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Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that

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Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Sep 2019, 06:18
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 289, Date : 25-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric
Williams’ conclusion that Britain’s abolition of the
slave trade in 1807 and its emancipation of slaves in its
colonies in 1834 were driven primarily by economic
(5) rather than humanitarian motives. Blighted by depleted
soil, indebtedness, and the inefficiency of coerced
labor, these colonies, according to Williams, had by
1807 become an impediment to British economic
progress.

(10) Seymour Drescher provides a more balanced view.
Rejecting interpretations based either on economic
interest or the moral vision of abolitionists, Drescher
has reconstructed the populist characteristics of British
abolitionism, which appears to have cut across lines of
(15) class, party, and religion. Noting that between 1780
and 1830 antislavery petitions outnumbered those on
any other issue, including parliamentary reform,
Drescher concludes that such support cannot be
explained by economic interest alone, especially when
(20) much of it came from the unenfranchised masses. Yet,
aside from demonstrating that such support must have
resulted at least in part from widespread literacy and a
tradition of political activism, Drescher does not finally
explain how England, a nation deeply divided by class
(25) struggles, could mobilize popular support for
antislavery measures proposed by otherwise
conservative politicians in the House of Lords and
approved there with little dissent.

David Eltis’ answer to that question actually
(30) supports some of Williams’ insights. Eschewing
Drescher’s idealization of British traditions of liberty,
Eltis points to continuing use of low wages and
Draconian vagrancy laws in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries to ensure the industriousness of
(35) British workers. Indeed, certain notables even called
for the enslavement of unemployed laborers who
roamed the British countryside—an acceptance of
coerced labor that Eltis attributes to a preindustrial
desire to keep labor costs low and exports competitive.
(40) By the late eighteenth century, however, a growing
home market began to alert capitalists to the
importance of “want creation” and to incentives such
as higher wages as a means of increasing both worker
productivity and the number of consumers.
(45) Significantly, it was products grown by slaves, such as
sugar, coffee, and tobacco, that stimulated new wants
at all levels of British society and were the forerunners
of products intended in modern capitalist societies to
satisfy what Eltis describes as “nonsubsistence or
(50) psychological needs.” Eltis concludes that in an
economy that had begun to rely on voluntary labor to
satisfy such needs, forced labor necessarily began to
appear both inappropriate and counterproductive to
employers. Eltis thus concludes that, while Williams
(55) may well have underestimated the economic viability
of the British colonies employing forced labor in the
early 1800s, his insight into the economic motives for
abolition was partly accurate. British leaders became
committed to colonial labor reform only when they
(60) became convinced, for reasons other than those cited
by Williams, that free labor was more beneficial to the
imperial economy.

1. Which one of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?

(A) Although they disagree about the degree to which economic motives influenced Britain’s abolition of slavery, Drescher and Eltis both concede that moral persuasion by abolitionists was a significant factor.
(B) Although both Drescher and Eltis have questioned Williams’ analysis of the motivation behind Britain’s abolition of slavery, there is support for part of Williams’ conclusion.
(C) Because he has taken into account the populist characteristics of British abolitionism, Drescher’s explanation of what motivated Britain’s abolition of slavery is finally more persuasive than that of Eltis.
(D) Neither Eltis nor Drescher has succeeded in explaining why support for Britain’s abolition of slavery appears to have cut across lines of party, class, and religion.
(E) Although flawed in certain respects, Williams’ conclusions regarding the economic condition of British slave colonies early in the nineteenth century have been largely vindicated.

2. It can be inferred that Eltis cites the views of “certain notables” (line 35) in order to

(A) support the claim that British traditions of liberty were not as strong as Drescher believed them to be
(B) support the contention that a strong labor force was important to Britain’s economy
(C) emphasize the importance of slavery as an institution in preindustrial Britain
(D) indicate that the laboring classes provided little support for the abolition of slavery
(E) establish that laborers in preindustrial Britain had few civil rights

3. Which one of the following best states Williams’ view of the primary reason for Britain’s abolition of the slave trade and the emancipation of slaves in its colonies?

(A) British populism appealed to people of varied classes, parties, and religions.
(B) Both capitalists and workers in Britain accepted the moral precepts of abolitionists.
(C) Forced labor in the colonies could not produce enough goods to satisfy British consumers.
(D) The operation of colonies based on forced labor was no longer economically advantageous.
(E) British workers became convinced that forced labor in the colonies prevented paid workers from receiving higher wages.

