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V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16

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V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 02:27
The classic epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey record a series of tales about war, courage, trickery and love. The Iliad records a conflict between a confederation of warriors called “Greeks” and the walled city of Troy.The Odyssey relates the adventures of Odysseus, a warrior whose 10-year voyage home was fraught with peril. Both poems are credited to Homer, a bard whom tradition holds was blind, but most historians believe that the poems are remnants of a pre-Greek civilization known as the Mycenaean, which had thrived in the same area several hundred years before. Though the epics have been popular for millennia, many historians long believed that Homer had simply invented geographical details about two of the poems’ most important locations, the city of Troy and Odysseus’ island home of Ithaca.

In the nineteenth century, however, an amateur archeologist named Heinrich Schliemann used information from The Iliad and other literary texts to locate ruins now widely accepted as the site of ancient Troy. Schliemann and others after him uncovered evidence that up to six cities had been built one on top of the other at Hisarlik, a town on the Western coast of modern Turkey. This location is several miles from another site popularly thought a likely candidate for Troy before Schliemann’s discovery. The layer Schliemann claimed was ancient Troy seemed to have been destroyed by fire, which would align with Mycenaean methods of warfare. Archeologists also uncovered human remains displaying signs of sudden, violent death.

Inspired by Schliemann’s success, twentieth century amateurs also searched for the true site of Ithaca, the island home of Odysseus. In 2005, a British consultant named Robert Bittlestone claimed that a peninsula on the Western edge of a large island called Cephallonia is the location of historical Ithaca. Bittlestone and the academics who support his theory claim that the peninsula was once an island itself, but that earthquakes and rockslides joined the smaller landmass to the larger one.Bittlestone claims that the modern Greek island of Ithaki, traditionally considered the home of Odysseus, is not the actual site. He was led to this conclusion because Ithaki is mountainous, whereas The Odyssey describes Ithaca as “low-lying.”
1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(a) giving credit to amateur archeologists such as Schliemann and Bittlestone.
(b) arguing that the site of ancient Troy is located in modern Turkey.
(c) comparing the historical reliability of The Iliad and The Odyssey.
(d) describing a process by which poetic descriptions became more historically reliable.
(e) discussing the historical impact of Homer’s epic poems.


2. According to the passage, which of the following is a piece of evidence supporting the claim that the island of Ithaki is not the ancient home of Odysseus?

(a) Cephallonia is a larger island than the Ithaca described in the poem.
(b) Modern Ithaki has mountains, whereas Homer describes Ithaca as flat.
(c) Homer does not mention earthquakes or rockslides in The Odyssey.
(d) Ancient Ithaca has been joined to a larger island because of geographic upheaval.
(e) Ithaki is a modern Greek name, whereas Ithaca is ancient Greek.


3. In this line, the word “Greeks” is in quotation marks primarily in order to emphasize that

(a) the people called Greeks in the poem were actually Mycenaean.
(b) the Greeks were the enemies of the people of Troy.
(c) The Iliad is unique to the cultural history of Greece.
(d) the people of modern Turkey were once called Greeks.
(e) Greeks have historically been concerned with war, courage, trickery and love.


4. The passage suggests which of the following about academic acceptance of Bittlestone’s theory?

(a) Most academics see serious flaws in Bittlestone’s theory.
(b) Geologists and archeologists are the biggest proponents of Bittlestone’s theory.
(c) Bittlestone has gained some academic support for his theory.
(d) Academics in the twentieth century were largely opposed to Bittlestone’s theory.
(e) Academics who support Schliemann’s claims also support Bittlestone’s.


5. Which of the following is an assumption made by both Schliemann and Bittlestone in their searches for true locations?

(a) The warriors called “Greeks” in the epic poems were actually Mycenaeans.
(b) Homer’s blindness likely prevented him from giving accurate geographic descriptions.
(c) Violence and destruction by fire had occurred at both Troy and Ithaca.
(d) Modern Greece and Turkey are also interested in determining the true locations of Troy and Ithaca.
(e) Literary texts are often more accurate than local tradition as a way of determining true locations.


