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# Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of

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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
AjiteshArun carcass
In Q1 E is wrong both the definition are compatible to some extent. am I correct ?
In Q4 I ended up choosing C though I can clearly see D is correct now. but I don't understand how C is wrong or a trap ?
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
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teaserbae
AjiteshArun carcass
In Q1 E is wrong both the definition are compatible to some extent. am I correct ?
In Q4 I ended up choosing C though I can clearly see D is correct now. but I don't understand how C is wrong or a trap ?
1. Possibly. The passage mentions that both approaches are "divergent" and "different", but that doesn't necessarily mean that they are completely incompatible. I'd remove option E because: (a) the other two approaches are not particular important, and should not form most of the answer to a primary purpose question and (b) the author does not say that the other two approaches should be replaced (the author actually calls both of them "useful").

4. Option C says:

In the 1960's leaders of the Mexican American community concentrated their efforts on promoting a renaissance of ethnic history and culture.

This is the part of the passage that we are interested in:

In the 1960's, Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols.

From this we can see three important things: (a) Mexican Americans (in general, as there is no mention of leaders) emphasized ancestral heritage as a way to mobilize constituents, (b) there is no support for the word renaissance, and (c) the only mention of Mexican-American leaders is towards the end (they "combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols").
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
6. Information in the passage supports which of the following statements about many European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States?

The below statement from the passage is all we need to answer this question:

carcass
"Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. And every year, Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. Patrick's Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin), with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals, symbols, and heroes of the United States."

(C) They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.

They didn't "create" cultural traditions! I was about to choose this answer, but I thought it was a trap because of the word create. In the passage, in the parenthesis, it clearly says that these holidays were "reinvented." So I thought this was a trap answer.

GMATNinja SajjadAhmad Am I overthinking this? Am I bringing my critical reasoning brain into RC and reading too critically?

(E) They organized formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture.
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
(1) Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

(A) In their definitions of the nature of ethnicity, sociologists have underestimated the power of the primordial human need to belong.

(B) Ethnicity is best defined as a dynamic process that combines cultural components with shared political and economic interests.

I missed this question because for some reason I always miss Primary Purpose questions I thought "best defined" was pretty strong language. I think (B) could reasonably be implied, but "best defined" was a little too certain for my liking, so I eliminated it.

(C) In the United States in the twentieth century, ethnic groups have begun to organize in order to further their political and economic interests.

carcass SajjadAhmad GMATNinja Quick question for you guys, can we eliminate (C) purely on the verb tense of "have begun"? Since we are talking about the past, shouldn't this just be "began"?

(D) Ethnicity in the United States has been significantly changed by the Civil Rights movement.

(E) The two definitions of ethnicity that have dominated sociologists' discussions are incompatible and should be replaced by an entirely new approach.
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
Can someone please explain how B is the right answer for Q3?
The ending line of first paragraph says "Rather, ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real-life situations."

What I infer from this line is that author tries define ethinicity as a process in which communal bonds and common cultural bonds are adapted to meet a purpose which can help meeting some need or solve a real life problem for that ethinic group.

And then in second paragraph author goes on and provides the example of the same.
Thus, as per above inference A should be the correct answer.

For me, B is a clear elimination from every perspective. Please explain how B is infered from the passage.
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
MikeScarn
6. Information in the passage supports which of the following statements about many European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States?

The below statement from the passage is all we need to answer this question:

carcass
"Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. And every year, Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. Patrick's Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin), with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals, symbols, and heroes of the United States."
(C) They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.

They didn't "create" cultural traditions! I was about to choose this answer, but I thought it was a trap because of the word create. In the passage, in the parenthesis, it clearly says that these holidays were "reinvented." So I thought this was a trap answer.

GMATNinja SajjadAhmad Am I overthinking this? Am I bringing my critical reasoning brain into RC and reading too critically?

(E) They organized formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture.
­I ended up rejecting choice C because of the same reason. The word "created" seemed to be the wrong answer choice. I am not sure why this answer choice is correct as they did not "create" any cultural traditions..
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
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MikeScarn
6. Information in the passage supports which of the following statements about many European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States?

