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Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol

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Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dollar amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997, and about half of the total dollar amount spent on the transportation was airfare. However, the large majority of United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 did not travel by airplane but used other means of transportation.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true about United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997?


(A) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because the airfare to their destination was lower than the cost of other available means of transportation.

(B) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because other means of transportation to their destinations were unavailable.

(C) Per mile traveled, those who traveled by airplane tended to spend more on transportation to their destination than did those who used other means of transportation.

(D) Overall, people who did not travel by airplane had lower average transportation expenses than people who did.

(E) Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.


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Re: QOTD: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the tot  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2018, 14:56
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This is an inference question, and we don't have a nice conclusion to use as a starting point. Instead, let's make sure we clearly understand the given information, paying attention to little details and modifiers as we go:

  • "Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dollar amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997." This statement has lots of important details, so don't skim over them. TE accounted for a LARGE portion, but we don't know how large. We cannot say that TE accounted for the LARGEST portion or even for MOST of the total. Also, keep in mind that we are only talking about trips for pleasure by US residents.
  • "About half of the total dollar amount spent on the transportation was airfare." So of the TE described above, about half of it was spent on airfare. The other half comprised other transportation expenses (perhaps cars/fuel, buses, trains, etc).
  • "The large majority of US residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 did not travel by airplane but used other means of transportation." - There is no numerical cutoff for a "large" majority but if the numbers were close (i.e. a 49%-51% split), it would make more sense to call it a "slim" majority. For example, if 499 people like Coke and 501 like Pepsi, then most people like Pepsi and the majority of people like Pepsi. But does a large majority prefer Pepsi? Not in this case because the difference is very small. If 800 people like Coke and 200 like Pepsi, then we could say that the large majority of people surveyed like Coke. Again, there really isn't any absolute rule for the numerical cutoff, but if we want to use "large majority", there should be a significant difference. So this statement tells us that a lot more people did NOT travel by airplane but used other means of transportation.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true about United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997?

Quote:
A) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because the airfare to their destination was lower than the cost of other available means of transportation.

The passage doesn't say anything about WHY people chose air travel or other means of transportation. In fact, the numbers seem to suggest that those who traveled by airplane had HIGHER average TE than people who did not travel by airplane. Flying may have been the more expensive option, but people may have chosen it because, for example, it was much faster, more convenient, more comfortable, etc. Choice (A) can be eliminated.

Quote:
B) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because other means of transportation to their destinations were unavailable.

Again, the passage doesn't say anything about WHY people chose certain means of transportation. It is certainly possible that several modes of transportation were available and people chose to fly for a variety of reasons (speed, convenience, comfort, etc). Choice (B) is not necessarily true and can be eliminated.

Quote:
C) Per mile traveled, those who traveled by airplane tended to spend more on transportation to their destination than did those who used other means of transportation.

The problem with choice (C) is the "per mile traveled" part. Those who traveled by airplane may have spent more IN TOTAL on transportation than did those who used other means of transportation, but that does not necessarily mean they spent more PER MILE. For example, those who chose to fly may have traveled thousands of miles on average to reach their destinations while those who did not fly may have traveled only tens or hundreds of miles on average. We cannot infer that this is true, so eliminate (C).


Quote:
D) Overall, people who did not travel by airplane had lower average transportation expenses than people who did.

About half of the TE was spent on airfare and about half of the TE was spent on other transportation costs (i.e. cars/fuel, buses, trains, etc.). But a LARGE MAJORITY of the people who took trips for pleasure did NOT travel by airplane. How could this be true?

We are told that the amount spent on airfare was about the same as the amount spent on other transportation costs. So picture two equal bars on a bar graph. If the number of people traveling by airplane was about the same as the number of people using other means of transportation, then we would divide the bars by roughly the same number to get the average TE for both groups. But we know that the number of people who did NOT travel by plane was much higher than the number who did travel by plane (the large majority did not travel by airplane). That means we have to divide the non-airfare bar by a much HIGHER number than the airfare bar to get the average TE for each group. That means that the average TE would be much higher for the airfare group (because we divided by a smaller number). Choice (D) has to be true, so keep this one.

Quote:
E) Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.

The amount that those who traveled by airplane spent on other means of transportation (i.e. rental cars, etc.) may have only been a small fraction of what they spent on airfare. Most of the non-airfare TE were likely incurred by the large majority who did NOT travel by airplane. Choice (E) does not have to be true and can be eliminated.

Choice (D) is the only one that has to be true.
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2016, 16:56
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Okay, I got this wrong initially but on a closer look D makes complete sense.

Before we jump in to analyze the answers, lets focus on what the passage is saying:

-Transport expenses accounted for large portion of money spent in 1997 pleasure trips.
-Half of the transport expenses was just airfare.
-BUT majority of folks did not take airplanes
This means --> air travel had less number of passengers than other means of transport, but ended up being about half of the total transport cost.

