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# When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec

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When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2009, 18:53
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When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
(B) which are not a formally
(C) which is not a formally
(D) which is formally not a
(E) which is not formally

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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2018, 22:11
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ichha148 wrote:
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
(B) which are not a formally
(C) which is not a formally
(D) which is formally not a
(E) which is not formally

KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

Gut instinct is the subject of the second clause. (Think of it this way: What is not formally sanctioned or prohibited? Gut instinct. The "which" clause modifies gut instinct.) The verb needs to agree with the singular instinct. Choices (A) and (B) are incorrect, since they use instinct are. (C) and (D) include the word a, while (E) does not: Does which is not or which is not a work better? Reading the options into the sentence, you'll see that the final a is necessary to modify means. Finally, choice (D) changes the meaning of the sentence. In the end, (C) is your best choice.

An 800 test taker knows that not only do subjects need to agree with their verbs, but they need to agree with their objects as well. So, it's incorrect to say the cats have a flea collar, the object must be plural as in the cats have flea collars.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2009, 20:42
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ichha148 wrote:
OA is C , Can some one please explain to me why is D wrong ? is there any idiom?

in D the placement of formally is just wrong, it seems to change the meaning of the sentence. For example "we were formally not introduced"... this seems to mean we were not introduced because we werent supposed to be, as opposed to "we were not formally introduced" ...which just means we were not properly introduced.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2009, 14:57
OA is C , Can some one please explain to me why is D wrong ? is there any idiom?
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2011, 18:11
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I knew the difference between C and E

c)which is not a formally (sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.)
e)which is not formally (sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.)

If we choose E, we have problem with S-V agreement, "his or her instinct are means", that make nonsense. We really need "a" here to resolve the problem with "means" whether this word is plural or singular. In this case, it is singular.

Here is the explanation in dictionary.com
Means (N)

1.Usually, means. (used with a singular or plural verb) an agency, instrument, or method used to attain an end: The telephone is a means of communication. There are several means of solving the problem.
2.
means,
a.
available resources, especially money: They lived beyond their means.
b.
considerable financial resources; riches: a man of means.
3.
something that is midway between two extremes; something intermediate: to seek a mean between cynicism and blind faith.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 20:22
(C) which is not a formally

(D) which is formally not a

In the explanation in the book, "you'll see that the final a is neccessary to modify means."

How does a plural noun "means" need "a" ?

I looked up dictionary, and it says "means" can be both singular and plural.

Then, is "means" in this sentence considered singular becuase of "a verdict"?

Also, in the explanation in the book, "D changes the meaning of the sentence.

How??? :shock:
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 20:36
eybrj2 wrote:
(C) which is not a formally

(D) which is formally not a

In the explanation in the book, "you'll see that the final a is neccessary to modify means."

How does a plural noun "means" need "a" ?

I looked up dictionary, and it says "means" can be both singular and plural.

Then, is "means" in this sentence considered singular becuase of "a verdict"?

Also, in the explanation in the book, "D changes the meaning of the sentence.

How??? :shock:

From www.thefreedictionary.com

4. means (used with a sing. or pl. verb) A method, a course of action, or an instrument by which an act can be accomplished or an end achieved.

So as you can see, this isn't a matter of singular or plural: means is plural or singular
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 06:13
ichha148 wrote:
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
(B) which are not a formally
(C) which is not a formally
(D) which is formally not a
(E) which is not formally

Good one;

Here there is clear cut explanation in the previous post about the answer choices. But i feel need explanation about why not D or Why not C ? The plot of the passage is court of law. In making the decision the juror needs to comply according to mentioned procedures in law. Which means that if the a procedure is documented in the law. D changes the meaning of the sentence as the procedure is mentioned as 'NOT SANCTIONED'. Is it possible? So the answer is C- which clear cut identifies the verb agreement error and meaning.

Hope that helps

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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2014, 03:48
C. gut instinct, which is not a formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

a formally sanctioned or prohibited means (SUBJECT SINGULAR) goes well with verb IS

formally (adverb) -- sanctioned or prohibited (both adjective) -- means (noun)

sanctioned or prohibited means (adjective + noun )

formally (adverb) is modifying adjectives sanctioned or prohibited.

Therefore, C is grammatically correct.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2015, 08:02
eybrj2 wrote:
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
the verb needs to be in singular

(B) which are not a formally
the verb needs to be in singular

(C) which is not a formally
correct

(D) which is formally not a
changes meaning

(E) which is not formally
a formally sanctioned or a formally prohibited means is not the same as
formally sanctioned or formally prohibited means
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2017, 04:49
Can someone explain the difference between C and D. I am still not convinced with explanations provided.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2017, 00:04
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ankujgupta wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and D. I am still not convinced with explanations provided.

