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The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]
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The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January? (1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January. (2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.  My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...
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knabi wrote: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?
(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.
(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.
 My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change... (2) is not sufficient as we don't know what happened with fixed cost in January. Didi it increase? Decrease? Remained the same? As we have no information about it we can not assume anything. So it's clear C. Below is calculations for C: Let the total cost in January be \(C_2\) and the total cost before be \(C_1\). Given: \(C_2=F_2+V_2\) and \(C_1=F_1+V_1\), also \(V_2=0.95V_1\). Question: \(\frac{C_2}{C_1}=\frac{F_2+V_2}{F_1+V_1}=\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) (1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January > \(F_2=1.13F_1\) > \(\frac{1.13F_1+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\). Not sufficient to get the exact fraction. (2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X > \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=?\). Not sufficient. (1)+(2) \(F_2=1.13F_1\) and \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1\) > from (2) \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) > substituting \(F_2\) and \(F_1\)> \(\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1\) > in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value). Answer: C. Hope it's clear.
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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05 May 2011, 21:24
a c1= f+v c2 = kf + 0.95v k = 1.13. no relative information between f and v. Not sufficient. b f=5v c1= 6v. not sufficient. a+b gives c1 = 6v and c2 = 1.13 * 5v + 0.95 v thus C
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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06 May 2011, 08:17
To get the percentage change, we need two of the three in the same units: original, change or new. Both statements give us original and new in terms of y so it is sufficient. But 2) alone gives only original in terms of y and 1) gives new fixed cost but the total new is in different units. Combining both in same unit gives us percentage change.
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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Karishma Pls can you verify this solution. I think this is a weighted average problem. Combining 1) + 2) 13% increase in the fixed cost and 5% is decrease in variable cost. We know that the weights w1 : w2 are 5 : 1 i.e. Fixed cost : Variable cost = 5 : 1 Hence the %age in the total cost = (13 * w1  5 * w2) / (w1 + w2) %change in total cost = (13 * 5  5 * 1) / (5 + 1) = 60/ 6 = 10% increase knabi wrote: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?
(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.
(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.
Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. Both statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER one ALONE is sufficient. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
 My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change...



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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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07 May 2011, 04:48
(1) X1 = 1.13F + 0.95V Not sufficient (2) F = 5V => X = 6V X1 = F1 + V1 but we don't know by how much F and V have changed (1) + (2) gives X1 = 1.13F + 0.95V = 1.13 * 5V + 0.95V So (X1X)/X can be found Answer  C
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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07 May 2011, 10:13
gmat1220 wrote: Karishma Pls can you verify this solution. I think this is a weighted average problem. Combining 1) + 2) 13% increase in the fixed cost and 5% is decrease in variable cost. We know that the weights w1 : w2 are 5 : 1 i.e. Fixed cost : Variable cost = 5 : 1 Hence the %age in the total cost = (13 * w1  5 * w2) / (w1 + w2) %change in total cost = (13 * 5  5 * 1) / (5 + 1) = 60/ 6 = 10% increase Good call! We see that we can use weighted averages. We already have A1, Stmnt1 gives us A2 and Stmnt2 gives us w1/w2 so we can use w1/w2 = (A2  Avg)/(Avg  A1) and get the answer. We don't even need to calculate. Finally, I feel my effort of showing the utility of 'weighted averages' is paying off! If you were in my class, the day's candy would have been yours!
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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07 May 2011, 10:28
Karishma  can u plz post ur blogging that dealing with this weighted average system?
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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07 May 2011, 10:59
144144 wrote: Karishma  can u plz post ur blogging that dealing with this weighted average system? Here you go: http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/03 ... averages/http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/04 ... gebrutes/http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/04 ... mixtures/My signature gives the link to all my blog posts (they are together under the section 'Quarter Wit, Quarter Wisdom'). I have given the link for the weighted average related posts above.
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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07 May 2011, 19:06
TC1 = F +V
TC2 = F2+0.95V Jan
1. Not sufficient.
F2 = 0.87F TC2 = 0.87F+0.95V TC2/TC1 = (0.87F+0.95V)/(F+V)
2. TC= 6V
TC2 = F2+0.95V
no F2 , so not sufficient.
together we have
TC2 = 0.87F+0.95V
TC2/TC1 = (0.87F+0.95V)/(F+V) and F= 6V => sufficient.
Answer is C.



