GMAT Changed on April 16th - Read about the latest changes here

It is currently 26 Apr 2018, 19:30

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

5 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Apr 2004
Posts: 124
Location: Corea
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 19 Oct 2017, 06:51
5
This post received
KUDOS
91
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  75% (hard)

Question Stats:

59% (01:30) correct 41% (01:45) wrong based on 3713 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Originally posted by marine on 26 Aug 2004, 03:39.
Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Oct 2017, 06:51, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
11 KUDOS received
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 05 May 2004
Posts: 573
Location: San Jose, CA
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Aug 2004, 11:02
11
This post received
KUDOS
6
This post was
BOOKMARKED
I think its E
Evidence: fragement of bone flute can play 3rd to 6th notes
Concl: all notes of the scale could be played during that time (which is 1000s of yrs ago)

Concl will be true only if we assume that the missing fragments of flute bone could play the other missing notes
48 KUDOS received
VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 26 Apr 2004
Posts: 1181
Location: Taiwan
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jan 2005, 10:10
48
This post received
KUDOS
23
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Hello, I personally think it should be E.

premise
: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale with seven notes.

Conclusion: diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

We need to find something to support the premise, and it is usually the answer what ETS want.

Between B and E, we can use the negate skill.
If we negate B, that is, some musical instrument is known to be earlier than the bone flute, then we can still get the conclustion that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. In fact, we don't care about whether there is a instrument ealier than the bone flute and don't care about what is the earliest instrument. We just care about whether it is earlier than now.

But, on the other hand, if we negate E; that is, Neanderthal flute is not long enough to play one through seventh notes, then it directly weaken the premise that a diatonic musical scale has a seven scale.

Please must give me some suggestion after seeing.
Thank you.
5 KUDOS received
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 24 Sep 2005
Posts: 1857
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Nov 2005, 20:25
5
This post received
KUDOS
nakib77 wrote:
Q17:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.


I would lean on E coz only it ensures that the bone flute was really used and developed. If it wasn't, then even if its structure concides with nowadays's musical instruments which can play the diatonic scale, who can say that the bone flute can really play that scale? The key of the conclusion/hypothesis is " developed and used" .

E it is.
2 KUDOS received
CEO
CEO
User avatar
Joined: 20 Nov 2005
Posts: 2857
Schools: Completed at SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - Class of 2008
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 Jul 2006, 16:15
2
This post received
KUDOS
Only E remains.

If the bone was long enough then it may be possible that Neanderthals intentionally cut the bone to play only the part of dianotic scale.
_________________

SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - MBA CLASS OF 2008

2 KUDOS received
VP
VP
User avatar
Joined: 03 Apr 2007
Posts: 1262
Reviews Badge
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2008, 07:09
2
This post received
KUDOS
I did some more resarch on the CR and realised the following:

Question - Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

Ok..so what is the hypothesis here ?
diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Is there a evidence to support the hypothesis?
yes...there is a fragmnet of bone flute found which has 4 holes.

Ok now some music lessons
diatonic scale is a seven-note musical scale

What is the author assuming here?
The 4 holes on the fragment are required to play 3rd thru 6th notes on the diatonic scale

Now lets go back to the question
Question - Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?
In other words - We need an answer which will confirm that the fragment was indeed from a flute which played diatonic music

E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.E fi

E fits .

Please let me know if you agree with this logic.
2 KUDOS received
SVP
SVP
avatar
Status: Graduated
Affiliations: HEC
Joined: 28 Sep 2009
Posts: 1617
Concentration: Economics, Finance
GMAT 1: 730 Q48 V44
Premium Member
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Nov 2009, 13:10
2
This post received
KUDOS
Option E is the best choice here. We know that the spacing of the holes supports the diatonic scale argument. The length of the bone flute strengthens the argument even more. We have two pieces of evidence now to support our hypothesis, instead of just one.

It doesn't really matter if there are older or newer flutes. If we discovered an older flute, then the assertion that "the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians" doesn't change. If there are no flutes older than the one found, then the argument remains the same - the oldest diatonic flute was still used by Neanderthals thousands of years ago.
_________________

GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings

6 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 30 Nov 2010
Posts: 39
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Apr 2012, 16:43
6
This post received
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
In this problem "FRAGMENT" is the key word. The passage describes about BONE FRAGMENT and not of the BONE itself.
Bone fragment is part of a bone (some cave-bear bone). The passage goes on to say that this bone fragment had enough length(and actual holes) so as to enable one to play 3-6 notes (say frag-1). The missing 1,2,7 notes of the diatonic scale was probably on some other fragment of the bone (say Frag-2).

So if somehow we know that the the complete bone(length of frag1 + frag2) had the capability to play the entire diatonic scale then we can deduce that diatonic scale was actually invented by the neanderthals and the musicians later adopted it.

Ans.E gives you that evidence.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Status: Final Lap
Joined: 25 Oct 2012
Posts: 276
Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.54
WE: Project Management (Retail Banking)
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Apr 2013, 05:06
Hi,

I'll go with E.

Premise:

- a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is enough to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale
- These "note musical scale" was used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.

Conclusion:

the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

POE:

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals. Doesn't support the hypothesis : If this is true, would it help to know if the diatonic musical scale was developed and used by Neanderthals ? No, For sure

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.OuuuuuuuuT of SCOPE

(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale. Same as A ; Irrelevant

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.


So, we are left with B and E .

E shows that the Neanderthal were capable of playing a complete diatonic scale --> Conclusion Supported
B doesn't really support the argument becaue it is not based on the excavation it self IMO and moreover it is only related to other muscial instrument not the flute.
_________________

KUDOS is the good manner to help the entire community.