The below statement from the passage is all we need to answer this question:

carcass
"Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. And every year, Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. Patrick's Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin), with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals, symbols, and heroes of the United States."
color=#0000ff They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.

They didn't "create" cultural traditions! I was about to choose this answer, but I thought it was a trap because of the word create. In the passage, in the parenthesis, it clearly says that these holidays were "reinvented." So I thought this was a trap answer.

GMATNinja SajjadAhmad Am I overthinking this? Am I bringing my critical reasoning brain into RC and reading too critically?

color=#ff0000 They organized formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture.
­I ended up rejecting choice C because of the same reason. The word "created" seemed to be the wrong answer choice. I am not sure why this answer choice is correct as they did not "create" any cultural traditions..
The US-infused St. Patrick's Day didn't exist before Irish Americans made it. So, while the holiday itself exists in Ireland, new traditions were created to link the holiday to the to ideals, symbols, and heroes of the United States.

No tricks here -- even if the origins of such holidays existed already, European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States created a new way of celebrating those holidays in the American context.

Similarly, I might build off of the tradition of the birthday cake by building myself a birthday-cake fort and eating my way out of it every year on my birthday. Sure, I have built off of a tradition that already existed, but I have also created my own tradition.

I hope that helps!­
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Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
GMATNinja
#GMATNinja

I want to know the explanation of Q6.

The answer is "C: They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.".

But how can I infer "that fused cultural traditions that fused US ~ origin" by "Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols."?

I cannot infer from "Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols." to (C).

Thanks.­
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]

Question 6

mrkperfect
GMATNinja

#GMATNinja

I want to know the explanation of Q6.

The answer is "C: They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.".

But how can I infer "that fused cultural traditions that fused US ~ origin" by "Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols."?

I cannot infer from "Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols." to (C).

Thanks.­
­If you haven't already, try reviewing this post: https://gmatclub.com/forum/two-divergen ... l#p3385303.

The last sentence of the passage is key: both holidays cited (Cinco de Mayo and St. Patrick's Day) were "REINVENTED in the context of the United States and linked to ideals, SYMBOLS, and heroes of the United States." So even though the holidays were born from traditions in the countries of origin, those traditions were fused with US symbols.

The discussion of Cinco de Mayo is given as an example of how late-twentieth-century Mexican American leaders (like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States) combined ethnic (e.g. country of origin) with contemporary (US) civic symbols. So (C) works.­
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
Why is option B in Q2 a bad choice?
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
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Question 2

MoulikaSaxena
Why is option B in Q2 a bad choice?
­Question 2 asks about the first two definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph.

The first view "emphasizes the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity," stating that "people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture."

The second view "de-emphasizes the cultural component" of ethnicity, instead arguing that "ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position."

From this, we know that the first definition focuses on shared ancestry and culture, while the second focuses on economic positions.

Here's (B):

Quote:
B. One emphasizes the political aspects of ethnicity, and the other focuses on the economic aspects.
The second definition does focus on economic aspects of ethnicity. However, the first doesn't focus on the political aspects -- those are discussed later in the passage, when the author adds yet another definition to describe ethnicity in the United States.

(B) is out for question 2.

I hope that helps!­
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Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
­Hi,

I am a bit confused about why it can't be retelling of traditional narratives for Q5. While I do understand that they are clearly talking of celebration of holidays, they also refer to how they have reinvented those holidays in the context of their experiences in the US, so they are retelling their narrative, and celebrating the holiday. So that is also their way of cultural expression.

Thank you!­
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
Nonbiryani
­Hi,

I am a bit confused about why it can't be retelling of traditional narratives for Q5. While I do understand that they are clearly talking of celebration of holidays, they also refer to how they have reinvented those holidays in the context of their experiences in the US, so they are retelling their narrative, and celebrating the holiday. So that is also their way of cultural expression.

Thank you!­
­Hi Nonbiryani,

We should start with what a traditional narrative is. A traditional narrative is a story passed down from generation to generation. Although a holiday may involve the retelling of a traditional narrative, the passage doesn't mention anything like that.
Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists' discussions of [#permalink]
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