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The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta

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The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Sep 2017, 04:00
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The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United States was a “psychological contract” in which employees made long-term commitments to organizations in exchange for long-term job security, training and development, and internal opportunities for promotion. Beginning mainly with the recession in the early 1970’s, this paradigm began to unravel. Organizations began using extensive downsizing and outsourcing to decrease the number of permanent employees in the workforce. Among employees this situation has resulted in a decided shift in desire: instead of working their way up in an organization, many now prefer to work their way out. Entrepreneurship at the small business administration are now the fastest-growing majors in business schools.

Several factors have generated movement from the old paradigm to the new one. Organizations have had legitimate and pressing reasons to shift to a new paradigm of employer-employee relations. Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs. The enormous rights in wrongful discharge suites has created incentives for organizations to use temporary, contract, and leased employees in order to distance themselves from potential litigation problems. Moreover, top management is under increased pressure from shareholders to generate higher and higher levels of return on investment in the short run, resulting in declines in hiring, increases in layoffs, and shortage of funds for employee development.

At the same time, a lack of forthrightness on the part of organizations has led to increased cynicism among employees about management’s motivation and competence. Employees are now working 15 percent more hours per week than they were 20 years ago, but organizations acknowledge this fact only by running stress-management workshops to help employees to cope. Sales people are being asked to increase sales at the same time organizations have cut travel, phone, and advertising budgets. Employees could probably cope effectively with changes in the psychological contract if organizations were more forthright about how they were changing it. But the euphemistic jargon used by executives to justify the changes they were implementing frequently backfires; rather than engendering sympathy for management’s position, it sparks employees’ desire to be free of the organization all together. In a recent study of employees’ attitudes about management, 49 percent of the sample strongly agreed that “management will take advantage of you if given the chance.”


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. discuss the financial implications of a recent shift in attitudes among workers
B. propose a new approach for businesses to increase loyalty among their employees
C. defend certain business practices in light of criticism of corporations, actions in a recent past
D. speculate about possible long term benefits of a recent change in the general business climate
E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships



2. The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?

A. Organizations tend to operate more effectively when they have a high manager-to-employee ratio.
B. Organizations can move their operations to less expensive locations more easily when they have fewer permanent employees.
C. Organizations have found that they often receive higher quality work when they engage in outsourcing.
D. Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses if the demand for their product or service decreases.
E. Organizations are under increasing pressure to adopt new technologies that often obviate the need for certain workers.



3. Which of the following best characterizes the function of the final sentence of the passage (lines 30-32)?

A. It is such as an alternative explanation for phenomenon discussed earlier in the passage.
B. It provides data intended to correct a common misconception.
C. It further weakens an argument that is being challenged by the author.
D. It introduces a specific piece of evidence in support of a claim made at beginning of the final paragraph (lines 20-21).
E. It answers a question that is implicit in the preceding sentence (lines 27-30).



4. The passage suggests that organizations’ movement to the “new paradigm” (line 11) is based in part on the expectation that wrongful discharge suites against employers are?

A. less likely to be filed by non-managerial employees than by managers
B. less likely to be filed by leased employees than by contract employees
C. less likely to be filed by contract employees than by permanent employees
D. more likely to be filed by employees with a long history in the organization than by newer hirers
E. more likely to be filed in small organizations than in large ones



Source: GMATPrep RC

Originally posted by JarvisR on 22 Jun 2015, 20:48.
Last edited by hazelnut on 28 Sep 2017, 04:00, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2015, 08:46
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Question 5:The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. discuss the financial implications of a recent shift in attitudes among workers
B. propose a new approach for businesses to increase loyalty among their employees
C. defend certain business practices in light of criticism of corporations, actions in a recent past
D. speculate about possible long term benefits of a recent change in the general business climate
E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships
>> Basic introduction and then "Several factors have generated movement from the old paradigm to the new one. "


Question 6:The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?
A. Organizations tend to operate more effectively when they have a high manager-to-employee ratio.
B. Organizations can move their operations to less expensive locations more easily when they have fewer permanent employees.
C. Organizations have found that they often receive higher quality work when they engage in outsourcing.
D. Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses if the demand for their product or service decreases.
>>Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs.
E. Organizations are under increasing pressure to adopt new technologies that often obviate the need for certain workers.


Question 7:Which of the following best characterizes the function of the final sentence of the passage (lines 30-32)?
A. It is such as an alternative explanation for phenomenon discussed earlier in the passage.
B. It provides data intended to correct a common misconception.
C. It further weakens an argument that is being challenged by the author.
D. It introduces a specific piece of evidence in support of a claim made at beginning of the final paragraph (lines 20-21).
>> But the euphemistic jargon used by executives to justify the changes they were implementing frequently backfires; rather than engendering sympathy for management’s position, it sparks employees’ desire to be free of the organization all together. In a recent study of employees’ attitudes about management, 49 percent of the sample strongly agreed that “management will take advantage of you if given the chance.”

E. It answers a question that is implicit in the preceding sentence (lines 27-30).


Question 8:The passage suggests that organizations’ movement to the “new paradigm” (line 11) is based in part on the expectation that wrongful discharge suites against employers are?
A. less likely to be filed by non-managerial employees than by managers
B. less likely to be filed by leased employees than by contract employees
C. less likely to be filed by contract employees than by permanent employees
>>The enormous rights in wrongful discharge suites has created incentives for organizations to use temporary, contract, and leased employees in order to distance themselves from potential litigation problems.