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I would have used plugging in strategy here;
statement 2. fixed cost = 5* VC assume VC = 20 , FC = 100 Total cost = 120
information : VC decreased 5% = 205% = 19 statement 1. FC increased 13% = 100+13% = 113 total new cost = 113+19 = 132
% increase over previous TC = 132120/120 = 12/120 = 10%



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I think most people will fall into the trap if they assume FC and VC as some values say 100,200... In this case B will be correct But this approach will work only if there is a single unknown...This is a classic example when it will not work directly There are 2 approaches 1) If you like formulas : Weighted average is the best approach as illustrated by Karishma 2) I like the lazyman approach for DS, so I am assuming FC=x,VC=y...As per qn. y decr. by 5% So we need Increase/(x+y) x incr. by 13% as per A...But no relation b/w x and y ==> This is insufficient As per B, x=5y...But what is increase ? Combining A and B, there is a nonredundant relation and increase can be calculated So go with C and MOVE ON Choose the approach that best suites you...Also calculate values only if needed in DS. Bunuel has shown the complete steps of calculation for purely illustration...
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16 Jul 2011, 10:01
On a different note, I had assumed that Fixed Cost would remain constant(as I think that's the whole meaning of Fixed cost) for the period (January) mentioned until I saw the Statement1. Do you guys also think sometimes statements themselves change your approach of approaching the problem? OR we should not be used to understand the problem itself?
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Bunuel wrote: knabi wrote: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?
(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.
(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.
 My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change... (2) is not sufficient as we don't know what happened with fixed cost in January. Didi it increase? Decrease? Remained the same? As we have no information about it we can not assume anything. So it's clear C. Below is calculations for C: Let the total cost in January be \(C_2\) and the total cost before be \(C_1\). Given: \(C_2=F_2+V_2\) and \(C_1=F_1+V_1\), also \(V_2=0.95V_1\). Question: \(\frac{C_2}{C_1}=\frac{F_2+V_2}{F_1+V_1}=\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) (1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January > \(F_2=1.13F_1\) > \(\frac{1.13F_1+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\). Not sufficient to get the exact fraction. (2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X > \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=?\). Not sufficient. (1)+(2) \(F_2=1.13F_1\) and \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1\) > from (2) \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) > substituting \(F_2\) and \(F_1\)> \(\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1\) > in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value). Answer: C. Hope it's clear. Hi Bunuel , I have a small doubt , it is stated that "BEFORE THE CHANGES IN JANUARY " the fixed costs were so and so , how can we infer from this statement that the proportion could have been the same in january also ???