4. According to Eltis, low wages and Draconian vagrancy laws in Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were intended to

(A) protect laborers against unscrupulous employment practices
(B) counter the move to enslave unemployed laborers
(C) ensure a cheap and productive work force
(D) ensure that the work force experienced no unemployment
(E) ensure that products produced in British colonies employing forced labor could compete effectively with those produced in Britain

5. It can be inferred that the author of the passage views Drescher’s presentation of British traditions concerning liberty as

(A) accurately stated
(B) somewhat unrealistic
(C) carefully researched
(D) unnecessarily tentative
(E) superficially convincing

6. The information in the passage suggests that Eltis and Drescher agree that

(A) people of all classes in Britain supported the abolition of slavery
(B) the motives behind Britain’s abolition of slavery were primarily economic
(C) the moral vision of abolitionists played a vital part in Britain’s abolition of slavery
(D) British traditions of liberty have been idealized by historians
(E) Britain’s tradition of political activism was primarily responsible for Britain’s abolition of slavery

7. According to the passage, Eltis argues against which one of the following contentions?

(A) Popular support for antislavery measures existed in Britain in the early nineteenth century.
(B) In the early nineteenth century, colonies that employed forced labor were still economically viable.
(C) British views concerning personal liberty motivated nineteenth-century British opposition to slavery.
(D) Widespread literacy in Britain contributed to public opposition to slavery in the early nineteenth century.
(E) Antislavery measures proposed by conservative politicians in the early nineteenth century met with little opposition

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 19 (June 1996)
• Difficulty Level: 700

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Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 11 Sep 2019, 06:18, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (517).
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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2019, 19:03
Can someone explain question 3 and Question 6?
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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2019, 21:28
1
Explanation

3. Which one of the following best states Williams’ view of the primary reason for Britain’s abolition of the slave trade and the emancipation of slaves in its colonies?

Explanation

Lines 5-9 provide Williams’ thinking about why the British abolished slavery: the colonies, with their slave labor system, were “an impediment to British economic progress.”

(A) Drescher, not Williams, emphasizes the importance of populism as an explanation for the demise of British slavery.

(B) Neither Williams, Drescher, nor Eltis emphasizes the “moral” influence of abolitionists.

(C) Eltis, not Williams, discusses production rates and consumer wants in the context of the demise of British slavery.

(E) is outside the scope of the passage. There’s no mention of the specific views of British laborers.

6. The information in the passage suggests that Eltis and Drescher agree that

Explanation

Lines 15-28 reveal that Drescher believes that opposition to slavery among the British was broad-based. That Eltis also believes that opposition to slavery was broad-based can be inferred from his research emphasis, which shows that the British elite moved away from supporting the slave system because the British consumer wanted to obtain more and better goods.

(B) Drescher argues that the primary motive for abolishing slavery was ideological rather than economic.

(C) Neither Drescher nor Eltis refers to the “moral vision of abolitionists” as an important cause of the demise of slavery.

(D) The author claims that Drescher has idealized “British traditions of liberty.” Drescher’s and Eltis’ views on how historians have dealt with British traditions of liberty—if they have views on this issue—are not mentioned in the passage.

(E) This view is endorsed by Drescher, but not by Eltis.

Hope it helps

PallabiKundu wrote:
Can someone explain question 3 and Question 6?

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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2019, 21:40
1
Passage Map

Topic and Scope:

Eric Williams’ conclusion about why the British abolished slavery; specifically, two competing views of Williams’ conclusion about why the British abolished slavery.

Purpose and Main Idea:

The author’s purpose is to describe two competing views of Williams’ conclusion about why the British abolished slavery; his specific main idea is that Williams’ conclusion is partly accurate, despite the fact that both Seymour Drescher and David Eltis take issue with it.

Paragraph Structure:

Para 1 provides Williams’ view, which is that the British abolished slavery primarily for economic reasons.

Para 2 provides Drescher’s dissenting view, which emphasizes British populism as the primary cause for the demise of British slavery.

Finally, Para 3 provides Eltis’ view, which also emphasizes economics as the primary cause behind the end of British slavery. However, while Williams emphasizes the economic decline of Britain’s colonies as the principal motivation for doing away with slavery, Eltis emphasizes the newfound importance of free labor as the principal motivation for getting rid of slavery.

Hello guptaaditi994 after reading this passage map try this question once more and let me know which question(s) you have got wrong.

Good Luck

can you provide detailed explanations for these questions?