D. more likely to be filed by employees with a long history in the organization than by newer hirers
E. more likely to be filed in small organizations than in large ones
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2017, 10:42
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8 mins 20 seconds , including 3 mins 40 seconds to read . All correct

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United States was a “psychological contract” in which employees made long-term commitments to organizations in exchange for long-term job security, training and development, and internal opportunities for promotion.
Several factors have generated movement from the old paradigm to the new one.

E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships

2. The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?
. Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs.
D. Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses if the demand for their product or service decreases.


3. Which of the following best characterizes the function of the final sentence of the passage (lines 30-32)?
In a recent study of employees’ attitudes about management, 49 percent of the sample strongly agreed that “management will take advantage of you if given the chance.”
At the same time, a lack of forthrightness on the part of organizations has led to increased cynicism among employees about management’s motivation and competence.

D. It introduces a specific piece of evidence in support of a claim made at beginning of the final paragraph (lines 20-21).

4. The passage suggests that organizations’ movement to the “new paradigm” (line 11) is based in part on the expectation that wrongful discharge suites against employers are?
The enormous rights in wrongful discharge suites has created incentives for organizations to use temporary, contract, and leased employees in order to distance themselves from potential litigation problems.
C. less likely to be filed by contract employees than by permanent employees
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2018, 00:29
For Question 1, why E is the correct answer?
Only in 2nd paragraph factors contributing to shift are discussed.
In my opinion then correct answer should be D, because he is analysing the impact of the change.

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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2018, 23:53
Sarthaktiwari13 wrote:
For Question 1, why E is the correct answer?
Only in 2nd paragraph factors contributing to shift are discussed.
In my opinion then correct answer should be D, because he is analysing the impact of the change.

Posted from my mobile device


Hi,

Overall the passage speaks about the shift from long-term employment to short-term employment and reasons supporting the same.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. discuss the financial implications of a recent shift in attitudes among workers - Yes, discusses about it a little but this is not the purpose of the passage.
B. propose a new approach for businesses to increase loyalty among their employees - the author does not propose anything. He only discusses about the shift.
C. defend certain business practices in light of criticism of corporations, actions in a recent past - The author doesn't defend, he provides us with some reasons for the shift.
D. speculate about possible long-term benefits of a recent change in the general business climate - Yes, he speaks about the benefits or the reasons why the shift is happening but they are never coined as long-term benefits.
E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships. - Yes, the author discusses the shift and factors or reasons for the same.

As you pointed out the author is analyzing but not the impact of the change but causes for the change and effect of this cause which fueled up the change.
Overall, it is all about why change is happening? Factors causing it?. Which is captured in E.
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 17:26
Skywalker18 wrote:
8 mins 20 seconds , including 3 mins 40 seconds to read . All correct

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United States was a “psychological contract” in which employees made long-term commitments to organizations in exchange for long-term job security, training and development, and internal opportunities for promotion.
Several factors have generated movement from the old paradigm to the new one.

E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships

2. The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?
. Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs.
D. Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses if the demand for their product or service decreases.


3. Which of the following best characterizes the function of the final sentence of the passage (lines 30-32)?
In a recent study of employees’ attitudes about management, 49 percent of the sample strongly agreed that “management will take advantage of you if given the chance.”
At the same time, a lack of forthrightness on the part of organizations has led to increased cynicism among employees about management’s motivation and competence.

D. It introduces a specific piece of evidence in support of a claim made at beginning of the final paragraph (lines 20-21).

4. The passage suggests that organizations’ movement to the “new paradigm” (line 11) is based in part on the expectation that wrongful discharge suites against employers are?
The enormous rights in wrongful discharge suites has created incentives for organizations to use temporary, contract, and leased employees in order to distance themselves from potential litigation problems.
C. less likely to be filed by contract employees than by permanent employees


Why is C wrong for Q3? Skywalker18
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2018, 10:38
[b]10 min 3 correct 1 wrong[/b]
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2018, 18:15
doubleting wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
8 mins 20 seconds , including 3 mins 40 seconds to read . All correct

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United States was a “psychological contract” in which employees made long-term commitments to organizations in exchange for long-term job security, training and development, and internal opportunities for promotion.
Several factors have generated movement from the old paradigm to the new one.

E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships

2. The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?
. Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs.
D. Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses if the demand for their product or service decreases.


3. Which of the following best characterizes the function of the final sentence of the passage (lines 30-32)?
In a recent study of employees’ attitudes about management, 49 percent of the sample strongly agreed that “management will take advantage of you if given the chance.”
At the same time, a lack of forthrightness on the part of organizations has led to increased cynicism among employees about management’s motivation and competence.

D. It introduces a specific piece of evidence in support of a claim made at beginning of the final paragraph (lines 20-21).

4. The passage suggests that organizations’ movement to the “new paradigm” (line 11) is based in part on the expectation that wrongful discharge suites against employers are?
The enormous rights in wrongful discharge suites has created incentives for organizations to use temporary, contract, and leased employees in order to distance themselves from potential litigation problems.
C. less likely to be filed by contract employees than by permanent employees


Why is C wrong for Q3? Skywalker18



amar RAJPUT
C. It further weakens an argument that is being challenged by the author.

The author never really challenges anything in the passage. The entire passage is informative only. Hope this helps!
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2018, 17:37
Easy one. 9.5 mins, All correct
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 21:54
Total time: 9 minutes and 30 Seconds :?

1. E, 2. D, 3. D

All correct
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Re: The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United Sta &nbs [#permalink] 02 Sep 2018, 21:54
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