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11 Jun 2013, 05:39
venkat18290 wrote: Bunuel wrote: knabi wrote: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of item X's fixed cost and variable cost. If the variable cost of producing X decreased by 5% in January, by what percent did the total cost of producing item X change in January?
(1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January.
(2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X.
 My question is, why isn't the answer B? The prompt didn't say fixed cost MUST change... (2) is not sufficient as we don't know what happened with fixed cost in January. Didi it increase? Decrease? Remained the same? As we have no information about it we can not assume anything. So it's clear C. Below is calculations for C: Let the total cost in January be \(C_2\) and the total cost before be \(C_1\). Given: \(C_2=F_2+V_2\) and \(C_1=F_1+V_1\), also \(V_2=0.95V_1\). Question: \(\frac{C_2}{C_1}=\frac{F_2+V_2}{F_1+V_1}=\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) (1) The fixed cost of producing item X increased by 13% in January > \(F_2=1.13F_1\) > \(\frac{1.13F_1+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\). Not sufficient to get the exact fraction. (2) Before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X > \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=?\). Not sufficient. (1)+(2) \(F_2=1.13F_1\) and \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1\) > from (2) \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) > substituting \(F_2\) and \(F_1\)> \(\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1\) > in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value). Answer: C. Hope it's clear. Hi Bunuel , I have a small doubt , it is stated that "BEFORE THE CHANGES IN JANUARY " the fixed costs were so and so , how can we infer from this statement that the proportion could have been the same in january also ??? Where do we infer that?
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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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11 Jun 2013, 06:07
(1)+(2) \(F_2=1.13F_1\) and \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1\) > from (2) \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) > substituting \(F_2\) and \(F_1\)> \(\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1\) > in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).
Please check the bold part .. you have taken F2=1.13F1 and F1=5V1 . My doubt was how did you take F1=5V1 when combining both the statements .
IMO : Statement 2 was all about before price change in January , so the statement 2 does not give us any information about the price in January . So how can we even consider statement 2 ?
Or is it that i am interpreting the statement wrong ?



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Re: very hard  MGMAT [#permalink]
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11 Jun 2013, 07:41
venkat18290 wrote: (1)+(2) \(F_2=1.13F_1\) and \(F_1=5V_1\) > \(F_2=1.13F_1=5.65V_1\) > from (2) \(\frac{F_2+0.95V_1}{F_1+V_1}=?\) > substituting \(F_2\) and \(F_1\)> \(\frac{5.65V_1+0.95V_1}{5V_1+V_1}=\frac{6.6}{6}=1.1\) > in January total cost increased by 10%. Sufficient. (Actually no calculations are needed: stem and statement provide us with such relationships of 4 unknowns that 3 of them can be written with help of the 4th one and when we put them in fraction, which we want to calculate, then this last unknown is reduced, leaving us with numerical value).
Please check the bold part .. you have taken F2=1.13F1 and F1=5V1 . My doubt was how did you take F1=5V1 when combining both the statements .
IMO : Statement 2 was all about before price change in January , so the statement 2 does not give us any information about the price in January . So how can we even consider statement 2 ?
Or is it that i am interpreting the statement wrong ? (2) says: before the changes in January, the fixed cost of producing item X was 5 times the variable cost of producing item X > F(before)=5*V(before) > \(F_1=5V_1\) (F1 and V1 are costs before January and F2 and V2 are costs in January).
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Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]
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This question is confusing...
If the fixed cost truly is fixed, then B. should be sufficient.
If the fixed cost can change, then the variable cost should change not only based off of price change but off of total units as well..
But I see what the question is asking... my microecon training just doesn't like how it's phrased.



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Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]
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11 Jun 2013, 21:23
dave785 wrote: This question is confusing...
If the fixed cost truly is fixed, then B. should be sufficient.
If the fixed cost can change, then the variable cost should change not only based off of price change but off of total units as well..
But I see what the question is asking... my microecon training just doesn't like how it's phrased. In the question, it is implied that the fixed cost and variable cost are in per unit terms. Total cost = Fixed Cost + Variable Cost Item X's variable cost will be cost per unit so fixed cost will also be in terms of cost per unit. As you noted, fixed cost per unit (e.g. leased land) changes with the number of units and variable cost changes with change in variable factors (e.g. cost of raw material) and might change with change in number of units too (e.g. say you need to make 110 units instead of 100 so you hire one extra person though you don't utilize him fully and hence variable cost increases for all the units). In any given month, both fixed cost per unit and variable cost per unit can change. It is definitely possible that one increases and the other decreases. I don't think there is a problem in the question but probably a clearly mentioned 'fixed cost per unit' would have been better.
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Re: The total cost of producing item X is equal to the sum of [#permalink]
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Hi Bunnel, Why we are just using c2/C1 for a percentage change in question ..Shouldn't we using c2c1/c1 for percentage change!! Please clarify
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