Simplified -- airfare costs = half of total transportation costs.
airfare passengers = minority of passengers (since majority did NOT use air travel)

Now analysis of answer choices:

A. Not given, we dont know why anyone did or did not take airplane. WRONG
B. Again, not given in passage. Same as A. WRONG
C. yet again, NOT GIVEN. we dont know HOW MANY MILES people traveled. We just know what method they used airplane vs others. WRONG.
D. Yes, this makes sense. Why? Look above where i deconstructed what the passage gave --> airfare costs = half of total transportation costs, BUT airfare passengers = minority of passengers (since majority did NOT use air travel). half the cost and less than half the people? Clearly, airfare is more expensive. Making other forms of transport LESS expensive CORRECT
E. (i originally chose this cuz i did not understand what the passage intended to say) We have no idea about the money spent by people on other transports along with airfare. we only know that there were some who took airplanes and majority of people who didnt. WRONG

and there we have it. Hope this helps!

also, my first post ever, so kudos if it helped :)
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2016, 12:21
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why D?
I guess the answer should be B
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2016, 22:46
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Assume that the total US transportation expense is $100. Now the questions says, a large portion, lets say $60 was spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States and about half, $50 was spent on airfare. Now the discrepancy is that the large majority of United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 did not travel by airplane but used other means of transportation.

Lets assume 10 people took trips for pleasure. A large majority, lets say 6, did not travel by airplane.

Travel expense for 6 people who did not travel by airplane = (60 - 50) = $10
Travel expense for 4 people who travelled by airplane = $50

Hence, average money spent on travel by people who DID NOT travel by airplane is less that those who did.

Hence D.
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 00:21
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dollar amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997, and about half of the total dollar amount spent on the transportation was airfare. However, the large majority of United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 did not travel by airplane but used other means of transportation.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true about United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997?

A) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because the airfare to their destination was lower than the cost of other available means of transportation.
B) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because other means of transportation to their destinations were unavailable.
C) Per mile traveled, those who traveled by airplane tended to spend more on transportation to their destination than did those who used other means of transportation.
D) Overall, people who did not travel by airplane had lower average transportation expenses than people who did.
E) Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.


Read choices A,B & C and thought C is the best one.

But clearly D is more apt than C.
Never neglect any choices in SC directly w/o even reading it for once.Only go by POE.

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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2016, 22:52
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first information:-
total $ spend on pleasure trip by residents says 100$
second information:-
large portion of this amount is for transportation says 60$
third info:-
half of transportation cost is airfare says 30$ , equal to other means of trans.
Forth :- Residents who took trips for pleasure say 10 people
large portion did not use air-plane says 6 people did not use it. so 4 people use it.

Lets check D first avg cost for airfare 30/4 = more than 7 and avg cost for other tran 30/6 = 5 ... so correct answer
Lets check other answers
Both A and B give us reason why people travelled by some mode or why people not travelled by other mode.
C , with information above , we dont know how much travelling anybody has done, so we cannot tell per mile.
E cannot be the answer.

Please let me know if looks good and do let me know if my reasoning is wrong
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New post 26 Jun 2016, 07:00
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Same expenses, more people means lower expense per person.

Answer choice D.
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New post 25 Jul 2017, 05:06
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Sonalika42 wrote:
why D?
I guess the answer should be B


You are missing the an important point here. The given Question is an Inference Question.
And for Inference Q- The first thing to keep in mind is :-
a. Is the answer 'explicitly' stated in the provided passage (or is it a piecemeal paraphrase of the statements) ?
b. Can the answer be 'explicitly' derived / solved from the given information (like a math problem).

What you did with B is that , you tried using common sense logic of inference (this is deduction like Sherlock : ) not GMAT inference ).
D can be mathematically calculated, if you check it.
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2017, 11:16
AbdurRakib wrote:
Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dollar amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997, and about half of the total dollar amount spent on the transportation was airfare. However, the large majority of United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 did not travel by airplane but used other means of transportation.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true about United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997?

A) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because the airfare to their destination was lower than the cost of other available means of transportation.
B) Most of those who traveled by airplane did so because other means of transportation to their destinations were unavailable.
C) Per mile traveled, those who traveled by airplane tended to spend more on transportation to their destination than did those who used other means of transportation.
D) Overall, people who did not travel by airplane had lower average transportation expenses than people who did.
E) Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.


I have only one question on this one. I'm going to rewrite the portion of the stimulus that confuses me...

"Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dollar amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997"

Now please help me with this confusion..

What is this amount that we're talking about?
Is it

A. The entire total of all the resident travellers combined?
or
B. The entire total of one resident traveller's transportation expense?

Although, if it were clearly written that "transportation expenses on average for residents", then it would definitely be B. But how do we differentiate? will "on average" always be explicitly stated when it is meant to?
Experts, please help on this. IanStewart mikemcgarry
your help is really appreciated.
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New post 19 Aug 2017, 14:49
ShashankDave wrote:

"Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dollar amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997"

Now please help me with this confusion..

What is this amount that we're talking about?


The question talks about "the total amount spent by residents". That has to mean the total amount, because "residents" is pluralized. If instead it meant the amount per person, there would be a few ways to convey that - it could say 'per person', or use the word 'average', or talk about the amount spent by 'each resident' (and there are surely other ways that aren't occurring to me right now).

