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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2014, 07:43
A recent study has found that
within the past few years,
many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

1. X rather than Y=> X and Y shall be ||. A & D are out.
2.Within the past few years means from past few year which means its still continuing hence A and B out.
3. elected to Vs elected => I elected to do something -> opted to do something.
People elected president. Here doctors opted so elected to is correct usage here. Hence C is out.

E is correct.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2014, 08:48
Sorry if this is a silly question.
Can anyone explain the concept how "to retire" is parallel to "face" in the sentence.Also if you can share a link or written document which details the laws here will be wonderful.

This still does not get in my head.
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2014, 19:38
arjitsri wrote:
Sorry if this is a silly question.
Can anyone explain the concept how "to retire" is parallel to "face" in the sentence.Also if you can share a link or written document which details the laws here will be wonderful.

This still does not get in my head.

My 2 cents on this.
As mentioned in earlier reply, rather than is a ||sm marker and hence X,Y needs to be ||.
Now, Drs have elected to do something and whats that? X rather than Y.
Since dropping the "to" doesn't introduce any ambiguity in the sentence , it OK to drop it.
have elected to
retire early
rather than
(to)face ....

Or
have elected
to retire early
rather than
to face ....
Both r fine.

Crux of the story, it's OK to drop the repeated stuff in || items as long as it doesn't introduce any ambiguity.
Quoting a response from MGMAT thread.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/par ... 12348.html
You can read more on this in eGmat or MGmat articles on ||sm.

"I have a dog that barks and that looks like a lion."
"that barks" is parallel to "that looks like a lion"

"I have a dog that barks and looks like a lion."
"barks" is parallel to "looks like a lion"

Ralph likes both THOSE WHO are popular and WHO are not.
In the above sentence these two are different, hence no good.

Also, go from right to left when you are checking for parallelism. Here the parallel marker is AND that comes to the right of the sentence. After figuring out the parallel marker then decide what things are parallel.
Ralph likes people who are popular and who are tall.
HOWEVER, this is a different trap where there is ambiguity on whether he likes two different types of people OR people who are two different things. To add clarity, we would distinguish as:

Ralph likes people who are popular and tall. (he likes people who are popular and tall)
Ralph likes people who are popular and people who are tall. (he likes people who are popular and he also likes people who are tall)
Ralph likes people who are popular and who are tall. (ambiguity here... the GMAT might allow this, but if given the preference chose a sentence with a clearer meaning)

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2014, 21:12
redferrocene wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

Have elected --> A, B are eliminated
Rather than + infinitive form of a verb --> E is the answer
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2014, 02:01
redferrocene wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

I understand that C doesn't sound right...!! but none of your answer explanation is unfortunately satisfying me (its my problem..!!!) Since
1. You don't know the original meaning and can't decide whether it'll be "rather than" or "inspite of"
2. Choce E breaks parallelism. He elected to X rather than to Y. Many of OG problems eleminated answers choices for same kind of mistakes. But OG suggest "to" is understood for this question. Why?
3. "He had elected to retire" sounds awkward over "He had elected early retirement"
4. One of you suggests that "rather than" is used for verb clause and "in spite of" is used for noun clause, which is not true.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2014, 10:33
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face- singular verb
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing - parallelism
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing - To Retire and to face must be parallel
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2015, 03:03
redferrocene wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

I do not understand why we should you ranther than but not instead of in many og, gmatprep question

now I have new discovery
according to macmillan dictionary online and oxford dictionary,

elect to to do

is idiom. there is no "elect doing"
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2015, 23:23
thearch: In option E, have elected to retire early rather than face, shouldn't to come before face to support the parallelism.??
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2015, 02:39
narendran1990 wrote:
thearch: In option E, have elected to retire early rather than face, shouldn't to come before face to support the parallelism.??

As far as I know, putting the full infinitive (adding the to) after rather than is incorrect.

to retire early rather than to face (not possible)
to retire early rather than face (possible)
to retire early rather than facing (possible, but probably not as good)
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2015, 03:09
Split # 1: Past perfect "HAD" Vs Present perfect "Have"
Had - use to show past of past.
Have - use to show action, which started in past and continue to effect still coninues in present.

In Non underlined part we have within, hence we can safely assume that, action has started in past and is still going on .
Option A, B - Incorrect

Lets Do POE for rest.
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
In this option, "elected " is compared with "facing" - this break parallelism
Moreover, we need "to" after elected.

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
elected < blah blah >rather than facing - this break parallelism

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
elected to retire is compared with "face", both are parellel (verb on both sides)
Correct
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2016, 10:19
My choice E.
I think for this question parallelism (X rather than Y) is the deciding factor than the verb tense (past perfect vs present perfect).
A has parallelism issues.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2016, 17:00
Split1) Verb. Rule that when you use "have elected + To verb + to verb". This is why A, B, C and D are out

Split2) Parallelism "have elected + to retire + face" . In the second, it is implied in face that there is a "to+face" in front of it.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 12:41
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 21:47
sayantanc2k wrote:
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).

Can we mark E on the grounds that since phrase after "rather than" marks present tense so the verb should be in simple form?

Construction for Present Tense:

would rather <verb in simple form> than <verb in simple form>
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2016, 03:33
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).

Can we mark E on the grounds that since phrase after "rather than" marks present tense so the verb should be in simple form?

Construction for Present Tense:

would rather <verb in simple form> than <verb in simple form>

I am not sure what you mean by simple form - do you mean simple present?
Please note that in option E, the parallelism is between two infinitives (not between two verbs in simple present tense): to retire and to face - it is alright to omit "to" in the second element. ...to retire rather than to face....
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 09:08
Hi avaneeshvyas, parallelism is all about the intended meaning. Hopefully it is clear that many Doctors have elected to <X> over <Y>. So, <X> and <Y> are the two parallel elements.

<X> = retire early
<Y> = face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

Here's the thing. While X and Y need to be parallel, there is another level of parallelism going on within Y:

face <Y1> and <Y2>.

<Y1> = the threats of lawsuits
<Y2> = the rising costs of malpractice insurance

To summarize, there are two different parallel structures here:

i) <X> needs to be parallel to <Y> (and that's indeed the case: retire and face)

ii) <Y1> needs to be parallel to <Y2> (again, that's the case: the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance are both Noun phrases)

Hopefully it is now clear that the rising costs of malpractice insurance does not need to be parallel to to retire early, simply because these two are part of different parallel structures.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2017, 20:58
if parallelism is the deciding factor, why not add a "to" after the "rather than", this can be true parallel
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2017, 22:28
YangYichen wrote:
if parallelism is the deciding factor, why not add a "to" after the "rather than", this can be true parallel

hi,
Thats ellipsis elected to retire and to face , no need to repeat 'to'
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2017, 00:14
YangYichen wrote:
if parallelism is the deciding factor, why not add a "to" after the "rather than", this can be true parallel

We are not repeating to because we have a rule 'Once outside or Twice Inside".

So, both ways the sentence should be correct.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2017, 02:07
abhimahna wrote:
YangYichen wrote:
if parallelism is the deciding factor, why not add a "to" after the "rather than", this can be true parallel

We are not repeating to because we have a rule 'Once outside or Twice Inside".

So, both ways the sentence should be correct.

could you please elaborate on 'Once outside or Twice Inside" rule?
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years,   [#permalink] 10 Mar 2017, 02:07

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