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Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.

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Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 20:29
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 397, Date: 18-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men. However, women’s participation in the workforce, especially in the ranks of senior management, continues to lag far behind that of men. Research indicates that, as women marry and start families, their earnings and opportunities for promotion decrease. While the difficulties that women encounter as they attempt to balance work and family life are frequently discussed, and are beginning to be addressed by employers, it is interesting to note that the difficulties faced by working married men are seldom raised.

Scott Coltrane, a researcher at the University of Oregon, has found that, while the earnings of women tend to go down with each additional child, the earnings of married men not only exceed those of both unmarried men and divorced men but also tend to go up with each additional child. One reason for this disparity may be that, as the size of the family grows, men rely on women to manage most of the responsibilities of housekeeping and child raising. While within the past few decades men have assumed a greater share of household responsibilities, in the United States, women still spend nearly twice as much time as men do in caring for children and the home. The time diaries of highly educated dual-income U.S. couples show that men enjoy three and a half times the leisure time as their female partners do.

If married men earn higher salaries and have more leisure time than their female counterparts do, what difficulties do these working men face? Research indicates three possible problems. First, the perceived responsibility of providing for a family drives men to work more hours and strive for promotion. Many men report feeling dissatisfied because the level of performance that is required to earn promotions and higher salaries prevents them from spending time with their families. Second, these demands on men also contribute to higher levels of marital discord. In a 2008 survey, 60 percent of U.S. fathers reported work-family conflicts, compared to 47 percent of mothers.

The pressure to be perceived as a good provider contributes to the third reason that married men may struggle. While women’s decisions to use family leave benefits, move to part-time employment, or leave the workforce to care for children are seen as valuable contributions to family life and, by extension, society, men’s decisions to do the same are frequently viewed by their employers as signs of weakness. Studies suggest that men who take advantage of paternity leave policies are viewed as weak or inadequate by both women and men. Research conducted in Australia found that men’s requests to work flexibly were denied at twice the rate of those of women.


1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) advocating changes in employers’ practices regarding female employees with children
(B) examining some of the reasons that married men may experience problems related to their employment
(C) describing the psychological consequences for men of earning high salaries
(D) taking issue with those who believe that women should not earn more than men
(E) analyzing the indirect effects of discrimination against women on married men



2. The passage provides information in support of which of the following assertions about married men who work?

(A) The ability to provide for their families is the most important aspect of employment for married men.
(B) Married men in high-status positions are easily able to integrate their careers and family lives.
(C) Married men who achieve greater earnings while having a larger family are more satisfied on average than their wives.
(D) The perceived demands on men to earn enough income to support a family may have harmful effects on family life.
(E) As married men achieve higher earnings, they are able to take more time off from work to spend with their families.



3. The author of the passage discusses Coltrane’s research primarily in order to

(A) illustrate the benefits that employers extend to their married male employees
(B) identify a benefit of work that married men experience that is accompanied by some potential costs
(C) defend the family leave policies and flexible work schedules that some employers offer
(D) modify the prevailing view that women experience disadvantages in the workplace after marrying and having children
(E) point out several ways in which women experience discrimination in the workplace



4. According to the passage, married men generally receive higher salaries and have a better chance of being promoted than do single men because

(A) employers consider married men to be more diligent and responsible than single men
(B) married men have usually accrued more experience than have single men
(C) married men may be able to rely on their spouses to address child care and household responsibilities
(D) higher pay typically corresponds with greater job security and enhanced benefits
(E) employers recognize the difficulties of providing for a larger number of children and seek to ease this burden



Source: Kaplan Prep Plus 2020

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Re: Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2020, 06:49
What is wrong in (E) for Q3?
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Re: Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2020, 06:59
nkhl.goyal wrote:
What is wrong in (E) for Q3?


Official Explanation


3. The author of the passage discusses Coltrane’s research primarily in order to

Difficulty Level: 600

STEP 1: ANALYZE THE QUESTION STEM

The words “in order to” indicate this question is asking how or why the author used a feature of the passage, not about the content of the feature itself. That means it’s a Logic question.

STEP 2: RESEARCH THE RELEVANT TEXT

Coltrane’s research is introduced in the second paragraph, so refer to your notes on that paragraph and consider how the author discussed the research to achieve the purpose of the passage.

STEP 3: MAKE A PREDICTION

A good prediction of the correct answer would be to explain that earning more money may not be enough for married men to be satisfied with their jobs.

STEP 4: EVALUATE THE ANSWER CHOICES

(B) matches the prediction and is correct. (A) describes the content of Coltrane’s research, but the primary purpose of the paragraph is not to highlight the advantages enjoyed by working married men but rather to set the stage for a discussion of the reasons married men may be dissatisfied in their jobs. The second paragraph does not address family leave policies and flexible work schedules (C); these are discussed in the fourth paragraph. Also, since the passage has a neutral tone, the author does not “defend” any particular point of view. The author mentions some disadvantages that women face after marrying and having children (D), such as lower pay with each child. The author does not argue against the idea that women experience disadvantages.

While Coltrane’s research could be construed as support for the idea that discrimination against women exists in the workplace (E), the author neither attributes the problems women face to discrimination in the workplace nor describes Coltrane’s research as indicative of discrimination. Also, again, the purpose of discussing this research is to describe men’s experiences, not women’s.

Answer: B


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Re: Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2020, 10:40
1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) advocating changes in employers’ practices regarding female employees with children : One of the content, but not the primary purpose.
(B) examining some of the reasons that married men may experience problems related to their employment : Correct. Discussed primarily in the entire passage.
(C) describing the psychological consequences for men of earning high salaries : Irrelevant
(D) taking issue with those who believe that women should not earn more than men : Out of scope
(E) analyzing the indirect effects of discrimination against women on married men : Irrelevant

2. The passage provides information in support of which of the following assertions about married men who work?

(A) The ability to provide for their families is the most important aspect of employment for married men. : Too extreme.
(B) Married men in high-status positions are easily able to integrate their careers and family lives. : Incorrect
(C) Married men who achieve greater earnings while having a larger family are more satisfied on average than their wives. : Irrelevant
(D) The perceived demands on men to earn enough income to support a family may have harmful effects on family life. : Correct. " Second, these demands on men also contribute to higher levels of marital discord. "
(E) As married men achieve higher earnings, they are able to take more time off from work to spend with their families. : Incorrect

3. The author of the passage discusses Coltrane’s research primarily in order to

(A) illustrate the benefits that employers extend to their married male employees : Incorrect
(B) identify a benefit of work that married men experience that is accompanied by some potential costs : Correct. Third para
(C) defend the family leave policies and flexible work schedules that some employers offer : Fourth para states this, not Coltrane's research.
(D) modify the prevailing view that women experience disadvantages in the workplace after marrying and having children : Irrelevant
(E) point out several ways in which women experience discrimination in the workplace : Incorrect

4. According to the passage, married men generally receive higher salaries and have a better chance of being promoted than do single men because

(A) employers consider married men to be more diligent and responsible than single men : Irrelevant
(B) married men have usually accrued more experience than have single men : Irrelevant
(C) married men may be able to rely on their spouses to address child care and household responsibilities : Correct
(D) higher pay typically corresponds with greater job security and enhanced benefits : Incorrect
(E) employers recognize the difficulties of providing for a larger number of children and seek to ease this burden : Out of scope.
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Re: Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2020, 22:06
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Re: Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.   [#permalink] 27 Feb 2020, 22:06

Women around the world graduate from college at higher rates than men.

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