In D, there is a meaning change. Which is formally 'not a sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.' Notice that formally here modifies both sanctioned and prohibited'

While in C(or original question), We are given 'which is not a formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.'. So, here I could say formally modifies only sanctions. Hence, C is preferred over D as C maintain the original meaning.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2017, 10:23
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ankujgupta wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and D. I am still not convinced with explanations provided.

Excellent explanation above by abhimahna. Basically in D the adverb "formally" modifies the verb "is", whereas in D the adverb "formally" modifies the adjective "sanctioned". The original sentence conveys the latter meaning.
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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15 May 2018, 08:50
Whats wrong with E.Can any one explain?

ichha148 wrote:
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
(B) which are not a formally
(C) which is not a formally
(D) which is formally not a
(E) which is not formally

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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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15 May 2018, 09:42
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Whats wrong with E.Can any one explain?

E is also causing meaning problem.

Distinction between a formally means vs formally means.

When you say formally means, you are actually changing the meaning of the sentence. "A formally means" - instinct is one of the various formally means. While formally means - instinct is the formally means.

Does that make sense?
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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 22:55
1st split are/is - instinct is singular = A,B- out
2nd split formally means/ a formally means = means is singular we need article E - out
3d split meaning = D -out

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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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19 May 2020, 07:44
ichha148 wrote:
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
(B) which are not a formally
(C) which is not a formally
(D) which is formally not a
(E) which is not formally

Above explanations for option D says meaning is not intended.

But I don't see any meaning issue. Option D also makes sense here if fitted in original statement.

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Re: When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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19 May 2020, 13:10
Harsh2111s wrote:
ichha148 wrote:
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

(A) which are not formally
(B) which are not a formally
(C) which is not a formally
(D) which is formally not a
(E) which is not formally

Above explanations for option D says meaning is not intended.

But I don't see any meaning issue. Option D also makes sense here if fitted in original statement.

VeritasKarishma, MentorTutoring, Kindly explain.

Hello, Harsh2111s. I will say that in my approach to the question, one that took about 30 seconds for me to answer correctly, I did not consider that (D) changed the meaning of the sentence. Rather, the grammatical construct is skewed, as is most clearly explained above by sayantanc2k. In choice (D), formally is modifying the linking verb is. It is not as though that construct could not work under certain circumstances—say, if the adverb were temporal in nature, as in usually or typically—but in this case, by placing formally on the right side of the article a, we understand that a sanctioned means is being modified instead. Clarity of meaning will always win out on the GMAT™, and (C) is the better option of the two.

I hope that helps. Thank you for thinking to tag me.

- Andrew
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When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec  [#permalink]

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19 May 2020, 19:10
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to decide a case according to his or her gut instinct, which are not formally sanctioned or prohibited means of reaching a verdict.

the underline portion indicates that this clause is a relative clause that tries to modify the noun immediately preceding it. In this case, the noun is the 'gut instinct', which is singular in nature. Hence, it must be matched by a singular verb.

(A) which are not formally - here, we have a singular noun (in the preceding clause) but a plural verb (are). There's a subject-verb agreement problem here. Hence, eliminate (A)

(B) which are not a formally - here, the same error exists as in (A). So, eliminate (B)

(C) which is not a formally - this clause tries to modify the noun 'gut instinct'. So, to understand this option better, let us isolate the relation between this noun and the succeeding clause.

Part 1. Gut instinct is not a formally sanctioned mean

Part 2. Gut instinct is not a formally prohibited means.

As you can see, the above structure makes perfect sense.

Hence, (C) is the right answer.

(D) which is formally not a - let's analyze this in the same way that we did for (C)

Part 1. Gut instinct is formally not a sanctioned mean
and
Part 2. Gut instinct is formally not a prohibited means.

We can therefore make an inference that this structure (as used in (D) ) changes the intended meaning. besides, I dont think that Part 1 (in option D) makes sense.

Hence, eliminate (D)

(E) which is not formally-

Let's perform the same 'part analysis' as is done in (C) and (D)

Part1. Gut instinct is not formally sanctioned mean

Part 2. Gut instinct is not formally prohibited mean

In both these parts, an article ('a') is missing. Moreover, this further defines what the items (or terms) that a 'gut instinct' does not have; this structure does not tell us anything about whether the usage of 'gut instinct' (by a juror in deciding a case) is prohibited or sanctioned. there's a lot of ambiguity here. Hence, eliminate (E)
When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec   [#permalink] 19 May 2020, 19:10

# When presented with only circumstantial evidence, a juror tends to dec

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