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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2019, 04:22
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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2019, 05:34
Explanation

2. It can be inferred that Eltis cites the views of “certain notables” (line 35) in order to

Explanation

Eltis refers to the desire of certain notables to enslave unemployed laborers in order to point out that, contrary to Drescher’s belief, the British did not abolish slavery for reasons of principle. The British, in Eltis’ view, made decisions based on economic interests. Slavery was abolished when it proved to be harmful to the state’s economic interests.

(B), (C), and (E) fall outside the scope of the passage. The text deals with explanations for the demise of British slavery. It’s not about the importance of the labor force to the British economy (B); the importance of slavery as an institution in pre-industrial Great Britain (C); or the civil rights of laborers in pre-industrial Great Britain (E).

(D) Why would Eltis cite the views of notables to highlight the perspective of the working class?

4. According to Eltis, low wages and Draconian vagrancy laws in Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were intended to

Explanation

Lines 32-35 say that low wages and Draconian vagrancy laws in pre-industrial Great Britain were intended “to ensure the industriousness of British workers” (lines 34-35). Choice (C) is an accurate paraphrase of this sentiment.

(A), (B) Low wages and Draconian vagrancy laws were certainly not intended to help laborers. Just the reverse, in fact. They were intended to benefit employers.

(D) and (E) fall outside the scope of the passage. The text doesn’t discuss either unemployment per se, (D), or economic competition between Great Britain and its colonies, (E).

The best way to handle “explicit text” questions is to go back to the passage and reread the relevant lines. Don’t answer on a hunch or vague recollection of the text.
Doing so is a recipe for losing an easy point.

For Question #6 click on below link

https://gmatclub.com/forum/two-impressi ... l#p2345760

Hope it helps

Dhruvnneo wrote:

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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2019, 02:22
3
Hi everyone,
Took 16:15 minutes and got 5/7 correct. Took 4:15 minutes to read, write down paragraphs' summaries ad main point

P1

2 studies are mentioned. These 2 studies go against W' belief according to which only economic drivers were responsible for abolition and emancipation

P2

Sd's study is presented and its reasoning is explained BUT the study can't explain the support coming from the conservatives at the House of Lords

Takeway: the author favors this study over William's

P3

Eltis study is presented along with its reasoning. He identifies two key elements: low wages and DV laws as the core of industriousness and the advent of capitalism. Eltis partially agrees with williams and rejects some of D's ideas.

MP: To explain through studies which are the reasons for the abolition of slavery and emancipation

--------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Which one of the following best describes the main idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Refer to main point above

(A) Although they disagree about the degree to which economic motives influenced Britain’s abolition of slavery, Drescher and Eltis both concede that moral
persuasion by abolitionists was a significant factor.
Opposite. Eltis does not agree on this with D. Hence incorrect

(B) Although both Drescher and Eltis have questioned Williams’ analysis of the motivation behind Britain’s abolition of slavery, there is support for part of Williams’ conclusion.
This seems correct and broad enough. Hence correct

(C) Because he has taken into account the populist characteristics of British abolitionism, Drescher’s explanation of what motivated Britain’s abolition of slavery is finally more persuasive than that of Eltis.
No such comparison is made throughout the passage. Hence incorrect

(D) Neither Eltis nor Drescher has succeeded in explaining why support for Britain’s abolition of slavery appears to have cut across lines of party, class, and religion.
Incorrect and certainly not the purpose of the passage. Hence incorrect

(E) Although flawed in certain respects, Williams’ conclusions regarding the economic condition of British slave colonies early in the nineteenth century have been largely vindicated.
inconsistent because of largely vindicated. Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------

2. It can be inferred that Eltis cites the views of “certain notables” (line 35) in order to

Pre-thinking:
Describe a practice in use

(A) support the claim that British traditions of liberty were not as strong as Drescher believed them to be
out of the scope. Hence incorrect

(B) support the contention that a strong labor force was important to Britain’s economy
Correct and very clear from those lines. Hence correct

(C) emphasize the importance of slavery as an institution in preindustrial Britain
institution is incorrect here. Hence incorrect

(D) indicate that the laboring classes provided little support for the abolition of slavery
not the purpose f these lines.Hence incorrect

(E) establish that laborers in preindustrial Britain had few civil rights
again not the purpose.Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Which one of the following best states Williams’ view of the primary reason for Britain’s abolition of the slave trade and the emancipation of slaves in its colonies?

Pre-thinking:
" Blighted by depleted
soil, indebtedness, and the inefficiency of coerced
labor, these colonies, according to Williams, had by
1807 become an impediment to British economic
progress."

