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The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos

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The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Aug 2019, 21:16
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The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements. Hurricanes and tornadoes, for example, are spatially confined, the forces that drive them are highly concentrated, and they have distinctive forms and readily quantifiable characteristics. Consequently, data about them are abundant, and their behavior is relatively well understood, although still difficult to predict.

Hurricanes and tornadoes are also studied because they are highly destructive storms, and knowledge about their behavior can help minimize injury to people and property. But other equally destructive storms have not been so thoroughly researched, perhaps because they are more difficult to study. A primary example is the northeaster, a type of coastal storm that causes significant damage along the eastern coast of North America. Northeasters, whose diffuse nature makes them difficult to categorize, are relatively weak low-pressure systems with winds that rarely acquire the strength of even the smallest hurricane. Although northeasters are perceived to be less destructive than other storms, the high waves associated with strong northeasters can cause damage comparable to that of a hurricane, because they can affect stretches of coast more than 1,500 kilometers long, whereas hurricanes typically threaten a relatively small ribbon of coastline—roughly 100 to 150 kilometers.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) evaluate the relative amounts of damage caused by different storm types
(B) describe the difficulties of classifying destructive storms by type
(C) examine the relationship between wave height and the destructive potential of storms
(D) discuss a theory that explains the origins of violent storms
(E) discuss reasons why certain types of storms receive more study than others




2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of northeasters?

(A) They have only recently been identified as a distinct storm type.
(B) They are more destructive than tornadoes.
(C) They are low-pressure systems.
(D) They affect a relatively small segment of the eastern coast of North America.
(E) Their winds are typically as strong as those of small hurricanes.



3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about storms that lend themselves to atmospheric measurements?

(A) They are more likely than other storms to be studied by climatologists.
(B) They are likely to be less highly concentrated than are other storms.
(C) They are likely to be more difficult to predict than are other storms.
(D) They occur less frequently along the eastern coast of North America than in other areas.
(E) They tend to affect larger areas than do other storms.


B

Based on information from the passage, the author is most likely to agree with the statement in the second choice: northeasters need to be studied. The author establishes that knowledge about the behavior of storms can help diminish damage, then states, But other equally destructive storms have not been so thoroughly researched.

The first choice is not correct; the passage actually suggests the contrary, that more knowledge might help reduce injury to people and property.

The third choice is also incorrect. The passage indicates that northeaster damage can be assessed even if the storms themselves are difficult to study. The last sentence addresses damage done by a northeaster's high waves but does not indicate that the damage is harder to assess than hurricane damage.

The fourth choice is incorrect; there is nothing in the passage to indicate that northeasters occur less often than hurricanes and tornadoes.

The fifth choice is also not correct. Although the author does say of northeasters that their diffuse nature makes them difficult to categorize, there is nothing in the passage to suggest that northeasters should not be studied; on the contrary, their being as destructive as hurricanes and their threat to larger areas of coastline suggest that they should be studied.

4. With which of the following statements about northeasters would the author of the passage most likely agree?

(A) Even increased knowledge about the behavior of northeasters is unlikely to reduce the injury to people and property that they cause.
(B) Northeasters are deserving of closer study by climatologists than they have received in the past.
(C) Damage caused by northeasters is less easily assessed than damage caused by hurricanes.
(D) Northeasters are more difficult to study than are hurricanes and tornadoes because northeasters occur less often.
(E) Northeasters are too diffuse to warrant close study by climatologists.




Originally posted by PiyushK on 12 Aug 2014, 08:46.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Aug 2019, 21:16, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2019, 05:19
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Ambika02 wrote:
Can someone please explain why the answer of question no 4 is B and not D?

Question #4 asks "with which of the following statements about northeasters would the author of the passage most likely agree?"

Let's first take a look at (D):
Quote:
(D) Northeasters are more difficult to study than are hurricanes and tornadoes because northeasters occur less often.

The author describes Northeasters as primary examples of "storms have not been... thoroughly researched, perhaps because they are more difficult to study." So, it is clear that he/she would agree that Northeasters are more difficult to study than some other types of storms. However, answer choice (D) specifies that they are difficult to study because they occur less often.

There is no evidence that the author would agree with that piece of the answer choice. What makes hurricanes and tornadoes easy to study is that they "are spatially confined, the forces that drive them are highly concentrated, and they have distinctive forms and readily quantifiable characteristics." In contrast, the "diffuse nature" of Northeasters makes them "difficult to categorize." So, it is the diffuse nature of Northeasters that make them difficult to study, rather than the fact that they "occur less often" as stated in answer choice (D). For this reason, (D) is out.

Now take a look at (B):
Quote:
(B) Northeasters are deserving of closer study by climatologists than they have received in the past.

In the first sentence of the second paragraph, the author states that hurricanes and tornadoes are studied because they are "highly destructive" and "knowledge about their behavior can help minimize injury to people and property." He/she then goes on to say that storms such as Northeasters are "equally destructive storms" that "have not been so thoroughly researched."

