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# #Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized

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Current Student
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
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#Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2015, 01:53
2
9
00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

33% (01:46) correct 67% (01:58) wrong based on 377 sessions

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"Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.

The argument above is flawed because it

(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question

(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day

(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time

(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day

(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

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Re: #Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2015, 22:44
3
"Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.

The argument above is flawed because it

A. cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
here is a correlation vs causation issue. While it can be true in reality that TV may induce some focus problems here the issue os of correlation not of partial or direct causation.

B. fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
People with inability may accidentally watch more TV but that does not indicate or decide their condition.
So whoever watches more TV may not necessarily have the same condition.

C. limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time........there is no mention of symptoms here in the argument.

D. fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day...........it is mentioned that he watches it for 8hr on average per day so even if he belongs to remaining 5% this does not define the flaw in the conclusion based on his inability.

E. does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching..............this does not explain the inherent flaw.
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Re: #Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2017, 20:13
1
My 2 cents:
Assume, # of 7 years old kids = 1000
# of 7 years old kids with "Inability to concentrate" = 100
95% of there kids (i.e. 95 kids) watch > 7 hrs of TV
other 5 may with "Inability to concentrate" may watch > or < 7 hrs of TV

But other 900 kids may watch > or < 7 hrs of TV but still MAY NOT suffer from "Inability to concentrate"
So it is flawed to draw conclusions based on such a small sample size of observed kids.
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Re: #Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized  [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2018, 01:38
To me B seems to be the best choice;

Unless we know the general probabilities for 7 years olds that watch more than 7 hours of TV each day to suffer from attention deficiency we cannot judge the chances of the given child to be affected.

There could be only 5% of 7 years old suffering from that condition, hence even if our given child engages in activities that hind to suffering from the condition, there is still a massive chance that he belongs to the "other 95%", regardless of his behavior.
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Re: #Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized  [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2018, 09:05
To summarize the argument in simpler words: 95% of 7-year olds with condition A watch television more than 7 hours a day. A 7-year old boy watches TV more than 7 hours a day. Therefore, he has condition A.

We can transform this argument into a simpler one to make the flaw more obvious:

95% of Italians eat pasta. James eats pasta. Therefore, James is an Italian.

We then need to find the answer choice that describes this flaw. B is super-convoluted, but it does exactly that.
Re: #Top150 CR: "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2018, 09:05
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