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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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21 Sep 2010, 19:55
as3957 wrote:
trivikram wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
Why do we use the perfect past tense?

The reporter said

the sales happenbed before he said.

Reporting is the culprit in this sentence

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) have elected to retire early rather than face
(C) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(D) elected to retire early rather than face
(E) had elected to retire early rather than face

(PS. this Q is a slightly different version of one of the OG Q. choices are different.)

OA is
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

The correct answer is B . If you are trying to contrast the questions and decided why the forst question used " had" and the second question " have " .....then read the explanatio below .

In first question see the two actions .Both happenned in the past ...hence use of had is requird to explain the sequence of events .

Also the question checks te use of recent VS RECENTLY ... A fits the bill ...
Second quetion does not have two past events ....hence use of have...
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21 Sep 2010, 20:34
Thanks Gauravnagpal. It makes lot more sense now.
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21 Sep 2010, 20:39
bmwhype2 wrote:
605. Reporting that one of its many problems had been the recent extended sales slump in women's apparel, the seven-store retailer said it would start a three-month liquidation sale in all of its stores.
(A) its many problems had been the recent
(B) its many problems has been the recently
(C) its many problems is the recently
(D) their many problems is the recent
(E) their many problems had been the recent

we can reject their as we have ""the seven-store retailer said it would"

The confusion between HAS BEEN and HAD BEEN can be solved by this.
What should we choose RECENT or RECENTLY
So we cannot have RECENTLY which is an adverb.
SO the correct ans is A

as3957 wrote:
trivikram wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
Why do we use the perfect past tense?

The reporter said

the sales happenbed before he said.

Reporting is the culprit in this sentence

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) have elected to retire early rather than face
(C) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(D) elected to retire early rather than face
(E) had elected to retire early rather than face

For this one the sentence is in present perfect tense. So its clearly B
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21 Sep 2010, 20:42
FQ wrote:
as3957 wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(B) have elected to retire early rather than face

B in this case because of the use of "that"

Thanks. Could you please elaborate how "that" signals about tense ? It seems I am missing some important rule here.
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21 Sep 2010, 21:00
geturdream wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
605. Reporting that one of its many problems had been the recent extended sales slump in women's apparel, the seven-store retailer said it would start a three-month liquidation sale in all of its stores.
(A) its many problems had been the recent
(B) its many problems has been the recently
(C) its many problems is the recently
(D) their many problems is the recent
(E) their many problems had been the recent

we can reject their as we have ""the seven-store retailer said it would"

The confusion between HAS BEEN and HAD BEEN can be solved by this.
What should we choose RECENT or RECENTLY
So we cannot have RECENTLY which is an adverb.
SO the correct ans is A

as3957 wrote:
trivikram wrote:
Why do we use the perfect past tense?

The reporter said

the sales happenbed before he said.

Reporting is the culprit in this sentence

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) have elected to retire early rather than face
(C) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(D) elected to retire early rather than face
(E) had elected to retire early rather than face

For this one the sentence is in present perfect tense. So its clearly B

Thanks a lot.

Here is what i did.. Not to confuse anybody but my approach was... doctors elected to retire early before the study found so. hence i selected E.
Looks like a long way to go for me.
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21 Sep 2010, 21:51
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) have elected to retire early rather than face
(C) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(D) elected to retire early rather than face
(E) had elected to retire early rather than face

I chose C rather than B because I thought facing should be parallel to rising
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22 Sep 2010, 07:05
Quote:
What should we choose RECENT or RECENTLY
So we cannot have RECENTLY which is an adverb.

Adverbs can very well modify adjectives but that is not the intention here. 'Recently' is modifying only extended (adjective) whereas the intention is to say "extended sales slump' in recent duration. Hence recent extended sales slump.

Hence A.
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22 Sep 2010, 18:23
r0m3416 wrote:
Yes..Its "Said: which is past. Hence we shud use Past-perfect for an event before that..

Also the key word is "extended" which indicates there was a slump and then there was its continuation..So "HAD been" INDICATES it happened for a particular duration in the PAST.

hope it helps

Based on everyones reply I believe OA is A

But my question is - the slump in sales is happening since past 3 months...so why assume the slump is over....shouldn't slump in sales be treated as current event?
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Last edited by saxenashobhit on 22 Sep 2010, 19:46, edited 1 time in total.
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22 Sep 2010, 19:36
as3957 wrote:
trivikram wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
Why do we use the perfect past tense?