Because Northeasters are equally destructive, studying them would help minimize injury to people and property. We can infer that the author sees this as good justification for climatologists to further study Northeasters. (B) is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Aug 2016, 06:51
3

Time taken 5 mins.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
(E) discuss reasons why certain types of storms receive more study than others
Took some time to figure this out.Answer lies in starting 3/4 lines of 2 Para. 1st para is basically an intro para.


2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of northeasters?
C. They are low-pressure systems.
" Northeasters, whose diffuse nature makes them difficult to categorize, are relatively weak low-pressure systems with winds that rarely acquire the strength of even the smallest hurricane"

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about storms that lend themselves to atmospheric measurements?
(A) They are more likely than other storms to be studied by climatologists.
1 Para: "The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements. Hurricanes and tornadoes,"
2 Para: "But other equally destructive storms have not been so thoroughly researched, perhaps because they are more difficult to study. "

Originally posted by JarvisR on 13 Aug 2014, 04:06.
Last edited by JarvisR on 21 Aug 2016, 06:51, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2016, 00:18
Took 4 mins to answer , including 1 min and 50 seconds to read
One of the easier GMAT RC passage :)
-The author does not cite an opinion but merely explains storms and reasons why some are studies while others are not

1.
The author explains why tornadoes and hurricanes receive more attention than Northeasters
Answer E

2."Northeasters, whose diffuse nature makes them difficult to categorize, are relatively weak low-pressure systems with winds that rarely acquire the strength of even the smallest hurricane."
Answer C

3.
"The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements."
Answer A
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2019, 02:02
Can someone please explain why the answer of question no 4 is B and not D?
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2019, 10:32
I thought in Q4, the following sentences "Although northeasters are perceived to be less destructive than other storms, the high waves associated with strong northeasters can cause damage comparable to that of a hurricane" mentioned in the 2nd paragraph makes option C) Damage caused by northeasters is less easily assessed than damage caused by hurricanes , the right answer. Can someone please explain where did my thinking go wrong?
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2019, 12:35
Hi All, Can anyone tell how the answer of fourth one is B not E. I saw nobody has answered the fourth question, seems like it was added way long after the original question. Explanation for fourth one would be helpful,

Thanks in advance!!!
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2019, 12:22
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bawatwr wrote:
Hi All, Can anyone tell how the answer of fourth one is B not E. I saw nobody has answered the fourth question, seems like it was added way long after the original question. Explanation for fourth one would be helpful,

Thanks in advance!!!

For an explanation of why (B) is the correct answer for question #4, please see this post.

Let's take another look at option (E):
Quote:
(E) Northeasters are too diffuse to warrant close study by climatologists.

The author certainly states that Northeasters are diffuse, but does that mean that these storms don't warrant (or deserve) close study by climatologists?

The justifications given for close study of hurricanes and tornadoes are that these storms are:

  • "most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements" and
  • "highly destructive."

Because Northeasters are more diffuse, it is more difficult to study them. However, the author states that Northeasters are "equally destructive" when compared to hurricanes/tornadoes. Because of this, close study of Northeasters would "minimize injury to people and property," just as close study of other storms does. So we cannot say that Northeasters do not warrant close study because of their diffuse nature -- if anything, the author implies that these storms do warrant close study despite the difficulties arising from their diffuse nature. For this reason, (E) is out.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2019, 07:23
Why not C? Is it because the damage is not assessed at all?
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2019, 05:54
aakash214 wrote:
Why not C? Is it because the damage is not assessed at all?

To answer question #4, we need to find evidence in the passage that suggests the author would agree with one of the answer choices. Let's take a look at (C):
Quote:
(C) Damage caused by northeasters is less easily assessed than damage caused by hurricanes.

In the second paragraph, the author states that northeasters are "equally destructive" when compared to hurricanes or tornadoes. In addition, he/she says that "although northeasters are perceived to be less destructive than other storms, the high waves associated with strong northeasters can cause damage comparable to that of a hurricane."

It is clear from this that the author has a firm opinion on how much damage northeasters cause. However, nothing suggests that that author believes the damage caused by these storms to be "less easily assessed" than damage caused by hurricanes -- this comparison is just not made in the passage. The direct comparisons that are present in the passage are that northeasters are more difficult to study and more difficult to categorize. Because a comparison of how easily damage is assessed is not contained in the passage, we cannot conclude that the author would agree with answer choice (C).

I hope that helps!
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2019, 20:11
GMATNinja wrote:
bawatwr wrote:
Hi All, Can anyone tell how the answer of fourth one is B not E. I saw nobody has answered the fourth question, seems like it was added way long after the original question. Explanation for fourth one would be helpful,

Thanks in advance!!!

For an explanation of why (B) is the correct answer for question #4, please see this post.

Let's take another look at option (E):
Quote:
(E) Northeasters are too diffuse to warrant close study by climatologists.

The author certainly states that Northeasters are diffuse, but does that mean that these storms don't warrant (or deserve) close study by climatologists?

The justifications given for close study of hurricanes and tornadoes are that these storms are:

  • "most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements" and
  • "highly destructive."