But the distinction you're asking about doesn't matter in this question, because we're just concerned with the fraction of holiday expenses that are spent on transportation. It won't matter if you measure that by taking the sum total of all expenses, or by looking at expenses per person; you'll get the same result. If people spent $H in total on holidays, and $T in total on transportation, then T/H is the fraction of holiday expenses spent on transportation. If you have n people in total, then on average each person spent $H/n on holidays, and $T/n on transportation, so the fraction the average person spent on transportation was (T/n)/(H/n) = T/H, so is the same as what we found using the sum totals.
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2018, 21:44
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Hi Experts,

I am presenting my approach which took me more than 3 mins.

total amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997: 100 USD

amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997: 51 USD

total dollar amount spent on the airfare transportation: 50 USD

% United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 and used other means of transportation: 51

If 51% people spent 50 USD on non airfare ie 50 USD and 49% spent on airfare say 50 USD assuming total as X% and simpliying
if 2 people spend 2 $ among them and 1 person spends 2 $ making the former ie airplane more expensive.

Can you explain specific difference between large and most?
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Re: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2018, 23:32
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adkikani wrote:
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma GMATNinjaTwo

Hi Experts,

I am presenting my approach which took me more than 3 mins.

total amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997: 100 USD

amount spent on trips for pleasure by residents of the United States in 1997: 51 USD

total dollar amount spent on the airfare transportation: 50 USD

% United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 and used other means of transportation: 51

If 51% people spent 50 USD on non airfare ie 50 USD and 49% spent on airfare say 50 USD assuming total as X% and simpliying
if 2 people spend 2 $ among them and 1 person spends 2 $ making the former ie airplane more expensive.

Can you explain specific difference between large and most?

The passage states that "the large majority of United States residents who took trips for pleasure in 1997 did not travel by airplane but used other means of transportation." A 49%-51% split would not represent a "large" majority. There is no numerical cutoff for a "large" majority but if the numbers were that close, it would make more sense to call it a "slim" majority.

For example, if 499 people like Coke and 501 like Pepsi, then most people like Pepsi and the majority of people like Pepsi. But does a large majority prefer Pepsi? Not in this case because the difference is very small. If 800 people like Coke and 200 like Pepsi, then we could say that the large majority of people surveyed like Coke. Again, there really isn't any absolute rule for the numerical cutoff, but if we want to use "large majority", there should be a significant difference.

I hope that helps!
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Re: QOTD: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the tot  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2018, 23:36
Hi GMATNinja

While explaining (D) you wrote:

Quote:
We are told that the amount spent on airfare was about the same as the amount spent on other transportation costs. So picture two equal bars on a bar graph.


If I interpret correctly, the two equal bar graphs are TOTAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS each for
(a) airfare in case 1 and (2) non air-fare in case 2.


Now Option (E) says:
Quote:
Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.


Do not highlighted statement and option (E) mean the same? What is interpretation of ON AVERAGE in option (E)?
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Re: QOTD: Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the tot  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2018, 13:25
adkikani wrote:
Hi GMATNinja

While explaining (D) you wrote:

Quote:
We are told that the amount spent on airfare was about the same as the amount spent on other transportation costs. So picture two equal bars on a bar graph.


If I interpret correctly, the two equal bar graphs are TOTAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS each for
(a) airfare in case 1 and (2) non air-fare in case 2.


Now Option (E) says:
Quote:
Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.


Do not highlighted statement and option (E) mean the same? What is interpretation of ON AVERAGE in option (E)?

The highlighted portion of your explanation is accurate. If we add up the TOTAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS, about half of that total would be airfare and the other half would be other transportation expenses (not airfare).

But choice (E) doesn't quite say that. Pay particular attention to the underlined portion: "Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on average, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare." This means that we are only looking at people who traveled by airplane. Now we could add up the total amount that those people spent on their airfare and divide the total by the number of people to get the AVERAGE amount spent on airfare by those people. For example, if there were 200 people who traveled by airplane and they spent a total of $100,000 on airfare, then the amount spent on airfare by those people was $500 ON AVERAGE.

According to choice (E), the average amount that those people spent on airfare was about the same as the average amount that those people spent on other modes of transportation (i.e. buses, trains, taxis, etc.). This could be true, but we don't know for sure based on the information in the passage. For example, it is just as likely that those people spent much less, on average, on OTHER modes of transportation. Perhaps they spent $500 on average for airfare and only $100 on average for buses, trains, etc.

I hope that helps!
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Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2018, 09:53
An example based on the argument

Total expense = 100 ; Air = 50 other= 50
Passenger total 100; Air = 20, other =80

Now if you look at D, you will get the answer easily.
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Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2018, 19:11
Hi GMATNinja please weigh in!
The stimulus mentions that: about half of the total dollar amount spent on the transportation was airfare.
I selected E first. Is E wrong because of the word average?
Would E be right without the word average .. ie new E:
E: Those who traveled by airplane spent about as much, on other means of transportation as they did on airfare.
Transportation expenses accounted for a large portion of the total dol &nbs [#permalink] 12 Sep 2018, 19:11
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