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Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa

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Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available. Parents are reluctant to subject children to the pain of injections, but adults, who are at risk of serious complications from influenza, are commonly vaccinated. A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children. However, since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza, no significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Any person who has received the injectable vaccine can safely receive the nasal spray vaccine as well.

(B) The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do.

(C) The injectable vaccine is affordable for all adults.

(D) Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza.

(E) The nasal spray vaccine is not effective when administered to adults.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2007, 18:06
Oh well... OA is D. I don't know why this question puzzles me, although it looks like just a typical - average CR.

Perhaps I was in a rush in this question, and then got the wrong answer, then don't want to think back about it... :roll:
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2007, 22:06
solidcolor wrote:
Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available. Parents are reluctant to subject children to the pain of injections, but adults, who are at risk of serious complications from influenza, are commonly vaccinated. A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children. However, since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza, no significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Any person who has received the injectable vaccine can safely receive the nasal spray vaccine as well.
B. The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do.
C. The injectable vaccine is affordable for all adults.
D. Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza.
E. The nasal spray vaccine is mot effective when administered to adults.


Here we have to look at the last sentence where it states that because children do not have serious complications from influenze, then there is no benefit for them to be protected...Unless children give their parents the disease, then having them immune from it might be of benefit to everyone.
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2007, 13:59
When there is an assumption question, focus closely on the conclusion.
It basically says that Because children seldom have complications, we should not consider the widespread use of nasal spray.

This stimulus assumes that no other factors other than complications influence the consideration for widespread use of nasal spray.

Choice d assumes this. If we negate the assumption the argument falls apart.
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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IMO E uses extreme language "Most"
hence ans D
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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stelladimattina wrote:
OA is E, not D.


E is clearly out of scope. D is the right answer.
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2011, 03:34
stelladimattina wrote:
OA is E, not D.


While I can clearly see that D should be the answer AND E can't be the answer as it is out of scope, I'm curious to know how do you know that the OA is E. What is the source and the OE?
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2011, 23:28
The OA is D.

E is the right answer for another question which starts with almost the same wording "Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available. They have been used primarily by older adults...."
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2011, 23:36
Can anyone clearly explain how you they got D?

Because i see D no way related and i think E is the right answer, plz correct me if i am wrong
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2011, 23:40
defenestrate posted on Sun Sep 02, 2007 2:06 pm the following explanation which I think is pretty good.

"Here we have to look at the last sentence where it states that because children do not have serious complications from influenze, then there is no benefit for them to be protected...Unless children give their parents the disease, then having them immune from it might be of benefit to everyone."
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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fluke wrote:
stelladimattina wrote:
OA is E, not D.


While I can clearly see that D should be the answer AND E can't be the answer as it is out of scope, I'm curious to know how do you know that the OA is E. What is the source and the OE?


I also chose D, because. If children was influen... contact with adult, adult will be infected. So, they will buy the new medicine for children to protect themselves (adult). Weaken. D is correct assumption.

Hi everyone, if you seek the OA on the offical source, the right thing should do first is to read the questions and the order of answer choice before post on forum :D.
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2011, 00:16
Thanks guys for the explanation now i will go with D
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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Conclusion: no significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

Reasoning: A correct answer choice for assumption is a defender or supporter. If it's a supporter, conclusion + "only if" + answer choice makes sense. Also, the conclusion is necessarily committed to one of the answer choices below. Why would there be no significant public health benefit should children be administered the nasal spray?

A. Any person who has received the injectable vaccine can safely receive the nasal spray vaccine as well. Wrong - This is indeed an assumption, but not one that the conclusion is committed to.

B. The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do. Wrong - shell game. New mechanisms or not, this is not what the conclusion is committed to.

C. The injectable vaccine is affordable for all adults. Wrong - The conclusion is not committed to this assumption.

D. Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza. Correct - The conclusion is committed to this assumption because both adults and children are actors, and it follows the premise + conclusion.

E. The nasal spray vaccine is mot effective when administered to adults. Wrong - Out of scope.

IMO D
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available. Parents are reluctant to subject children to the pain of injections, but adults, who are at risk of serious complications from influenza, are commonly vaccinated. A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children. However, since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza, no significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Any person who has received the injectable vaccine can safely receive the nasal-spray vaccine as well.

B. The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as jnjectable vaccines do.

C. The injectable vaccine is affordable for all adults.

D. Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza.

E. The nasal spray vaccine is mot effective when administered to adults.

Originally posted by haneefmrn on 06 Oct 2014, 13:28.
Last edited by carcass on 06 Oct 2014, 17:13, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the title of the question
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2014, 13:31
Im not able to understand how to conclude to the OA, could someone please provide insights. :x
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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haneefmrn wrote:
Im not able to understand how to conclude to the OA, could someone please provide insights. :x

Premise 1: injectable vaccines are painful so Parents do not vaccine the child.However, Adults who have serious complications are commonly vaccinated.
Premise 2: A new influenza vaccine is painless and can be used to vaccine children.

Conclusion: As children rarely develop serious complication, there is no health benefit for this new vaccination.

The conclusion is quite strong in that There is NO health benefit for this medicine.It means it doesn't help at all but the stated reason is only for children (they seldom develop serious complications) but what about adults ?
As this is an assumption question , we need to fill a gap between premise and conclusion.