Because Northeasters are more diffuse, it is more difficult to study them. However, the author states that Northeasters are "equally destructive" when compared to hurricanes/tornadoes. Because of this, close study of Northeasters would "minimize injury to people and property," just as close study of other storms does. So we cannot say that Northeasters do not warrant close study because of their diffuse nature -- if anything, the author implies that these storms do warrant close study despite the difficulties arising from their diffuse nature. For this reason, (E) is out.

I hope that helps!


Option E could be wrong in that, passage talks about diffuse nature of Northeasters, but choice E says Northeasters are too diffuse. 'Diffuse nature' could be too diffuse or less diffuse. So choice E could be wrong.

However, there is a big problem with B. Although passage mentions Northeasters are as equally destructive as Hurricanes, nowhere it is mentioned in the passage that Northeasters deserve a closer study. It only says Northeasters cannot be studied closely because of some problem, but doesn't advocate studying Northeasters. GMATNinja can we go ahead and infer that studying Northeasters would help solve the problem?
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2019, 19:05
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Saiganesh999 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
bawatwr wrote:
Hi All, Can anyone tell how the answer of fourth one is B not E. I saw nobody has answered the fourth question, seems like it was added way long after the original question. Explanation for fourth one would be helpful,

Thanks in advance!!!

For an explanation of why (B) is the correct answer for question #4, please see this post.

Let's take another look at option (E):
Quote:
(E) Northeasters are too diffuse to warrant close study by climatologists.

The author certainly states that Northeasters are diffuse, but does that mean that these storms don't warrant (or deserve) close study by climatologists?

The justifications given for close study of hurricanes and tornadoes are that these storms are:

  • "most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements" and
  • "highly destructive."

Because Northeasters are more diffuse, it is more difficult to study them. However, the author states that Northeasters are "equally destructive" when compared to hurricanes/tornadoes. Because of this, close study of Northeasters would "minimize injury to people and property," just as close study of other storms does. So we cannot say that Northeasters do not warrant close study because of their diffuse nature -- if anything, the author implies that these storms do warrant close study despite the difficulties arising from their diffuse nature. For this reason, (E) is out.

I hope that helps!


Option E could be wrong in that, passage talks about diffuse nature of Northeasters, but choice E says Northeasters are too diffuse. 'Diffuse nature' could be too diffuse or less diffuse. So choice E could be wrong.

However, there is a big problem with B. Although passage mentions Northeasters are as equally destructive as Hurricanes, nowhere it is mentioned in the passage that Northeasters deserve a closer study. It only says Northeasters cannot be studied closely because of some problem, but doesn't advocate studying Northeasters. GMATNinja can we go ahead and infer that studying Northeasters would help solve the problem?

To answer question #4, we are looking for an answer choice with which the author would most likely agree. We do not need to prove that the author explicitly agrees with the exact answer choice in the passage -- we can infer based on his/her argument with which statement is the most likely option.

One reason that tornadoes and hurricanes are studied is that they are highly destructive, and that "knowledge about their behavior can help minimize injury to people and property." The author goes on to argue that northeasters are equally destructive.

From this, we can infer that the author would likely agree that northeasters deserve closer study by climatologists in order to minimize injury to people and property.

(B) is the correct answer for question #4.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2019, 01:14
Overall the passage discusses why some storms are studied more than others.
P1: Discuss and substantiate why some storms are studied more
p2: Speculate another reason storms are studied and state that other storms fit into this category, but such storms have insufficient data

Q1
Primary purpose
A is incorrect - we aren't evaluating anything
B is incorrect because we aren't discussing difficulties with classification
C is incorrect because this is this isn't even mentioned
D is incorrect because no theory is discussed
E is correct because it aligns perfectly with our passage map. The main idea can be grasped from the first sentence of each para. quite easily on this one.

Q2
Verify each
A - not supported at all.
B - no, we are told they can cause "comparable" damage
C - Yes - we are told they are "weak low-pressure systems"
D - No supported at all.
E - No. We are only told the damage is comparable, and we are told their winds "rarely acquire the strength of even the smallest hurricane"

Q3
A - Literally in the first sentence we are told "storms most studied...are most easily understood by taking atmospheric measurements" thus we can logically infer that A is correct.
B - concentration isn't even discussed or inferrable
C - we know nothing of the comparative difficulty to predict a storm
D - similarly, we know nothing of the occurrence/ frequency
E - This cannot be inferred. NO data supports this.

Q4
Throughout para. 2 the author discusses the northeaster as an example of a storm that has "not been so thoroughly researched". This is strongly inferred in the lack of data and difficulties in categorising this storm.
A - we know nothing of the incidence of injury to people and property. Incorrect
B - This is spot on with the whole reason why Northeasters were introduced in the first place. Correct
C - We cannot infer this. We don't know anything about the assessment of damage. We know they can cause comparable damage but that's it.
D - No. We aren't told of their frequency.
E - This isn't why climatologists don't study them closely. It's because of the lack of atmospheric data.
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Re: The storms most studied by climatologists have been those that are mos   [#permalink] 23 Jul 2019, 01:14
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