"If you don't change your life, your life will change you"

Expert Post
3 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
S
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2500
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Dec 2013, 02:23
3
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
bagdbmba wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts,
Need some explanation on this question...

Here's mine - IMO E states that complete bone could be used to play complete diatonic scale-from 1st to 7th notes, by the Neanderthal BUT it doesn't state explicitly that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Whereas B says that the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite is the first musical instrument to have used a diatonic scale. Hence, it clearly supports the conclusion that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. But not sure why B is discarded and E is the OA...!!

Please share your detail analysis on the basis of these two options - B & E.


Hi bagdmba,

Thank you for your query.

In this question we are asked to find a new piece of information that will support the musicologists hypothesis that :

diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

The basis for the above theory:

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale

What is a diatonic scale:

the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.

Now any piece of information that will solidify the connection between this bone flute fragment and the diatonic scale will be the right choice for supporting the proposed hypothesis.

Answer choice B says:

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.


The information given above effectively means that there is no known record of a musical instrument that was diatonic and that pre-dates the bone flute. Now is the hypothesis proposed by the musicologists concerned with proving that the found flute fragment was part of the first ever diatonic instrument? The answer is a big NO! It does not matter whether there was any instrument before the bone flute that could play the diatonic scale. All we need to establish is that the whole flute (whose fragment has been found) itself was diatonic. The information given in answer choice B does not help in doing so.

Whereas choice E says:

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Now, this choice rightly solidifies the connection between the diatonic scale and the bone flute. Please note that in the prompt, we are told that the four holes could play third through the sixth note but the diatonic scale has seven notes. This means, if we factor in the information given in answer choice E, we can establish that the fragment of the bone flute found was could have been part of a longer flute which could have played all the seven notes of the diatonic scale. Hence, choice E is the correct answer.

Hope the above analysis helps!

Neeti.
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Retired Moderator
avatar
Joined: 27 Aug 2012
Posts: 1121
Premium Member
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Dec 2013, 08:00
HI Neeti,
Thanks for your detail reply but unfortunately the doubt still remains wide open :-(

I think our job is to provide support in favor of the conclusion/hypothesis which says that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. Right?

Hence, please tell me how option E does that? There is no mention of time in this option!

Please clarify.
_________________

UPDATED : e-GMAT SC Resources-Consolidated || ALL RC Resources-Consolidated || ALL SC Resources-Consolidated || UPDATED : AWA compilations-109 Analysis of Argument Essays || GMAC's IR Prep Tool

Calling all Columbia (CBS) MBA Applicants: (2018 Intake) Class of 2020 !!! NEW !!!

GMAT Club guide - OG 11-12-13 || Veritas Blog || Manhattan GMAT Blog


KUDOS please, if you like the post or if it helps :-)

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
S
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2500
Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 20 Dec 2013, 23:58
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Hi baddmba,

Thank you for your post. Please find my comments below your analysis that:

IMO E states that complete bone could be used to play complete diatonic scale-from 1st to 7th notes, by the Neanderthal BUT it doesn't state explicitly that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.


You are not focusing on the aspect that by showing that the bone -flute could play the complete diatonic scale (a new piece of information provided in choice E), a central assumption made by the musicologists is strengthened. We indeed need to support their hypothesis BUT in doing so we do need to consider the reasoning provided by them. As of now the logic cited by the musicologists is that since the fragment showed that the flute had the potential to play the third note up till the sixth one, the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. This means that they are taking for granted that the whole flute could play the complete seven notes of the diatonic scale. This is the assumption that answer choice E supports. As regards the time aspect mentioned by the musicologists, the basis for the same is the fact that the fragment was excavated from a Neanderthal campsite. Since that is a premise, we have to take the time connection on face value. Hence, by supporting that the whole bone-flute, whose fragment was excavated from a Neanderthal campsite (the time aspect), could play the diatonic scale, answer choice E supports the musicologists’ hypothesis.

Hope the above analysis helps :) .

Neeti.
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com


Originally posted by egmat on 20 Dec 2013, 23:05.
Last edited by egmat on 20 Dec 2013, 23:58, edited 2 times in total.
Expert Post
Verbal Expert
User avatar
G
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3225
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Nov 2016, 10:23
zoezhuyan wrote:
dear experts,

I am sunk in D and E.

please help how to distinguish D and E.

and point out my fault


my reasoning as following:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?


4 hole fragment flute is required to play 3~6 notes of diatonic scale,
because the flute is fragment, we don't whether the whole fragment can play another musical scale which is overlap 3-6 notes with diatonic scale.
so if strengthen , we need a premise that can prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale



(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

flute is only musical instrument, this is cannot prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale -- OUT

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

no musical instrument before can use diatonic scale , this is cannot prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale -- OUT


(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

this one only can prove the flute is thousands years old, cannot prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale -- OUT



(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

seems this is can prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale, it states flutes are the wind instrument that can be played a diatonic scales and the flutes are the simplest instrument --- keep it


(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

seems this is can prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale ,it states the flute can play a complete diatonic scale --- keep it


thank a lot
have a nice weekends


It does not matter whether the flutes are simple or complex instruments.
In order to strengthen the hypothesis it is required to state something that indicates that Neanderthals indeed used to play music in diatonic scale. The fragment of bone that was found had four holes to play only a part of diatonic scale. If the bone is long enough to accommodate all the holes required to play the diatonic scale, then finding the bone fragment could be taken as an evidence that the Neanderthals actually might have played music in diatonic scale.
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated   [#permalink] 05 Nov 2016, 10:23
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.