Summer is Coming! Join the Game of Timers Competition to Win Epic Prizes. Registration is Open. Game starts Mon July 1st.

It is currently 18 Jul 2019, 15:12

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Mar 2007
Posts: 228
Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 11 Mar 2019, 04:25
10
19
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

57% (01:24) correct 43% (01:31) wrong based on 428 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics


Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

(A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same

(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment

(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment

(D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment

(E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same

In A and B, the phrases beginning Unlike… and Besides… modify patients, the subject of the main clause; thus A absurdly states that Unlike transplants…, patients…must take…drugs, and B that all patients except for transplants…must take… drugs.

In B and D the expression identical twins with the same genetic endowment wrongly suggests that only some identical twin pairs are genetically identical.

In E, the construction Other than transplants…, all patients… must take… drugs illogically suggests, as in B, that some patients are transplants.

Choice C, the best answer, solves these problems by using a clause introduces by Unless to describe the exception to the rule and a nonrestrictive clause beginning with who to describe the characteristic attributed to all identical twins.

https://www.nytimes.com/1964/02/09/archives/progress-hailed-in-transplants-but-much-is-still-unsolved-in-organ.html

The discovery in the late 1950's by Dr. William Dameshek and Dr. Robert Schwartz of Tufts University that certain anticancer drugs tended to suppress transplant rejections spurred research activity in transplants between unrelated persons.

Immunological rejection usually does not occur in transplants between identical twins because they have the same genetic endowment. The rejection problem between fraternal twins is intermediate and that between unrelated persons is great.

https://www.nytimes.com/2000/05/02/health/domino-transplants-rare-and-risky.html

Mr. Cawley and Mrs. Hubbard have yet to meet each other, but say they hope to do so. Both are reported to be doing well, but will have to take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

Originally posted by leeye84 on 06 Jul 2007, 08:54.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Mar 2019, 04:25, edited 6 times in total.
Edited the question.
Most Helpful Expert Reply
Math Expert
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 56257
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jul 2014, 12:56
9
7
Bunuel wrote:

GMAT weekly questions



Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts of other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

A. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
B. Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
C. Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment
D. Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
E. Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same


In A and B, the phrases beginning Unlike and Besides modify patients, the subject of the main clause; thus A absurdly states that Unlike transplants, patients must take drugs, and B that all patients except for transplants must take drugs.

In B and D the expression identical twins with the same genetic endowment wrongly suggests that only some identical twin pairs are genetically identical.

In E, the construction Other than transplants, all patients must take drugs illogically suggests, as in B, that some patients are transplants.

Choice C, the best answer, solves these problems by using a clause introduces by Unless to describe the exception to the rule and a nonrestrictive clause beginning with who to describe the characteristic attributed to all identical twins.

Answer: C.
_________________
General Discussion
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4775
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Feb 2011, 09:52
2
1
Instead of looking at it from the point of view of comparison, let's look at it from the angle modification. ABD and E are sentences starting with a participial phrase modifying the noun ‘all patients.’ Therefore you can not dispense with necessity of modification from these choices. C alone among the choices uses a subordinate clause with its own subject and verb, totally obviating the need for modification. A subordinate clause is not required to modify the main clause but only has to depend upon it for completion of the meaning. That is the reason C is different from the rest
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Retired Moderator
avatar
Joined: 20 Dec 2010
Posts: 1733
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Aug 2011, 04:32
1
2
siddharthasingh wrote:
wats wrong with B??


Besides changes the intended meaning of the sentence.

"Besides" is used when you must take two or more considerations together.

Besides doing regular exercise, you must also maintain balanced diet to keep healthy.
Means; "Doing regular exercise" should co-exist with the other condition i.e. "eating healthy diet". In other words, besides is kind of supportive word.

What we need is a contrast:

What the sentence is trying to convey:
If the transplants involve identical twins, antirejection drugs are NOT necessary. But, if the transplants involve other patients who are NOT identical twins, antirejection drugs are necessary. There is a contrast.

Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment, all patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

This statement appears as if "transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment" is some sort of ACT or condition that all patients have to fulfill prior to getting the antirejection drugs.
_________________
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4775
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Aug 2011, 22:23
2
1. Let’s appreciate that it is ' patients' that have to be compared with another set of patients or people
2. In this case A , B, D and E compare either transplants or transplant and therefore are wrong comparisons. C only compares in essence identical twins (meaning identical wins who receive transplants) with ‘all patients’. Hence, the right answer.
3. Lucky that four out of the five choices can be stroked down on the very first count .
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4775
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 26 Jul 2017, 23:40
1
1
The basic take - away from this topic is that, whenever a modifier starts a sentence, it is an adjectival modifier, that has to compulsorily modify the noun that lies just after. The adjectival modifier is always a phrase rather than a clause. In the given case, choices A, B, D, and E use adjectival phrases to introduce their sentences (note the absence of any verb in any of these four introducers). On the contrary, the choice C is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause followed by the main clause. In a complex sentence, there is no modification relation between the two clauses, since both are clauses with their own verbs. That is the reason that C stands out from the rest.
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest

Originally posted by daagh on 15 Aug 2015, 09:08.
Last edited by daagh on 26 Jul 2017, 23:40, edited 1 time in total.
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 03 May 2015
Posts: 62
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Aug 2015, 17:03
1
Request you not to write your queries/answers/opinions in question window. It prevents ppl from analysing the question. The whole purpose of GMAT Club forum goes wasted by doing so.


You have response windows to do all such things.
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4775
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Aug 2016, 08:49
Top Contributor
Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts of other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

A. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
B. Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
C. Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment
D. Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
E. Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same

IMO, it is too much hair-splitting to worry whether the relative pronoun ‘who’ and the adverbial 'with' refer to the identical twins that have the same genome or not. For Our SC purpose, we can take so that the relative pronoun ‘who’ does refer to all identical twins. The gist of the topic is that when an organ transplant is undergone, the identical twins are better placed than other mortals are.

Because the latest research (as latest as 2008) shows that, the so-called identical twins can differ in their genetic make-up. Pl. link to the reference below.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... identical/

Since scientific community itself is caught at cross-roads, we can ignore it I believe. There are solid other reasons of faulty comparison to dispense with A, B , D and E.

The official explanation for rejecting B and D seems rather differing.
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Retired Moderator
avatar
V
Joined: 22 Jun 2014
Posts: 1102
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Technology
GMAT 1: 540 Q45 V20
GPA: 2.49
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Mar 2017, 08:33
leeye84 wrote:
906. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

(A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment
(D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same


Hi Experts,

egmat, mikemcgarry, sayantanc2k

I want to thoroughly understand the difference between the usage of with and who here:

(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment

Please help :)
_________________
Retired Moderator
avatar
V
Joined: 22 Jun 2014
Posts: 1102
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Technology
GMAT 1: 540 Q45 V20
GPA: 2.49
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Mar 2017, 10:10
HKD1710 wrote:
leeye84 wrote:
906. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.

(A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment
(D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same


Hi Experts,

egmat, mikemcgarry, sayantanc2k

I want to thoroughly understand the difference between the usage of with and who here:

(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment

Please help :)


Elaborating on my confusion and some analysis i did:

Here is the official explanation:
You answered "Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment" and that's correct because:
In A and B, the phrases beginning Unlike… and Besides… modify patients, the subject of the main clause; thus A absurdly states that Unlike transplants…, patients…must take…drugs, and B that all patients except for transplants…must take… drugs. In B and D the expression identical twins with the same genetic endowment wrongly suggests that only some identical twin pairs are genetically identical. In E, the construction Other than transplants…, all patients… must take… drugs illogically suggests, as in B, that some patients are transplants. Choice C, the best answer, solves these problems by using a clause introduces by Unless to describe the exception to the rule and a nonrestrictive clause beginning with who to describe the characteristic attributed to all identical twins.

Confusion and Analysis:
As it looks like both of the following have the same meaning, I got confused by the explanation (highlighted), especially for choice correct choice C in which who is termed as nonrestrictive).
(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment

I found one of RON's posts in which he mentions that for "a nonrestrictive clause beginning with who to describe the characteristic attributed to all identical twins." to be true there has to be a comma before "who" in choice . here is the link: https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/forums/restrictive-vs-non-restrictive-t25787.html#p96242
Yes that's the concept we have learned about norestrictive or nonessential modifiers.

BUT when i looked up meaning of "who" that says - "used to introduce a clause giving further information about a person or people previously mentioned."
Now this seems to confirm that no comma is required and given official explanation is correct.

I need Experts' opinion on my understanding.

Thanks :)
_________________
Non-Human User
User avatar
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 4773
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Mar 2019, 04:23
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
_________________
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2019, 04:23
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne