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To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic

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To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Jul 2019, 01:41
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 234, Date : 28-Jul-2019
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To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic style characterized by extravagant forms and elaborate ornamentation, but also a political, social, and cultural mentality prevalent in Europe from approximately 1600 to 1680. This larger view was held by the late Spanish historian Jose Antonio Maravall, whose writings trace aspects of the modern world—especially the principle of individual liberty in opposition to the state's power—back to the baroque era as it unfolded in Spain.

Maravall argues that the baroque period was characterized by "monarchical absolutism": monarchs, having suppressed the worst excesses of aristocratic disorder, could now ally themselves with their nobilities to defend traditional order and values in societies unsettled by the Renaissance's liberating forces of criticism and opposition. These forces appeared especially threatening because deteriorating economic conditions heightened conflict among different elements of society. For Maravall, baroque culture was the response of the ruling class (including crown, Church, and nobility) to the European social and economic crisis, although that crisis was more acute, and the social structure more frozen, in imperial Spain than elsewhere. Maravall regards the baroque as a culture of control and containment, or, more dynamically, as a directive culture, designed to reintegrate and unite a society living under the shadow of social and intellectual disruption.

Maravall suggests that even though all the political controls were centralized in the monarchical system, this system of authority was not simply repressive. It was also enticing, promoting a public delight in grandiose artifice by means of devices that ranged from fireworks displays to theater to religious festivals. Operating upon an urban culture that already possessed characteristics of modem mass culture, these enticements deflected the desire for novelty into areas of life where it represented no challenge to the political order. Maravall concludes that every aspect of the baroque emerged from the necessity, as public opinion grew increasingly important, of manipulating opinions and feelings on a broad public scale.

Perhaps, however, Maravall's interpretation is overly influenced by his quest for baroque foreshadowings of "modernity" and by his experience of living under the Spanish dictator Franco. He tends to exaggerate the capacity of those in authority to manipulate a society for their own ideological ends. A look at the seventeenth-century courts of Charles I in England or Philip IV in Spain suggests that efforts at manipulation were at times wholly counterproductive. In England and Spain during the 1630s, the rulers themselves, not the subjects, succumbed to the illusions carefully sustained by ceremony, theater, and symbol. The result was that members of the ruling class became dangerously isolated from the outside world, and as the gulf between illusion and reality widened, the monarchy and aristocracy fell headlong into a credibility gap of their own creation..


1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Until recently, the baroque has been regarded simply as an aesthetic style; however, Maravall has shown that it was a cultural mentality serving to reinforce monarchical absolutism.
(B) Maravall views baroque culture as a strategy for dissipating opposition and managing public
opinion; however, he overestimates the strategy's success.
(C) Maravall interprets European baroque culture as an expansion of the social and intellectual
developments of the Renaissance; however, his view of the seventeenth century is colored by his focus on Spain.
(D) Maravall's theory about the intent of the ruling class to control society via baroque culture is refuted by the examples of specific baroque-era monarchies.
(E) According to the historian Maravall, baroque culture was a political construct designed essentially to control society and repress dissent


2. Which one of the following words best expresses the meaning of "directive" as that word is used in line 27 of the passage?

(A) straightforward
(B) evolving
(C) codified
(D) guiding
(E) compelling


3. It can be inferred from the passage that Maravall regarded monarchs of the baroque era as

(A) increasingly indifferent to unfavorable public opinion
(B) concerned with the political threat posed by the aristocracy
(C) captivated by the cultural devices designed to control their subjects
(D) somewhat successful in countering the disruptive legacy of the Renaissance
(E) preoccupied with the goal of attaining cultural preeminence for their respective countries


4. In Maravall's view, baroque theater was intended to

(A) spur economic growth
(B) echo the consensus of public opinion
(C) entertain and divert the urban population
(D) express the emerging principle of individual liberty
(E) terrify the citizenry with the threat of monarchical repression


5. The main purpose of the passage is to

(A) contrast two competing theories and offer an evaluation
(B) challenge a widely accepted viewpoint by means of a counterexample
(C) explicate an interpretation and introduce a qualification
(D) articulate opposing arguments and propose a reconciliation
(E) explain the unprecedented consequences of a political construct


