presume that no instrument uses a diatomic scale at an earlier date we can make the stated hypothesis.
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11 Nov 2005, 13:39
E seems the only correct ans in this case.

A. the argument doesn't impact where there were other instruments as well or not.
B. does not impact conclusion.

C. does not support that bone flute were developved and used. Adds suspicion that it may not be used for music purpose.
D. just a fact. no relationship to argument in question.
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Re: CR # diatonic musical [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2005, 20:25
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nakib77 wrote:
Q17:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scaleâ€”the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

I would lean on E coz only it ensures that the bone flute was really used and developed. If it wasn't, then even if its structure concides with nowadays's musical instruments which can play the diatonic scale, who can say that the bone flute can really play that scale? The key of the conclusion/hypothesis is " developed and used" .

E it is.
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Re: CR # diatonic musical [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2005, 20:29
aiming wrote:
nakib77 wrote:
Q17:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scaleâ€”the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

How about if there was one earlier than the flute in Neanderthal?! ...it even more ensures the bold part of the conclusion/ hypothesis.
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05 Jun 2006, 03:29
D. strongly supports the hypothesis
D basically implies that Flutes are very simple things hence there is no need of any sophistication required to make them, hence it is quite probable that it can be made by neanderthals
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07 Jul 2006, 10:03
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I like E.

It connects their flute to the full diatonic scale.

A. Doesn't help the argument.

B. Doesn't matter. Even if there was an instrument that was earlier than the Neanderthal's, the argument is about using the scale before the Westerners.

C. Doesn't matter.

D. This only shows that it's an easy instrument to make.
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09 Jul 2006, 16:15
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Only E remains.

If the bone was long enough then it may be possible that Neanderthals intentionally cut the bone to play only the part of dianotic scale.
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Re: CR : bone flute [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2006, 01:08
One more vote for E.
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Re: CR : bone flute [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2006, 08:12
P: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale

[b]AP:
the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.

C: Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals. then....

B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite. not related to conclusion

C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale. it is

E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale. out of scope subject of steam is about the adoption of the diatonic scale
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13 Sep 2006, 23:37
(E)
hypothesis:diatonic music scale was used and developed thousands of years ago before being used by western musicians.

premise:found a bone flute that can play third through sixth notes.

if the bone could have been used to make the whole diatonic scale then the conclusion could be valid
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14 Sep 2006, 02:00
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One more for E.

1.The bone was big enough to accomodate the entire scale.
2.The flute however had spacings just wide enough to accomodate the 3rd through 6th notes.
So, the Neanderthal's knew what they were doing.
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Re: CR - 14/17: Bone flute [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2006, 02:27
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KC wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scaleâ€”the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Sorry guys.. this one was really bad.

I think E is actually the correct ans.

B says no other instrument using diatonic scale is of an earlier date. Yet this is not strong enough to prove that the instrument was used thousands of years before it came to western civilization (it could have been thousand of years or even million years or even 100 yrs).

E on the other hand taps on an assumption that MUST hold and hence it strengthens the argument -- if the cave bear leg BONE wasn't long enough for it to be capable of playing the complete diatonic scale, the argument would fall apart.
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10 Apr 2007, 04:49
My pick is E. (Though I have some dought whether the cave bear is belived to have lived thousands years ago.)

E explains that the notes could have been played using bones.
10 Apr 2007, 04:49

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