(A) British populism appealed to people of varied classes, parties, and religions.
Out of context here. Hence incorrect

(B) Both capitalists and workers in Britain accepted the moral precepts of abolitionists.
they didn't accept the moral preps probably. Their reasons were economic.Hence incorrect

(C) Forced labor in the colonies could not produce enough goods to satisfy British consumers.
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(D) The operation of colonies based on forced labor was no longer economically advantageous.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(E) British workers became convinced that forced labor in the colonies prevented paid workers from receiving higher wages.
completely out of scope. Hence incorrect. The reason was that people were more productive if they had incentives.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

4. According to Eltis, low wages and Draconian vagrancy laws in Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were intended to

Pre-thinking:
"Eltis points to continuing use of low wages and
Draconian vagrancy laws in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries to ensure the industriousness of
(35) British workers."

(A) protect laborers against unscrupulous employment practices
out of scope. Hence incorrect

(B) counter the move to enslave unemployed laborers
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(C) ensure a cheap and productive work force
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(D) ensure that the work force experienced no unemployment
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(E) ensure that products produced in British colonies employing forced labor could compete effectively with those produced in Britain
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------

5. It can be inferred that the author of the passage views Drescher’s presentation of British traditions concerning liberty as

Pre-thinking:
"Drescher does not finally
explain how England, a nation deeply divided by class
(25) struggles, could mobilize popular support for
antislavery measures proposed by otherwise
conservative politicians in the House of Lords and
approved there with little dissent."

(A) accurately stated
Not mentioned. Hence incorrect

(B) somewhat unrealistic
I line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) carefully researched
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(D) unnecessarily tentative
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

(E) superficially convincing
Out of scope. Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------

6. The information in the passage suggests that Eltis and Drescher agree that

Pre-thinking:
This question might be tricky to answer. Refer to these lines

"Significantly, it was products grown by slaves, such as
sugar, coffee, and tobacco, that stimulated new wants
at all levels of British society and were the forerunners
of products intended in modern capitalist societies to
satisfy what Eltis describes as “nonsubsistence or
(50) psychological needs.” Eltis concludes that in an
economy that had begun to rely on voluntary labor to
satisfy such needs, forced labor necessarily began to
appear both inappropriate and counterproductive to
employers.

The reasoning here is that all classes want those products and those products are better produced if the labor is volountary

Drescher idea is clearly mentioned in P2 on the other hand

(A) people of all classes in Britain supported the abolition of slavery
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(B) the motives behind Britain’s abolition of slavery were primarily economic
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(C) the moral vision of abolitionists played a vital part in Britain’s abolition of slavery
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(D) British traditions of liberty have been idealized by historians
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

(E) Britain’s tradition of political activism was primarily responsible for Britain’s abolition of slavery
Not in line with pre-thinking. Hence incorrect

Note that in the other answers one of them agrees and the other disagrees or both of them disagree.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

7. According to the passage, Eltis argues against which one of the following contentions?

Pre-thinking:

(A) Popular support for antislavery measures existed in Britain in the early nineteenth century.
He agrees

(B) In the early nineteenth century, colonies that employed forced labor were still economically viable.
He doesn't argue against this one. He states that the highest productivity was associated with voluntary labor

(C) British views concerning personal liberty motivated nineteenth-century British opposition to slavery.
Personal liberty was not the real reason. the real reason is that voluntary labor was more productive than coerced labor. Refer to the last lines. Hence correct

(D) Widespread literacy in Britain contributed to public opposition to slavery in the early nineteenth century.
He agrees. Hence incorrect

(E) Antislavery measures proposed by conservative politicians in the early nineteenth century met with little opposition
He probably agrees. hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------

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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 12:40

Can you please post the explanation for Q5?
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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2020, 22:35

Can you please post the explanation for Q5?

Explanation

5. It can be inferred that the author of the passage views Drescher’s presentation of British traditions concerning liberty as

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

In line 31, the author notes that Drescher’s presentation of British traditions concerning liberty is “idealized,” or romanticized. The phrase “somewhat unrealistic” reflects this characterization.

(A), (C) Accurately stated (A) and carefully researched (C) wrongly suggest that the author believes that Drescher’s presentation is right on.

(D), (E) Unnecessarily tentative (D) and superficially convincing (E), while less positive in tone than choices (A) and (C), are still not critical enough to reflect the author’s true point of view.

Hope it helps
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Re: Two impressive studies have reexamined Eric Williams’ conclusion that   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2020, 22:35
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