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Re V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 02:27
Spoiler: :: Question V06-12 explanation
This question concerns the focus of the passage as a whole. The first paragraph provides background on the two epic poems and introduces the idea that historians have questioned the historical reliability of Homer’s geographical descriptions. The second paragraph describes how the uncovering of the site of ancient Troy leant credibility to Homer’s descriptions, and the third describes the same process using information about the site of ancient Ithaca.
  1. The names and work of these two amateur archeologists support the passage’s larger point.
  2. This claim is made in the passage, but only in paragraph 2.
  3. The passage does not compare the reliability of the two poems.
  4. The passage describes the process by which information provided by Homer in the poems came to be considered more reliable.
  5. The historical impact of the poems is not a main focus of the passage.
Spoiler: :: Question V06-13 explanation
The phrase according to the passage indicates that the information needed is stated directly in the passage. The focus of the question is on identifying why Ithaki should not be considered the site of ancient Ithaca. Look at these lines, where the modern island Ithaki is first introduced. The following sentence claims that Ithaki is not the site of ancient Ithaca because Ithaki is mountainous, whereas The Odysseydescribes Ithaca as “low-lying.”
  1. The relative sizes of Cephallonia and ancient Ithaca are not discussed in the passage.
  2. The final sentence of the passage indicates that Ithaki could not be ancient Ithaca because it is mountainous, whereas Homer describes Ithaca as “low-lying,” or flat.
  3. The passage does not make this claim, nor are earthquakes and rockslides mentioned in relation to Ithaki.
  4. This statement is a key component of Bittlestone’s theory, but it does not deal directly with why Ithaki is not the correct site.
  5. Although this statement is true, it is not directly relevant to the question.
Spoiler: :: Question V06-14 explanation
The answer to this question depends on determining the author’s purpose in word choice. To answer the question, look at the word Greeks in the context of the entire passage. The sentence in which the word appears describes the Greeks as a confederation of warriors. In this line, the passage claims that the poems are remnants of a pre-Greek civilization known as the Mycenaean. It is reasonable to conclude, then, that the word Greeks is in quotation marks to emphasize the fact that the warriors in the poem were actually Mycenaean.
  1. This option correctly recognizes the connection between the term “Greeks” used to describe a confederation of warriors and the later claim in the passage that the poems are remnants of the pre-Greek Mycenaean civilization.
  2. This is stated in the passage, but it is not a reason the word “Greeks” is in quotation marks.
  3. This claim is not made in the passage, and this option does not suggest a reason “Greeks” is in quotation marks.
  4. The passage actually refers to the Greeks as enemies of residents of an ancient town now located in modern Turkey.
  5. This claim is made about the subjects of the epic poems, not about the Greeks themselves.
Spoiler: :: Question V06-15 explanation
The word suggests makes it clear that this question requires making an inference. To do this, review the section of the passage that discusses Bittlestone and his academic reception. This line groups Bittlestone with the academics who support his theory, but no additional information is given about those academics. The correct answer will identify the fact that Bittlestone has support, but it will also be limited by the lack of information about which academics provide this support.
  1. The passage mentions only the academics who support his theory; no claim is made about whether this group constitutes most academics.
  2. Although this might make sense given that Bittlestone’s theory is concerned with rock, geologists are not mentioned in the passage.
  3. The most that can be inferred from the passage is that some academics support Bittlestone’s theory.
  4. The passage states that Bittlestone did not announce his theory until 2005, which is technically part of the 21st century.
  5. This claim is not supported by the passage; academic support of the two theories is not compared.
Spoiler: :: Question V06-16 explanation
Look at what Schliemann and Bittlestone had in common in their methods of searching for true locations. Schliemann used The Iliad and other literary texts to guide his search for Troy. Bittlestone concluded that the historical Ithaca must be “low-lying,” or flat, because it is described that way in The Odyssey. Since there were local traditions already in place for locating both Troy and Ithaca, it is clear that both Schliemann and Bittlestone ignored these in favor of evidence from literary texts. It is reasonable to conclude, then, that both believed literary texts are more accurate than local tradition for determining true locations.
  1. This information is mentioned in the first paragraph, but it is a conclusion reached by most historians, not by Schliemann and Bittlestone.
  2. This claim is not made in the passage. Also, both Schliemann and Bittlestone actually assume that Homer’s descriptions are accurate.
  3. Violence is mentioned in connection with Troy, but not with Ithaca.
  4. The modern nations’ interest in determining true locations is outside the scope of the passage.
  5. This option correctly identifies an assumption underlying the work of both Schliemann and Bittlestone, since both men ignored local traditions in favor of evidence from literary texts.

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Re: V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2014, 04:32
The fifth question asks us to find the assumption.

The actual passage does not mention anything regarding local traditions or beliefs..Then how can we simply assume that local traditions were given less importance...?
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Re: V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2014, 08:59
can anybody give explanation to 5th question ? :? :?
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V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2015, 18:49
Amit786898 wrote:
can anybody give explanation to 5th question ? :? :?


Hi Amit,

I got this one right but I should say I went by POE,


The warriors called “Greeks” in the epic poems were actually Mycenaeans.- " This is not an assumption. Its stated in the passage."
Iliad records a conflict between a confederation of warriors called “Greeks” ......., but most historians believe that the poems are remnants of a pre-Greek civilization known as the Mycenaean-Incorrect

Homer’s blindness likely prevented him from giving accurate geographic descriptions.- Not stated in the passage even remotely. In fact his locations were used by the explorers-incorrect

Violence and destruction by fire had occurred at both Troy and Ithaca.-Not stated in the passage.-incorrect

Modern Greece and Turkey are also interested in determining the true locations of Troy and Ithaca.-Not stated in the passage.-incorrect

Literary texts are often more accurate than local tradition as a way of determining true locations.- Agreed that the local tradition is not mentioned like you guys said but still the explorers have found the archeological remains at the locations as claimed in the poems..though they are way away from where it was thought to be:
"This location is several miles from another site popularly thought a likely candidate for Troy before Schliemann’s discovery"
"an amateur archeologist named Heinrich Schliemann used information from The Iliad and other literary texts to locate ruins"
-Correct

Regards,
Dom
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Re: V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2015, 18:57
Hi,

I have my doubts regarding V06-12.

The answer choice option D claims:"describing a process by which poetic descriptions became more historically reliable" :crazy:
But where is the process?

Both the first and second para refer to the poems for the location and even for some aspects of how the remains should have been: For Eg.
He was led to this conclusion because Ithaki is mountainous, whereas The Odyssey describes Ithaca as “low-lying.”

I think option E better fits because of the above reason.

Kindly help if you have got this answer right.

Regards,
Dom.
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Re V06-14  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2016, 03:48
I think this is a high-quality question and I agree with explanation.
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New post 20 Oct 2016, 11:01
I think this is a high-quality question and I agree with explanation.
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Re: V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2017, 03:27
Can any one tell me the level of this RC ?
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Re: V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2019, 23:34
V06-12 Why is option A not equally valid? The third para starts off with Inspired by x's success. The second one focusses on x completely and in every sentence. So there is an equally valid argument to make that option A is the right answer.
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Re: V06-12, V06-13, V06-14, V06-15, V06-16   [#permalink] 17 Jun 2019, 23:34
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