The reporter said

the sales happenbed before he said.

Reporting is the culprit in this sentence

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) have elected to retire early rather than face
(C) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(D) elected to retire early rather than face
(E) had elected to retire early rather than face

(PS. this Q is a slightly different version of one of the OG Q. choices are different.)

OA is
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

Present perfect tense is used for actions that started in the past but continue in to the present, or remain true in the present. Why present perfect . Why cant the answer be (D). The doctors elected to retire ..and they could have retired. So just past tense should do here ..right ?
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Have elected to retire Vs have elected retiring [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2010, 23:11
Hello,

My first post here...

C) A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected retiring early instead of facing the threats or lawsuits and rising costs of malpractice insurance.

E) A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than face the threats or lawsuits and rising costs of malpractice insurance.

Other than the fact that the correct idiom is probably elected to retire, what other reasons can justify that the second sentence is preferred over the first.

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Re: Have elected to retire Vs have elected retiring [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2010, 23:33
E.

I don't see anything besides have elected to vs have elected retiring.

Elect is followed by an infinitive or a person.

I elect to retire....

I elect John.........

You just have to memorize idioms as if they are formulas for quants.
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Re: Have elected to retire Vs have elected retiring [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2010, 15:52
Hello,

My first post here...

C) A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected retiring early instead of facing the threats or lawsuits and rising costs of malpractice insurance.

E) A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than face the threats or lawsuits and rising costs of malpractice insurance.

Other than the fact that the correct idiom is probably elected to retire, what other reasons can justify that the second sentence is preferred over the first.

RATHER indicates preference. Hence, the correct choice, since it was their preference.
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Re: Have elected to retire Vs have elected retiring [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2010, 08:49
"Rather than" and "Instead of" are both correct idioms. However, the GMAT really tends to prefer "rather than" in all cases.

scheol79 makes a good point about "elect" vs "elect to", but let me make it a bit more explicit:

If you are electing TO DO something, you'll need to use the idiom "elect to" + VERB.

"I elect to stay at home."
"I elect to retire."

If you are electing SOMETHING or SOMEONE, you use: "Elect" + Noun

"The country elected its first female president."

Either way, here's a good test: You should be able to replace the verb "elect" with the verb "choose" and have the sentence still make sense.
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25 Dec 2010, 06:25
24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

I was able to select the right answer, but i need good explanation pls.
Thanx
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25 Dec 2010, 08:26
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The verb setting of the main clause (‘has found’) is in present perfect. To avoid shift of tense, one has to maintain present perfect in the subordinate clause also. hence A and B are out. Among C, D and E, C is out because of using instead of. Rather than is the right choice because rather than shows contrast, while instead of just meaning ‘in the place of’ does not effuse contrast.

In D, to retire ….. than facing is not parallel. E is the best choice. To retire, an infinitive, matches face, elliptically meaning to face
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26 Dec 2010, 04:39
niraj92 wrote:
24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
I was able to select the right answer, but i need good explanation pls.
Thanx

(E)

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face --> Improper usage of 'had'.
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing --> Awkward sentence construction.
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing --> Error in parallelism
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face --> Correct
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26 Dec 2010, 05:14
[quote="niraj92"]24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

Explanations are already given so let me share my approach

Identification area for markers = tenses
Require consistency in the tense for the same sentence so 3/2 split ( remaining options C,D and E )

Identification area for parallelism marker rather than
Require part before after marker to be parallel , so eliminate C and D

hope this helps.. if we dont get clue at the first sight abt the problem , it is good to identify the marker that can help in making final choice.

Hope the approach helps.
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28 Dec 2010, 19:44
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OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2011, 19:01
1
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Can someone explain to me why
[Reveal] Spoiler:
(C)
is incorrect? What is the rule of thumb regarding using infinitives vs. -ing verb forms in this problem. Another tricky component to this problem is that the second "to" is implied, and not included.

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face

OA :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2011, 09:18
"elect to" is idiomatic => E is right.
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors   [#permalink] 14 Jan 2011, 09:18

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