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Re: The way in which Taylor and the other the participants, Mason, Adams [#permalink]
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Hello, everyone. For what it is worth, I feel as if (C) is a stronger answer than (D). Why? Because the non-underlined portion references their own reported levels of involvement. The sentence, then, seems to draw attention to an unnamed interpreter of such information, and a quick rearrangement of the two major pieces of the sentence reveals why through is stronger than by. The sentences, rearranged, with much of the "fluff" removed:

(C) Through their own reported levels of involvement, the way in which Taylor and the other participants moved was determined.
(D) By their own reported levels of involvement, the way in which Taylor and the other participants moved was determined.

Do I think the sentence would appear as is on the GMAT™? No. But does that mean it cannot or should not be studied for some related purpose? Again, I would say no. The split I have drawn attention to above is a legitimate one, one that leans on the expressed meaning of the sentence, and that is definitely something that GMAT™ SC concerns itself with.

I hope that helps. Good luck with your studies.

- Andrew
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Re: The way in which Taylor and the other the participants, Mason, Adams [#permalink]
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Let me know if it helps:

C: determined through means , these things helped to determine
D: determined by means, these things actually determined it

The activities such as swimming, hiking etc can help determine the involvement here but can not determine the involvement!!

Hope this clarifies; this is what I thought to decide between my final selection between C&D

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Re: The way in which Taylor and the other the participants, Mason, Adams [#permalink]
The sentence mentions a few activities which helped determine their reported level of involvement. So usage of 'through' is better than that of 'by'. These activities didn't determine on their own, but through these activities involvement was determined.
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Re: The way in which Taylor and the other the participants, Mason, Adams [#permalink]
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Re: The way in which Taylor and the other the participants, Mason, Adams [#permalink]
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