Now the options:-
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Any person who has received the injectable vaccine can safely receive the nasal-spray vaccine as well.
Incorrect: Irrelevant.Conclusion is regarding health benefits.Argument doesn't compare the safety of any of the vaccines.
B. The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as jnjectable vaccines do.
Incorrect: Irrelevant.Argument is about the health benefits of the vaccine not the mechanism by which it achieves that.
C. The injectable vaccine is affordable for all adults.
Incorrect: Irrelevant.Argument is about the health benefits of the vaccine not its cost
D. Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza.
Correct: Lets negate it.if Adults do contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza, then we need to vaccinate the children otherwise Adults will contract.So there are health benefits for this vaccine.
As described above.if this option is not true, then Argument is not true.Hence it is the necessary assumption.

E. The nasal spray vaccine is mot effective when administered to adults.
Incorrect: Out of scope.Argument doesn't compare the effectiveness of any vaccine.If we take this option as true, It weakens the conclusion because if it is most effective then there will be benefits of this medicine.

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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2015, 23:02
Adults – use injectable vaccines
Kids – new influenza vaccine nasal spray bec parents don’t want pain for children

Nasal spray – no public health benefit since children do not usually develop serious complications from influenza

In any Assumption CR question, think of the answer choice as a missing piece that completes the puzzle. For the conclusion to make sense, the below will have to be necessary. ARGUMENT DEPENDS ON_____

A. Any person who has received the injectable vaccine can safely receive the nasal spray vaccine as well.
- This is not something that the argument depends on. If anything, it’s otherwise. If this was something that the argument depends on, then it could be used for adults, which then suggests that there can be a public health benefit in this, which attacks the conclusion
B. The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do.
- Same reasoning as above
C. The injectable vaccine is affordable for all adults.
- Argument does not hinge on the affordability of the product
D. Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza.
- This is correct. This suggests that there is indeed no public benefit for nasal sprays since influenza for adults can only be treated with injectable vaccines and not the nasal spray. Supports the conclusion and the premise
E. The nasal spray vaccine is most effective when administered to adults.
- Argument does not depend on this.
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2015, 17:54
OA IS "D", JUST BECAUSE, REST WERE MORE OR LESS OUT OF SCOPE....
CONFUSED THOUGH ....
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2016, 22:30
Hi chetan2u / daagh ,

Please help me in this question. I am not able to negate E.

Breaking down argument-
Fact 1. Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available.
Fact 2. Parents are reluctant to subject children to the pain of injections.
Fact 3. But adults, who are at risk of serious complications from influenza, are commonly vaccinated.
Fact 4. A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children.

Until now only facts are given. Now
Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray. WHY
Because (Premise)- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza


Now lets read it in reverse manner-

Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza
GAP- ______________________________________
Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

So now we need to fill this gap to this make argument strong.

__________________________________________________________

Option D-

A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children
Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza
GAP- Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza

Negating D- Adults do notcontract influenza primarily from children who have influenza

Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

Option D makes the argument strong PERFECT. Hence OA.

__________________________________________________________

Now lets look at option E as well
Before that I would like to clarify that in option E where "MOT" is written actually its "NOT"
Some people tried to change it with "MOST" But its wrong


A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children

Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza

GAP- The nasal spray vaccine is not effective when administered to adults

Negating E- The nasal spray vaccine is noteffective when administered to adults[

Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children
since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza
The nasal spray vaccine is not effective when administered to adults.
Therefore, No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.


This option is also working fine.
Where is my reasoning wrong..

Please assist.
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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa [#permalink]

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PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi chetan2u / daagh ,

Please help me in this question. I am not able to negate E.

Breaking down argument-
Fact 1. Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available.
Fact 2. Parents are reluctant to subject children to the pain of injections.
Fact 3. But adults, who are at risk of serious complications from influenza, are commonly vaccinated.
Fact 4. A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children.

Until now only facts are given. Now
Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray. WHY
Because (Premise)- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza


Now lets read it in reverse manner-

Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza
GAP- ______________________________________
Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

So now we need to fill this gap to this make argument strong.

__________________________________________________________

Option D-

A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children
Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza
GAP- Adults do not contract influenza primarily from children who have influenza

Negating D- Adults do notcontract influenza primarily from children who have influenza

Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

Option D makes the argument strong PERFECT. Hence OA.

__________________________________________________________

Now lets look at option E as well
Before that I would like to clarify that in option E where "MOT" is written actually its "NOT"
Some people tried to change it with "MOST" But its wrong


A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children

Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza

GAP- The nasal spray vaccine is not effective when administered to adults

Negating E- The nasal spray vaccine is noteffective when administered to adults[

Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.

A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children
since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza
The nasal spray vaccine is not effective when administered to adults.
Therefore, No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray.


This option is also working fine.
Where is my reasoning wrong..

Please assist.


Hi Prakhar,

let me touch only on E..

as written by you..

Quote:
A new influenza vaccine, administered painlessly in a nasal spray, is effective for children

Premise- since children seldom develop serious complications from influenza

GAP- The nasal spray vaccine is not effective when administered to adults

Negating E- The nasal spray vaccine is noteffective when administered to adults[

Conclusion- No significant public health benefit would result from widespread vaccination of children using the nasal spray


you have your PREMISE and CONCLUSION talking of CHILDREN, but the gap you are talking of is concerning ONLY ADULTS..
the gap/assumption has to be something related in some way to CHILDREN..
Irrespective of MOST or NOT, the problem is that the choice is unable to fill the gap as argument is about CHILDREN
and chice D tells us that ADULTS do not catch influenza from children. Thus CHILDREN has been a part of thi schoice..

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Re: Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been availa   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2016, 22:44

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