6. Which one of the following pieces of evidence, if it existed, would most weaken Maravall's interpretation of baroque culture?
(A) confirmation that Maravall himself participated in opposing Franco's authoritarian regime
(B) the discovery that baroque-era nobility commissioned far more works of art than did the monarchs
(C) an analysis of baroque art that emphasizes its idealized depiction of the monarchy and aristocracy
(D) documents indicating that many baroque-era works of art expressed opposition to the monarchy
(E) documents indicating a conscious attempt on the part of Franco to control Spanish society by cultural means



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest A
  • Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by generis on 14 Jul 2019, 01:52.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 30 Jul 2019, 01:41, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 03:17
took 10 minute , got 5 right and 1 wrong . how much time allotted during practice is considered good for such passage ?
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 22:01
1
ayushkumar22941 wrote:
took 10 minute , got 5 right and 1 wrong . how much time allotted during practice is considered good for such passage ?

ayushkumar22941 - impressive accuracy!

Well, the general guideline is 8 minutes for a long passage with 4 questions (you could go to 8:30), and this one has 6 questions (four of which are hard)—so your timing is spot on.

(I will provide an official explanation in a couple of days.
I would rather see people post a question about or an explanation of one of the answers before i post an OE.)

Nice work!
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 00:14
Can anyone elaborate on Q1 (chose C instead of B), Q4 (chose D instead of C), and Q5 (chose B instead of C)?
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2019, 11:54
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2019, 01:30
1
Quote:
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Until recently, the baroque has been regarded simply as an aesthetic style; however, Maravall has shown that it was a cultural mentality serving to reinforce monarchical absolutism.
(B) Maravall views baroque culture as a strategy for dissipating opposition and managing public
opinion; however, he overestimates the strategy's success.
(C) Maravall interprets European baroque culture as an expansion of the social and intellectual
developments of the Renaissance; however, his view of the seventeenth century is colored by his focus on Spain.
(D) Maravall's theory about the intent of the ruling class to control society via baroque culture is refuted by the examples of specific baroque-era monarchies.
(E) According to the historian Maravall, baroque culture was a political construc


Although I spend 2 min and picked up B, but I did not get the Maravall views the baroque culture as a strategy for dissipating,
From the last sentence of second paragraph, Maravall regards the baroque as a culture of control and containment, or, more dynamically, as a directiveculture, designed to reintegrate and unite a society living under the shadow of social and intellectual disruption
This implies Maravall thought the baroque culture as a directive meaning. does it imply "dissipating"


Quote:
2. Which one of the following words best expresses the meaning of "directive" as that word is used in line 27 of the passage?

(A) straightforward
(B) evolving
(C) codified
(D) guiding
(E) compelling
I changed my choices from D to B,
At first I thought D ???guiding??? is correct because of ???a culture of control and containment, but when I read ???reintegrate and unite???, then I think ???evolving??? will be better.


My problem of Q4 is my localization, wrong location and time waster. This kind of issues happen again and again, please guide how to localize correctly.
Usually, when read passage, I sometime will skip something words I thought they are evidence that support/against some position,
Quote:
4. In Maravall's view, baroque theater was intended to

(A) spur economic growth
(B) echo the consensus of public opinion
(C) entertain and divert the urban population
(D) express the emerging principle of individual liberty
(E) terrify the citizenry with the threat of monarchical repression

Here, I skip ??? by means of devices that ranged from fireworks displays to theater to religious festivals.??? A later part of second part of third paragraph.
So, when I approach Q4, I think I need to search ???baroque theater???, looks like a kind culture of baroque , looks like second paragraph is a good place, at the end, I did get any result ,
Of course I didn???t get result because the location should be third paragraph,
Even though I know location, I still get wrong answer choice, I picked up B because I think B express as ???promoting a public delight???
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2019, 04:41
1
All correct except Q2 in 11 mins, including almost 5 mins to read
Para 1- European baroque- larger view held by some, including Maravall
Para 2- monarchical absolutism, baroque as a culture of control and containment
Para 3- every aspect of the baroque emerged from the necessity, as public opinion grew increasingly important, of manipulating opinions and feelings on a broad public scale.
Para 4- Maravall tends to exaggerate the capacity of those in authority to manipulate society for their own ideological ends

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(B) Maravall views baroque culture as a strategy for dissipating opposition and managing public opinion; however, he overestimates the strategy's success. - Correct

2. Which one of the following words best expresses the meaning of "directive" as that word is used in line 27 of the passage?
Maravall regards the baroque as a culture of control and containment, or, more dynamically, as a directive culture, designed to reintegrate and unite a society living under the shadow of social and intellectual disruption.
(A) straightforward - incorrect
(B) evolving - incorrect, it did not evolve
(C) codified - incorrect
(D) guiding
(E) compelling
I was down to options D and E and chose the option E

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , VeritasPrepErika , other experts - please provide your views on Q2.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Maravall regarded monarchs of the baroque era as
monarchs, having suppressed the worst excesses of aristocratic disorder, could now ally themselves with their nobilities to defend traditional order and values in societies unsettled by the Renaissance's liberating forces of criticism and opposition
(D) somewhat successful in countering the disruptive legacy of the Renaissance - Correct


4. In Maravall's view, baroque theater was intended to
(C) entertain and divert the urban population
It was also enticing, promoting a public delight in grandiose artifice by means of devices that ranged from fireworks displays to theater to religious festivals.
Maravall concludes that every aspect of the baroque emerged from the necessity, as public opinion grew increasingly important, of manipulating opinions and feelings on a broad public scale.

5. The main purpose of the passage is to
(A) contrast two competing theories and offer an evaluation - incorrect, two competing theories have not been contrasted here and no evaluation has been provided
(B) challenge a widely accepted viewpoint by means of a counterexample - incorrect, no widely accepted viewp has been challenged
(C) explicate an interpretation and introduce a qualification - Correct- the interpretation is of the larger view of European baroque held by some scholars; in the final para that view has been qualified
(D) articulate opposing arguments and propose a reconciliation - incorrect, no reconciliation has been done
(E) explain the unprecedented consequences of a political construct- incorrect

6. Which one of the following pieces of evidence, if it existed, would most weaken Maravall's interpretation of baroque culture?
(A) confirmation that Maravall himself participated in opposing Franco's authoritarian regime - incorrect
(B) the discovery that baroque-era nobility commissioned far more works of art than did the monarchs - incorrect, monarchs, having suppressed the worst excesses of aristocratic disorder, could now ally themselves with their nobilities to defend traditional order and values in societies unsettled by the Renaissance's liberating forces of criticism and opposition.
The passage never claims that monarchs commissioned more works of art than nobility
(C) an analysis of baroque art that emphasizes its idealized depiction of the monarchy and aristocracy - incorrect
(D) documents indicating that many baroque-era works of art expressed opposition to the monarchy - Correct, this goes against the one of important purpose of Baroque stated by Maravall
These forces appeared especially threatening because deteriorating economic conditions heightened conflict among different elements of society. For Maravall, baroque culture was the response of the ruling class (including crown, Church, and nobility) to the European social and economic crisis
(E) documents indicating a conscious attempt on the part of Franco to control Spanish society by cultural means- incorrect, this logic is in line with the Baroque view held by Maravall
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2019, 05:02
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct except Q2 in 11 mins, including almost 5 mins to read

2. Which one of the following words best expresses the meaning of "directive" as that word is used in line 27 of the passage?
Maravall regards the baroque as a culture of control and containment, or, more dynamically, as a directive culture, designed to reintegrate and unite a society living under the shadow of social and intellectual disruption.
(A) straightforward - incorrect
(B) evolving - incorrect, it did not evolve
(C) codified - incorrect
(D) guiding
(E) compelling
I was down to options D and E and chose the option E

please provide your views on Q2.


The author says "Maraval suggested that ... this system of authority was not simply repressive. It was also enticing, promoting a public delight in grandiose artifice by means of devices that ranged from fireworks displays to theater to religious festivals. Operating upon an urban culture that already possessed characteristics of modem mass culture, these enticements deflected the desire for novelty into areas of life where it represented no challenge to the political order. Maravall concludes that every aspect of the baroque emerged from the necessity, as public opinion grew increasingly important, of manipulating opinions and feelings on a broad public scale."

The foregoing does not describe a process of compelling. It describes how Baroque culture was used to guide society. So, (D) fits well.
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Re: To some scholars, the European baroque is not merely an aesthetic   [#permalink] 05 Aug 2019, 05:02
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